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代写澳洲assignment,The Wechsler Preschool Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised
发表日期:2013-10-06 08:41:29 | 来源:assignment.cc | 当前的位置:首页 > 代写assignment > 澳洲assignment代写 > 正文
The Wechsler Preschool Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised: A Comprehensive Review
Psychological testing looking at cognitive abilities across different individuals of varying age groups has been an ever-increasing field of study in Psychology. More specifically, the development of assessments of children’s cognitive abilities continues to be an area of interest because of its involvement in early childhood evaluations and educational implications.
David Wechsler (1896-1981), an eminent American psychologist contributed many important measures of intelligence through his development of various psychological tests. Among them were the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) in 1967. During this period, the U.S. government began to create special programs like Head Start whose focus was on the intellectual and developmental needs of preschool and elementary aged children in public schools. In response, the WPPSI was created in order to provide the government with an adequate way of assessing programs like Head Start. Currently, the WPPSI has been revised twice and the most recent form of the test is referred to as the WPPSI-III. For the purposes of this paper, all analyses and information presented will address the second version of the popular test, the WPPSI-Revised (WPPSI-R).
The WPPSI-R, like the original WPPSI, was revised and developed to serve as a measure of cognitive functioning of children. Essentially, this particular test is a measure of intelligence, other wise referred to as a child’s g. Published twenty-two years after the original in1989, the WPPSI measures verbal, nonverbal, and general intelligence in children the age range of 3 years to 7 years 3 months. The battery was published by the Psychological Corporation in San Antonio, Texas and can be purchased in its complete kit test entirety for $682.50. This price includes the test manual, testing materials (books complete with pictures for testing) and scoring sheets. Additional materials for testing including utensils like pencils, stop watch, clipboard and extra paper are not included. The reported administration time is reported as 60-75 minutes, depending on the age of the child (Kaufman & Lichtenberger, p. 16).
Description of Test
The WPPSI-R consists of two scales: Verbal (M = 100, SD = 15) and Performance (M = 100, SD = 15). As the titles of the respective scales indicate, verbal scales require spoken responses while performance scales require pointing, placing or drawing. Each scale is comprised of five subtests and also includes one optional subtest for each scale. The performance subtests include the object assembly, block design, mazes, picture completion, and geometric design. Here the animal pegs procedure is the optional subtest. The verbal subtests include information, comprehension, arithmetic, vocabulary, and similarities with the sentence procedure being the optional sixth subtest. A brief description of each subtest is as follows:
Object Assembly (6 items): (a) placing pieces into a form board and (b) assembling jigsaw puzzles.
Block Design (14 items): the main objective is to replicate designs shown to the individual using three or four blocks.
Mazes (11 items): the main objective is to find paths through a series of mazes.
Picture Completion (28 items): the main objective is to identify the essential missing part of the picture.
Geometric Design (16 items): contains two different formats, to select matching design from four choices or copy a geometric design shown on a printed card.
Optional Animal Pegs: the main objective is to place appropriate colored pegs into the corresponding holes on a board.
Information (27 items): Reponses are required to questions such as “Point to the picture that shows the one you cut with”, “How many legs does a cat have?” or “How many pennies make a dime?”.
Comprehension (15 items): Responses are required to questions such as “why do you need to take a bath?” or “What makes a sailboat move?”.
Arithmetic (23 items): Responses are required to questions such as “Bill had 1 penny and his mother gave him 1 more. How many pennies does he now have?”.
Vocabulary (25 items): Responses are required to questions such as “What is a boot?”, “What does “nice” mean?” or What does “annoy” mean?”.
Similarities (20 items): Responses are required to questions such as “You can read a book and you can also read a _____?” or “In what way are a cow and a pig alike?”
Optional Sentences: the main objective is to repeat sentences given orally by the examiner.
As previously addressed, the appropriate age range for the WPPSI-R is 3 years to 7 years 3 months. This is the target age of children in preschool and elementary grades kindergarten through approximately second grade. The test would not be appropriate for children older than the designated age since more than likely, the questions on the test would be too easy (if given to a child with perceived “average/normal” development of intelligence). If the child is older than this designated age range, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) would be the appropriate test to be administered.
