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代写澳洲assignment,Sir Frank Whittle
发表日期:2013-10-12 10:08:29 | 来源:assignment.cc | 当前的位置:首页 > 代写assignment > 澳洲assignment代写 > 正文
The pioneering work of Sir Frank Whittle in developing the jet engine.

The pioneering work of Sir Frank Whittle in developing the jet engine helped transform the way civil aviation operates today.  Indeed, it is probably true to say that without the jet airliner, there would be no package holiday business today and air travel would have remained an exclusive activity.  However, the invention of the jet alone did not make these changes possible.  Aircraft manufacturers too had their part to play in building aircraft types that were economic to operate for airlines.  There are a variety of important aircraft models, all equally impressive in their own rights, which helped shape the air travel business.  We shall focus on three of the most notable product lines: The Boeing 7x7 series, the McDonnell-Douglas DC-10 series, and the Airbus 300 series, all of which have utilized varying degrees of speed, fuel efficiency, service, and passenger capacity to make air travel accessible and attractive to the common person.

It is worth briefly mentioning here that the American aircraft manufacturers had a built-in advantage in the jet passenger craft market coming out of World War II, for a fairly straightforward reason:  The American aircraft industry was completely undamaged, in contrast to the European and Asian companies which had been devastated.  So aircraft manufacturer Boeing, makers of workhouse American bombers such as the B-17 and B-29, was well-poised to enter and dominate the commercial jet aircraft arena.  The first commercially successful venture, unsurprisingly, was the Boeing ‘7X7’ Series, four-engine large-payload jets, the first of which was the 707.  This remarkable craft was airborne within two years of the announcement of the project’s commencement, taking to the skies on May 14, 1954 on its first test flight, and carrying its first commercial passengers a relatively short time later (December 20 1957), thanks to Pan American Airways’ agreement with Boeing to purchase and operate a large number of 707s to form the backbone of Pan Am’s worldwide fleet.  The first model, the 707-120 (medium-range jets), carried up to 181 passengers, and subsequent versions including the 707-320 (longer-range jets), carried up to 200 passengers.  Cruising speeds for the 707 reached up to 1000 kilometers per hour, making even international travel a speedy, convenient, and more affordable process.  In all, 1,010 707s in its various incarnations were produced in an astonishingly lengthy commercial production run from 1954 to 1978.  (Boeing continued to produce 707s for the military until 1991.)

The American passenger airline business benefited greatly from government deregulation in the 1970s, opening the way for an explosion comprised of a perfect storm of more carriers, lower prices, and higher customer demand.  The aging 707 series, venerable as it was, simply did not carry enough passengers or boast adequate fuel efficiency to remain economically feasible for production and continued use.  Some airline industry analysts felt Boeing was slow to realize this, but the company responded with remarkable agility by announcing in 1966 that it would begin production of a line of so-called ‘jumbo jets’ within four years, spurred again by a huge order from Pan Am, who was gambling on twenty-five brand new jets, sight unseen.  This was no minor undertaking – the development and production of this revolutionary new behemoth airplane nearly bankrupted Boeing.    In 1970 -- right on its announced schedule, yet against all outside predictions -- Boeing introduced the 747, a colossal double-decker jet which will have held the record for largest size jet until late 2006, when it will be surpassed by the introduction of Airbus Industries’ A380 (more on the Airbus later). Like the 707, Boeing’s 747s were rolled out in a progression of improving and size-varied series, ranging from the 747-100 to the 747-400s. Though the 747’s cruising speed is a tad slower than the 707 (910 kilometers per hour), the latest models transport an astonishing amount of human cargo -- between 415 and 525 passengers (up from the earliest models’ 374-passenger maximum).  Its better fuel efficiency, compared to the 707s, allowed it to travel longer distances without refueling, as well, for example, from New York to Hong Kong nonstop.  In addition to meeting the market demand of more people to fly for less money, the 747 also accommodated those who were willing and able to pay more to fly in style.  Another clever feature of the 747 was the refinement of the idea of different ‘classes’ of passenger service.  The original evolution of passenger air flight in general, not just the 747, was simply along the lines of making air travel affordable for the maximum number of people.  Once this goal was achieved, the airlines modified their business plans to accommodate the fact that certain travelers, particularly those traveling for business purposes, would be willing to pay higher fares for added amenities such as larger seating, better food, free alcoholic beverages, priority boarding, etc.  The 747’s upper deck was designed for such so-called ‘first-class’ passengers and Boeing produced, for various airlines, a variety of configurations that included such amenities as a piano lounge and standup cocktail bars for its more upscale clientele.  In all, over 1,200 747s have been produced, and with the advent of the 747-8 series in late 2005, the line lives on.   