Test Administration
Upon beginning the administering the WPPSI-R, the test administrator must take into consideration a couple of important factors that, if not completed properly, will effect the validity and reliability of the test. First and foremost, the place of testing should be one where there will be little to no distraction, i.e. outside noise, people continuously entering or exiting the room, lots of decorations on wall. Since this test is given to young children whose attention spans can be variable, the testing room or environment should be relatively contained and free of any unnecessary disturbances. Before beginning, the test administrator should be fully prepared with all the necessary materials, booklets, and scoring sheets needed to complete the test in the allotted time. If the test administrator has to fumble around for a pencil or stopwatch, the child may again become anxious or inpatient. When testing does begin, test administrators should either sit opposite the child or at a 90-degree angle from the child. This is important because either one of these recommended seating arrangements allows for maximum visibility and opportunity for the test administrator to document accurate responses from the child. As previously stated, total time for test administration is estimated at 60-75 minutes depending on the age of the child.
Test Scoring
Three types of scores can be calculated after the administration of the WPPSI-R is given. They include raw scores, scaled scores, and IQs. The raw scores are a total of points earned on a single subtest and are essentially meaningless since it is not norm referenced. Scaled scores are easy to determine using the child’s original raw score. Using the child’s chronological age, the child’s raw score on all subtests, and two tables from the WPPSI-R manual from 1989, the scaled score corresponds to the age of the child. To calculate the full scale IQ, simply add the sum of the verbal and performance scales’ sums of scores. The verbal IQ score consists of the information, comprehension, arithmetic, vocabulary and similarities subtests while the performance IQ score consist of the object assembly, geometric design, block design, mazes and picture completion subtests. Scoring can be completed using all the provided materials from the test kit and can be done with relative ease by graduate students or trained adults.
Norms
The standardization sample for the WPPSI-R includes a sample of 1,700 children who were “chosen to closely match the 1986 U.S. Census data on variables of age, gender, geographic, region, ethnicity, and parental education and occupation” (Kaufman & Lichtenberger, p. 12). Euro American and non-Euro American children were also selected to compile the best representative sample possible. As a result, the WPPSI-R standardization sample is very good due to its stratified and representative sample. The distribution of scores including their mean and standard deviations for the performance scaled scores is 10 and 3 respectively and 100 and 15, respectively, for the IQ scores.
Reliability
Across the board, the average internal consistency reliability and average test-retest reliability coefficients are good. The average internal consistency reliability for the performance IQ, verbal IQ and full scale IQ scores are .92, .95, and .96, respectively (Sattler, p. 338). These are excellent coefficients showing the test, according to internal consistency measures, accurately assesses the different ranges of performance, verbal and combined intelligence scores of children. For the verbal subtests, the internal consistency coefficients range from .80-.86 while the performance subtests have internal consistency coefficients ranging from .63-.85. Here we see a slight decrease in the psychometric property but .60 ranges is still decent. Test-retest reliability coefficients for both the performance and verbal subtests are lower than one would like. Test-retest coefficients range from .52-.82 for the performance subtests and .70-.81 for the verbal subtests. But for the overall performance IQ, verbal IQ and full scale IQ scores, the test-retest reliability is stronger with .88, .90, and .91 coefficients, respectively (Sattler, p. 338).
Validity
Looking at both the concurrent-related and construct validity of the WPPSI-R, researchers have documented that each category contains strong support for good overall test validity. Studies indicate that the WPPSI-R has acceptable concurrent validity with the median correlation between the WPPSI-R and various intelligence tests being .74(Sattler, p. 340). It should be noted here that although many believe the WPPSI-R and WISC-III very similar tests that assess intelligence, they are not parallel forms perhaps due to ceiling effects on the WPPSI-R. Construct validity is “supported by the factor analytic studies that show the WPPSI-R to be a two-factor test; one is clearly identified as Verbal and the other as Performance” (Kaufman & Lichtenberger, p. 14).
Summary and Conclusions
Aside from the well established norms, good reliability and validity proof the WPPSI-R has been documented to possess, I am able to discuss the test from a test administrator’s viewpoint. Although this past summer I administered the WPPSI-III, the overall similar structure and format it resembles to the WPPSI-R allows me to state that I believe this test to be a reliable and valid measure of cognitive ability. Testing preschool children has provided me with the opportunity to attest to its face validity and reliability because I tested over 30 children using both the verbal and performance subtests. The children I tested age ranged from 4 to 5 years of age and the majority of them completed the subtests administered. Also, the manual and scoring procedures are clear-cut and easy to understand which allows for less confusion on the part of the test administrator. I also noted that the children appeared to enjoy many of the performance subtests because of the interaction between that took place which did not leave them complacent or bored.
Strengths of the WPPSI-R include a well designed and fairly easily administration procedure on the part of the administrators, an excellent, large normative standardization sample and strong reliability and stability coefficients. Weaknesses of the test include a sometimes lengthy test administration period which may leave the children fatigued, agitated and less willing to participate. Also, in their assessment of the WPPSI-R, Kaufman & Lichtenberger (2000) suggested that, based on their own research, the “floor of some of the WPPSI-R subtests is unsatisfactory for the youngest children and certain subtests have poor stability coefficients” (p. 191). It should also be noted that many of these issues were addressed in the second revision of the WPPSI to the most current WPPSI-III.
The WPPSI-R also plays an important role in educational and clinical settings. Since the test purports to measure verbal and non-verbal intelligence, many school psychologists and clinical psychologists find it a valuable tool when assessing the overall cognitive abilities and/or lack of intelligence development in young children throughout school and clinical settings.
In 2002, the Psychological Corporation published the second revision of the WPPSI and titled it the WPPSI-III. The WPPSI-III contains a considerable amount of changes from the WPPSI-R including a lowered age range which allows it to be used for children as young as 2 years, 6 months, the addition of seven new subtests to “enhance the measurement of fluid reasoning, processing speed, and receptive, expressive vocabulary” (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, p. 275). In addition, the third revision of the test contains updated norms similar to those in the WISC-IV and based on the more current Census data of October 2000 (Hamilton & Burns, 2003). Currently, it was difficult for me to find peer-reviewed articles that investigated and analyzed the latest version of the test but more than likely the WPPSI-III will further our current understanding of intelligence in young children.
Overall, the WPPSI-R has more than adequate empirical documentation that shows the test contains sound psychometric properties that lend to its legitimacy as a staple in the intelligence assessment area of tests for young children. I predict that in another 10 to 15 years, the third revision will be published with a new and current standardization sample yet still contain the same stable psychometric properties.
References
Hamilton, W. & Burns, T. G. (2003). Review of WPPSI-III: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (3rd Ed.). Applied Neuropsychology, 10(3), 188-190.
Kaplan, R. M., & Saccuzzo, D. P. (2005). The Wechsler Intelligence Scales: WAIS-III, WISC-IV, and WPPSI-III. In Psychological testing: Principles, applications, and issues (pp. 274-275). Belmont, CA: Thomson-Wadsworth.
Kaufman, A. S. & Lichtenberger E. O. (2000). Essentials of WISC-III and WPPSI-R assessment. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Sattler, J. M. (2001). Wechsler Preschool and primary scale of intelligence-revised. In Assessment of Children: Cognitive Applications (pp. 335-374). San Diego, CA: Jerome M. Sattler.
情报修订韦氏学龄前基本比例尺:全面检讨
心理测试在不同年龄组的不同个体之间的认知能力已经在心理学的研究领域不断增加。更具体地说,发展儿童的认知能力的评估仍然是一个感兴趣的领域,因为其参与幼儿教育的评价和教育意义。
美国著名心理学家大卫·韦克斯勒( 1896年至1981年) ,通过他的各种心理测验的发展贡献了许多重要情报的措施。其中幼儿园和小学韦氏智力量表( WPPSI )于1967年。在此期间,美国政府开始建立特别节目,如启蒙,其重点是在公立学校学前班和小学适龄儿童的智力和发育的需要。对此, WPPSI创建以向政府提供足够的方式来评估程序,如启蒙。目前, WPPSI已经修订了两次的测试被称为最近期的形式为WPPSI - III 。对于本文的目的,所有的分析和信息并提出解决的第二个版本的流行的测试, WPPSI修订( WPPSI - R ) 。
WPPSI -R像原来WPPSI进行了修订和发展作为衡量儿童的认知功能。从本质上讲,这种特殊的测试是一个度量的情报,其他明智的简称作为一个孩子的克。 WPPSI措施后发布22年,原于1989年,言语,肢体言语,和一般的智能儿童的年龄范围为3年至7年3个月。出版公司在得克萨斯州的圣安东尼奥,心理的电池,可以购买其完整的工具包测试全部682.50美元。这个价格包括测试手册,测试材料(书籍与图片测试)和得分表。其他材料进行测试,包括厨房用具如铅笔,停止观看,剪贴板和额外的纸张不包括在内。报告管理报告时间为60-75分钟,这取决于年龄段的孩子(考夫曼Lichtenberger酒店,第16页) 。
测试说明
WPPSI -R由两个尺度:口头( M = 100 , SD = 15 )和性能( M = 100 , SD = 15 ) 。由于各自尺度的标题表明,口头秤需要口语的反应,同时扩展性能需要指点,放置或绘图。每个规模是由五个分测验,还包括一个可选的规模为每个分测验。性能分测验包括的对象组件,块设计,迷宫,填图,和几何设计。这里的动物钉程序是可选的子测试。言语分测验包括信息,理解,算术,词汇和句子过程的相似之处是可选的第六个分测验。每个分测验的简要说明如下:
对象大会(6项) :(一)放置成一种形式板件及(b)组装拼图。
座设计( 14项) :主要目标是复制显示个人使用三个或四个块的设计。
迷宫( 11项) :主要目的是通过一系列的迷宫中找到路径。
图片完成( 28项) :主要目标是要找出缺少必要的部分图片。
几何设计( 16项) :包含了两个不同的格式,从四个选项中选择匹配的设计或复制印刷的卡上显示的几何设计。
可选的动物椿:主要目标是把适当的彩色钉板成相应的孔。
信息( 27项) : | |需要的问题,如“点到的图片显示你砍”,“猫有多少条腿?”或“多少便士一毛钱吗?” 。
理解( 15项) :需要响应的问题,例如“你为什么需要去洗澡吗? ”或“是什么让一个帆船的举动吗?”