Another important jet was McDonnell-Douglas’ DC-10, which flew its first passenger flight in 1971.  It was designed to compete directly with Boeing’s 747 and its creation, like the 747, was spurred in large part by the demand from a particular airline.  In the DC-10’s case, American Airlines specifically asked McDonnell-Douglas if it could manufacture a plane capable of flying the same long routes as the 747 but which could accommodate shorter runways and standard gate sizes found at many airports.  The result was a three-engine aircraft that could carry between 250 and 380 passengers in its various incarnations.  Its speed was essentially comparable to the 747, at 982 kilometers per hour, with less fuel consumption, again making it more affordable.  United Airlines, pleased with the results of McDonnell-Douglas’ fruits, also purchased a number of DC-10s.  Unfortunately, the DC-10 was not to have as celebrated an era of service as the 747.  In the 1970s, several horrific and well-publicized disasters occurred involving DC-10s that were traced to design flaws.  The most noteworthy of these problems was the design of the cargo doors.  Most passenger jets utilized designs in which the doors opened inward; the DC-10 cargo door opened outwards, requiring a complex and heavy locking mechanism to withstand the heavy outward-directed force of cabin pressurization.  The locking mechanism was prone to a variety of dangerous pitfalls, ranging from human error to mechanical failure, any of which could cause a catastrophic blowout of the door.   There were a few near-misses in the early 1970s in which a door failed, including a 1972 incident in Detroit, but no accidents transpired.  Tragically, however, a complete and utter disaster befell a Turkish Airlines DC-10 on March 3, 1974.  The plane took off from Orly airport in Paris; within seconds, its cargo door blew out and the resulting depressurization severed the control cables, rendering the aircraft unmanageable by the pilots.   The plane crashed 77 seconds after takeoff into the dense Ermenonville forest outside of Paris, shredding the plane and its passengers to ribbons.  All 364 people aboard were killed.  Subsequent investigations by the French and American governments revealed that McDonnell-Douglas was well aware of defects in the cargo door design, but made inadequate efforts to correct it.  Under legal pressure and rebellion from passengers who simply refused to fly on a DC-10, McDonnell-Douglas corrected the flaw.  But after yet another catastrophic crash of a DC-10 in 1979 at Chicago O’Hare airport, the DC-10 never regained its footing and eventually, production was halted in 1988 after a comparably small production run of 446 planes, ending what could have been a healthier competition between the 747 and DC-10 that would have continued to benefit airlines in their fierce competition for passengers.

Lastly, Airbus Industries’ Airbus model is important to mention, both for its successful, albeit relatively short track record and the simple fact that it is not a product of American design and manufacturing.  Airbus was formed in 1967 by a consortium of European aviation manufacturers with the express purpose to compete with Boeing’s overwhelming dominance in the passenger jet market.  In the intervening 38 years, Airbus has fought a pitched battle with Boeing, both politically and commercially, and achieved remarkable parity. It narrowly edged out Boeing in total number of orders received in 2005, 1055 jets to 1002.  Airbus did not get off to an auspicious beginning, however.  Only 81 of its A300 model were in service by 1979 despite its entry into the world market in 1974.  However, the introduction of the A320 model in 1981 was a smashing success, with Airbus having taken 400 orders from airlines before the first model even left the ground.  Though the A320 typically only carried approximately 150 passengers, its reliability, speed (approximately as fast as a 747) and fuel efficiency made it an attractive choice that could compete with Boeing’s smaller jets including the 737, and Airbus wasted little time in expanding the passenger capacity of the A320 and subsequent models.  In fall 2006, Airbus’ A380 will overtake the 747 in maximum passenger capacity – 555.  The competition between Airbus and Boeing has become so fierce that it has escalated into conflict between the United States and European Union, with unfair subsidy accusations and threats of trade wars flying across the Atlantic Ocean as often as the jets.

Certainly, Boeing, McDonnell-Douglas, and Airbus were not the only major players in the passenger jet business since its advent.  Other notables include American manufacturer Lockheed and a host of minor foreign manufacturers.   None, however, have matched the dominance and industry-changing models of Boeing 7x7 series and Airbus 300 series, or the unfortunate inability of McDonnell-Douglas to live up to the potential of the maligned DC-10.  Each of these planes played a key role in making long-distance air travel more competitive, more affordable, more international, more accessible, and safer (ironically, in the case of the DC-10) with each passing year.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

http://www.boeing.com/commercial/707family/

Johnston, Moira.  The Last Nine Minutes: The Story of Flight 981, Avon Publishers, 1976.