算术( 23项) :对需要诸如“比尔1分钱和他的母亲给了他更多的问题。多少便士他现在有吗?“
词汇( 25项) :对需要的问题,如“什么是引导? ”, “什么是”好“是什么意思?”或“骚扰”是什么意思?“ 。
相似之处( 20项) :响应的问题,如“你可以读一本书,你也可以读_____ ? ”或“在什么样的方式是一头牛和一头猪都需要吗?”
可选句:主要目标是由考官口头重复的句子。
正如前面解决, WPPSI -R在适当的年龄范围为3岁至7岁3个月。这是目标年龄约二年级的孩子在幼儿园和小学低年级幼儿园通过。测试比指定年龄大的儿童是不恰当的,因为可能超过,在测试上的问题,将是太容易了(如果一个孩子认为“平均/正常”开发智力) 。如果孩子年龄超过这个年龄范围内,韦氏智力量表儿童三版( WISC - III )将要管理的相应的测试。
测试管理
开始管理WPPSI -R后,测试管理员必须考虑几个重要因素,如果没有正确完成,会影响测试的有效性和可靠性。首先,测试的地方应该有一个地方就会有几乎无旁鹜,即外界噪音,不断有人进入或离开房间,墙壁上的装饰。由于本次测试是考虑到幼儿的注意力是可变的,考场环境相对应包含任何不必要的干扰。测试开始之前,管理员应做好充分的准备所有必要的材料,小册子和评分表,需要在规定时间内完成测试。如果铅笔或秒表测试管理员四处摸索,孩子可能会再次变得焦虑或住院。当测试开始,测试管理员应该坐在对面的孩子或从孩子的角度在90度。这是很重要的,因为这些建议的座位安排任一允许最大的知名度和测试管理员记录准确的答复,从孩子的机会。如前所述,测试管理的总时间估计在60-75分钟,根据孩子的年龄。
测试评分
WPPSI -R的管理后,可以计算出三种类型的分数。他们包括原始分数,比例分数,和智商。原始分数是一个总的积分在一个单一的分测验,本质上是毫无意义的,因为它是不规范引用。比例分数是容易确定使用原生孩子的得分。 WPPSI - R手动使用孩子的实足年龄,孩子的所有分测验的原始分数,和两个表从1989年起,规模得分对应的年龄段的孩子。要计算全量表智商,只需口头和性能尺度的总和分数的总和。语言智商分数的信息,理解,算术,词汇和相似之处分测验组成,而操作智商得分由组装对象,几何设计,块设计,迷宫和图片的完成分测验。从测试套件提供的所有材料,由研究生或受过训练的成年人可以做相对容易的得分就可以完成。
规范
WPPSI -R的标准化样本包括1,700名儿童的样本“ 1986年美国人口普查数据变量的年龄,性别,地域,地区,种族,和父母的教育程度和职业选择密切配合”(考夫曼Lichtenberger酒店第12页) 。欧美和非欧元的美国儿童选择编译最好的代表性样本。其结果是, WPPSI - R标准化样本由于其分层和有代表性的样品,是非常好的。包括其平均值和标准偏差的性能缩放分数的分数的分布是10和3分别为100和15 ,分别为智商。
可靠性
一刀切,平均内部一致性信度和重测信度系数都不错。性能智商,言语智商和全量表智商分数的平均内部一致性信度分别为.92, .95, .96 , (萨特勒,第338页) 。这些都是优秀的的系数显示测试,根据内部一致性措施,准确地评估不同范围的表现,口头和儿童合并智力分数。对于言语分测验的内部一致性系数范围为.80 - .86 ,而表现分测验内部一致性系数为.63 - .85 。在这里,我们看到的心理属性,但略有下降.60范围仍然是体面。的性能和口头个分测验的重测信度系数低于一想。重测信度系数范围从0.52 - 0.82性能检测以及0.70 - 0.81言语分测验。但对于整体性能的智商,言语智商和全量表智商分数,重测可靠性更强, .88, .90 , .91系数,分别为(萨特勒,第338页) 。
合法性
WPPSI -R并发相关的结构效度,研究人员已经证明,每个类别包含了强有力的支持,良好的整体测试有效性。研究表明, WPPSI- R有可接受的并发有效性WPPSI -R和各种智力测验中位数之间的相关性为0.74 (萨特勒,第340页) 。这里应当指出,虽然许多人认为WPPSI -R和WISC - III非常相似的测试,评估情报,他们是不平行的形式也许是由于在WPPSI - R的上限对。建构效度“因子分析研究表明WPPSI -R是一个两因素试验的支持,一个是明确认定为口头和其他性能” (考夫曼Lichtenberger酒店,第14页) 。
总结和结论
除了完善的规范,良好的可靠性和有效性已被证明可以证明WPPSI -R拥有,我能够从一个测试管理者的角度讨论测试。虽然过去的这个夏天,我管理的WPPSI- III ,整体相似的结构和格式,它类似于WPPSI -R允许我声明,我相信这是一个可靠和有效的措施,认知能力的测试。测试的学龄前儿童提供了我机会证明其面值的有效性和可靠性,因为我测试了30名儿童同时使用口头和性能分测验。我测试了年龄介乎4至5岁的孩子,其中大部分为完成管理的分测验。此外,手册和评分程序是明确和易于理解的混乱,对部分测试管理员允许。我也注意到,患儿出现,因为之间的互动发生了,没有留下他们的自满或无聊享受许多的表现分测验。
WPPSI -R的优势包括:一个精心设计的,相当容易的管理程序上的管理员,一个优秀的,大型规范的标准化示范和强大的可靠性和稳定性系数。测试的弱点,包括冗长的测试,的给药周期可能会留下孩子疲劳,激动,不太愿意参加。此外,在评估WPPSI - R ,考夫曼Lichtenberger酒店(2000)建议,根据自己的研究, “一些WPPSI - R分测验地板稳定性差系数是年幼的孩子和若干个分测验的不满意“ (第191页) 。还应该指出的是,其中的许多问题得到解决WPPSI目前最WPPSI -III中的第二次修订。
WPPSI - R也起着重要的作用,在教育和临床设置。由于测试意图来衡量口头和非口头的情报,许多学校心理学家,临床心理学家发现一个有价值的工具时,评估的整体认知能力和/或缺乏幼儿智力发育的整个学校和临床设置。
在2002年,心理公司公布了第二次修订的WPPSI题为WPPSI- III 。 WPPSI- III WPPSI -R的变化包括降低允许它被年轻2岁6个月的儿童使用的年龄范围,含有相当数量,增加了7个新的分测验“,增强测量流体推理,处理速度和接受,表达词汇“ (卡普兰& Saccuzzo的,第275页) 。此外,第三次修改的测试包含类似WISC-IV和更多流动人口普查数据, 2000年10月(汉密尔顿伯恩斯,2003年)的基础上的更新的规范。目前,它是我很难找到同行评议的文章,调查和分析测试的最新版本,但更可能WPPSI- III将进一步提升我们目前了解的智力在幼儿。
总体而言, WPPSI- R有超过足够的经验显示测试包含健全的心理属性,借给其合法性作为主食在情报评估面积为幼儿的测试文档。我预测,再过10至15年,第三次修订将公布一个新的和当前的标准化示范,但仍然含有相同的稳定的心理属性。
参考文献
汉密尔顿, W. &伯恩斯, T. G. (2003) 。 WPPSI - III :韦氏学前和小学智力量表(第三版) 。应用神经心理学, 10 (3) , 188-190 。
卡普兰, R. M. , & Saccuzzo的, D. P. (2005) 。韦氏智力量表: WAIS- III , WISC-IV , WPPSI - III 。心理测试:原理,应用和问题(第274-275页) 。加利福尼亚州Belmont :汤姆森 - 沃兹沃斯。
A. S.考夫曼, Lichtenberger酒店E. O. (2000) 。 WISC - III和WPPSI - R评估要点。纽约,纽约:约翰·威利父子。
萨特勒J. M. (2001) 。韦氏学前和小学规模的情报修订。在评估儿童认知应用(页335-374 ) 。加利福尼亚州圣迭戈:杰罗姆·萨特勒。