Contrada, John Della.  “Subsidy war could harm Boeing more than Airbus, UB researcher says,”The University of Buffalo Reporter, 24 June 2004.

 

弗兰克·惠特尔爵士在发展喷气发动机的开创性工作帮助改造民航今天运行方式。事实上,它可能是真实的说,没有喷气客机,今天没有包度假业务和空中旅行仍然是一个独家活动。然而,本发明的单射流没有进行这些变更成为可能。飞机制造商也有自己的本份,发挥在建设经济运行航空公司的飞机类型。有多种重要的机型,都同样令人印象深刻,在自己的权利,这有助于塑造航空旅行业务。我们将专注于三个最显着的产品线:波音7X7系列,麦道DC -10系列和空客300系列,利用所有这些都不同程度的速度,燃油效率,服务,载客量使空中旅行访问和共同的人的吸引力。
值得一简要提的是,美国飞机制造商在喷射客船市场有一个内置的优势,走出二战,原因相当简单:美国飞机制造业是完全没有损坏,在欧洲亚洲公司已被摧毁。因此,飞机制造商波音公司,济贫院的美国轰炸机如B -17和B - 29的制造商,是准备进入并主导商用喷气飞机领域。第一个商业上成功的企业,毫无疑问,是波音'7 X7系列大型有效载荷,四引擎飞机,其中第一项是707 。这个了不起的手艺是空降项目的开始公布两年内,首次试飞于1954年5月14日采取的天空,和它的第一个商业乘客携带一个相对较短的时间后( 1957年12月20日) ,感谢泛美航空公司与波音公司达成协议,购买和操作形成了大量的707泛美全球机队的骨干。第一个模型, 707-120 (中程喷气机) ,进行了181名乘客,并进行后续版本包括707-320 (射程更远的飞机) ,多达200名乘客。巡航速度达707至1000公里每小时,甚至是国际旅游一个快速,方便,更实惠的过程。在所有1,010 707 ,在它的各种化身,在一个惊人的长时间的商业生产运行1954年至1978年生产的。 (波音公司继续为军队直到1991年的707 。 )
美国航空客运业务大大受益于政府在20世纪70年代的放松管制,包括更多的运营商,更低的价格和更高的客户需求的完美风暴爆炸开辟了道路。老化的707系列,因为它是古老的,根本没有携带足够的乘客,或拥有足够的燃料效率,以保持经济可行的生产,并继续使用。一些航空业分析师认为,波音公司是迟钝,没有意识到这一点,但该公司在1966年宣布,它将开始生产线的所谓的“大型喷气式客机”在四年内具有显着的灵活性回应,再次刺激了一个巨额订单泛美,谁是25全新飞机,看都没看赌博。这是个不小的承诺 - 这个革命性的新庞然大物飞机的研发和生产的几乎破产波音。 1970年 - 其宣布的时间表,但对所有外部预测 - 波音公司推出的747 ,一个巨大的双层飞机已举行了规模最大喷射的记录,直到2006年年底,通过引入时,它会被超越空中客车工业公司的A380 (空客) 。喜欢的707 ,波音747推出在改善和尺寸多样的系列进展,从747-100不等,以747 -400 。虽然747的巡航速度是一点点慢比707 (910公里每小时) ,最新的车型了数量惊人的人力货物运输 - 415和525人次(从最早型号的374名乘客最大)之间。更好的燃油效率, 707相比,它不加油行驶更长的距离,以及,例如,从纽约到香港马不停蹄。除了满足市场需求,更多的人更少的钱飞, 747也容纳那些谁愿意和能够付出更多的努力飞的风格。 747的另一个巧妙的功能是完善的想法不同的“类”的客运服务。原来的演变一般乘客的空中飞行,不只是747,只是沿行的最大数量的人负担得起的航空旅行。一旦实现这个目标,航空公司修改他们的业务计划,以适应一个事实,即某些旅客,特别是那些用于商业目的旅行,愿意支付更高的票价增值设施,如较大的休息,更好的食品,无酒精饮料,优先登机,等747的上层是专为这些所谓的“第一类”的乘客和波音公司生产,为各航空公司,各种配置,包括钢琴酒廊等设施和站立的鸡尾酒酒吧,更高档的客户。 ,超过1,200 747已产生的,和747-8系列在2005年年底的到来,住在。
另一个重要的喷射是麦道DC -10 ,在1971年飞行了其首辆飞行。像747 ,它被设计为直接与波音公司的747和它的创作竞争,激励在很大程度上是由一个特定的航空公司的需求。在DC -10的情况下,美国航空公司的具体要求,如果它可以麦道公司制造的飞机能够飞一样的长航线为747 ,但可容纳更短的跑道和标准门的大小,发现在许多机场。其结果是三引擎飞机,可以携带250至380名乘客,在它的各种化身。基本上与747 ,它的速度是每小时982公里,用更少的燃油消耗,再次使其更实惠。美国联合航空公司,高兴与麦道公司的水果,还购买了一些DC -10 。不幸的是, DC -10是不是庆祝一个时代的服务为747 。在20世纪70年代以来,发生了一些可怕的和广泛宣传灾害涉及DC -10 ,上溯到设计上的缺陷。在这些问题中,最值得一提的是货物门的设计。大部分客机使用的门向内开, DC - 10货舱门向外打开的,需要一个复杂和沉重的锁定机制,以承受沉重的向外的力,客舱增压设计。锁定机制是容易出现的各种危险陷阱,机械故障,人为错误,都可能导致灾难性的井喷之门。有几个近乎理想的门失败,其中包括1972年在底特律事件,但没有意外蒸发在20世纪70年代初。然而,可悲的是,一个完整的和彻底的灾难降临了一个土耳其航空的DC-10 1974年3月3日。飞机在巴黎的奥利机场起飞,在几秒钟内,它的货舱门自爆产生的降压切断了控制电缆,由飞行员使飞机难以控制。 77秒后飞机坠毁巴黎起飞成密集的阿蒙农维拉森林外,碎纸飞机及其乘客丝带。所有364人全部遇难死亡。由法国和美国政府的后续调查发现,麦道公司货舱门设计的缺陷心知肚明,但不够努力纠正它。根据法律压力和反叛乘客干脆拒绝乘坐的DC- 10 ,麦道公司修正的缺陷。但之后的又一灾难性崩溃的DC- 10于1979年在芝加哥奥黑尔机场, DC -10从来没有收复站稳脚跟,并最终停止生产后,在1988年一个相对较小的446架飞机的生产运行,结束可能有什么了健康747和DC- 10 ,将继续有利于在激烈的竞争中为乘客航空公司之间的竞争。
最后,空中客车工业公司的空中客车模型是很重要的,既为它的成功,更何况,尽管往绩记录相对较短和简单的事实,这是不是美国设计和制造的产品。空中客车公司成立于1967年,由欧洲航空制造商组成的财团竞争与波音客机市场中的压倒性优势的明确目的。在中间的38年,空中客车公司已经打了一场酣战与波音公司,在政治和商业,并取得了显着的平价。它以微弱优势击败波音公司收到的订单在2005年, 1055飞机1002总数。空中客车并没有下车一个良好的开端,但是。其A300的模型,只有81人到1979年,尽管它在1974年进入世界市场服务。然而,于1981年引进的A320飞机模型,是一个了不起的成功,与空中客车公司采取订单400之前从航空公司的第一款车型,甚至离开了地面。虽然A320飞机通常只进行约150名​​乘客,其可靠性,速度(约快作为一个747 )和燃油效率做出一个有吸引力的选择可能与波音公司的较小的喉包括737竞争,和空中客车浪费了一点时间在扩大乘客容量的A320和后续的机型。 2006年秋,空中客车A380飞机的最大载客量将超过747 - 555 。空中客车公司和波音公司之间的竞争已经变得如此激烈,它已经演变成美国和欧盟之间的冲突,不公平补贴的指控和贸易战的威胁经常喉跨大西洋飞行。
当然,波音,麦道和空中客车客机业务的主要参与者,因为它的到来。其他知名人士包括美国制造商洛克希德轻微的国外厂商和主机。然而,没有匹配的主导地位和行业改变型号的波音7X7系列和空中客车300系列,还是不幸麦道公司无法辜负中伤DC -10的潜力。这些飞机中的每一个都发挥了关键作用,使长途空中旅行更具竞争力,更实惠,更国际,更方便,更安全(具有讽刺意味的是,在DC -10 )的情况下,每过一年。
参考书目
http://www.boeing.com/commercial/707family/
约翰斯顿,莫伊拉。最后九分钟: 981航班,雅芳出版社,1976年的故事。
的Contrada ,约翰·德拉。 “补贴战可能会损害波音公司空中客车以上,瑞银研究员说,” :大学布法罗记者,24日2004 。