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代写paper,Ethics Principles Trade
发表日期:2013-09-23 08:30:29 | 来源:assignment.cc | 当前的位置:首页 > 代写paper > 正文
What is business ethics?
Business ethics can be said to be a form of art which includes applied ethics which follow ethical principles used to find solutions to moral and ethical problems which can arise in a business environment. In the recent past there has been increasing pressure on businesses to ensure that they operate within a framework of some ethical principles. This has been pressurelized by enactment of some laws aimed at ensuring that businesses operate within some ethical principle which defines the limits of their operation. In broader description, business ethics can be normative or descriptive.
Take an example in which the business will observe ethics as a meter of corporate practice. This will be normative since it becomes part of normal operations of the business. Business ethics can also be descriptive in away when it takes an academic angle. This means that business ethics will be a part of academic description. Social issues on the other hand refer to the problems or moral issues which affects the members of the society. Some examples of social issues include suppression of human rights, social injustice, and violence among others. (Robert, 2002 pp 12).
You find that most of the consumers have been exploited so much by the producers. This is because of the code of ethics which have been established by the producers. Here consumers are supposed to act morally when certain unethical problems occur when carrying out these businesses. You find that due to the restrictions which are made on some products say the case with fair-trade cotton, the consumers are only forced to buy that product.
In this case, you find that this consumer will not have time to taste other products since they are restricted on purchasing only that product. As it is defined above, business ethics is supposed to consider the social issues of both the producer and the consumer and their rights should be protected. They should have a choice to purchase every product they want and no restrictions should be made on these products. (Robert, 2002 pp 12).
Understanding and analysis of ethical issues
There are many forms of business ethics which governs the whole spectre of business operations. Business ethics are narrowed to address some specific issues which affect specific parts of the operations of a business. Professional ethics defines some practical ethical problems and phenomena concerned with some particular areas of the business professions.
Professional ethics address specific aspects of business like accounting, wages, compensations, consumption and others. Accounting ethics defines the way in which accountants should conduct their work by ensuring that they don’t give falsified financial analysis. In this case am going to talk about fair-trade cotton in the market. (Duska, 2003, pp 11).
Fair-trade certified cotton is used to address the development needs of all small holder cotton farmers in most of the developing countries who are said to face a severe poverty and this is out of the subsidies which have been enacted by most of the already developed countries say in the U.K. that distort the global market.
The fair-trade certification have been put to ensure that the farmers who produce these products have been protected by receiving a fair price for their cotton and fair-trade premium for them to invest in environmental, economic and social developments in their communities. All those companies which sell garments which are made with fair-trade certified cotton are supposed to abide to the rules and regulations of this agreement.
Under business ethics, it is quite ethical for business to have rules and regulations to ensure that their business has been run well. But, for this case, not all companies which abide to these rules and hence becoming quite unethical. (Duska, 2003, pp 11).
There are also other products which are not made of cotton. There are several fibre products which are also good as when compared to the cotton products. So it is unethical for these consumers to only purchase products which are made of cotton only. This is because there are also other producers who still need to be protected in this case. For example the producers of other fibres say linen, polyester among other products.
Since fair-trade is supposed to protect producers of cotton only, it’s quite unethical since there are also other potential producers who not only fall under this agreement. So, it is said to be immoral for the U.K consumers to only purchase those products which are certified by the agreement and neglect the other products. Under business ethics, it should provide the human rights of every consumers and producer and none should be neglected. For example, in this case, cotton only provides 1 percent of the world cotton which is produced. (Duska, 2003, pp 11).
Cotton is one of the vital fibers crop for the global textile industry. It also plays a key role in both social and economic development of most of the developed countries say in the united states Despite its meteoric rate of growth, Fair-trade cotton still makes up less than 1 per cent of the fiber produced worldwide. In this case, ethical issues are going to apply in this case. This is because moral issues usually affect the consumers of these goods.
One of the injustices in this case is poor quality products. You find that the cotton fair-trade is still increasing but it is producing poor quality products by the greedy producers simply because they are protected under this agreement. So in this case, you find that it is quite injustice for the consumers to continue buying these products. This is because of the poor quality with these products. They are producing poor quality products since they know that cotton is one of the major cloth products which are liked by consumers.
So in this case, it is not ethical for these producers to sell such products to the consumers. This is because with the definition of business ethics, you find that in includes both the normative and social issues of both the produce and the workers. So in this case, the moral issue will apply in this case. This is because the consumer’s rights have been violated. This is because they are forced to buy poor quality products thinking that these products are actually good for them. (John, 2001).
Another moral issue which is arising in this case is exploitation of the developing countries. You find that U.K protects its cotton producing countries and also have imposed subsidies and quotas to ensure that there are no imports to this country. So it is due to this that the rest of the countries that are producing cotton are not supposed to export these products to the United States. As a result, you find that the consumers are not exposed to a wide variety of goods to purchase from.
They do not have a variety of products to choose from but are only forced to purchase only cotton products that are produced in the United States. You also find that most of the products which are made from cotton come from different varieties say from animal products say wool and leather. These products can be produced by other countries say in china. As a result, you find that the consumers are only restricted to purchase clothing which is made from U.K only. The consumers are denied the taste of other products which are also produced by other countries.
A good example in this case is the issue of fair-trade in china and U.K.More recently, in order to limit the economic impact of clothing’s which are produced in China, the global clothing industry has been locked in to a system of subsidies and quotas. This means that all those countries that recently produce clothing have been protected from a free market that would overwhelm them. So you find that these countries are protected from exporting cotton products to the United States. (Thomas, 1993).
Another area of concern in this case is the conditions of working by those people who work in these factories and firms. It is the labor market that we are specifically dealing with. What is this labor market? The labor market can be described as a place where there is actual exchange of labor. In the labor market there are some moral values that should be put into consideration if the market has to succeed.
The labor market has been one of the long term areas of conflict in the business world. Going down the history, the labor market is recorded as having been a catalyst to some of the major changes that have taken place in the world. Remember the early struggle of the trade unions during the industrial revolution eras in Europe and the sugar plantation of America? These are some of the historical happening that depicts that there must be some basic rules that ought to be observed in the labor market.
It is obvious that these early struggles were not due to the satisfaction in the labor markets but rather due to the suffering the employees underwent through in their place of work. It was due to the breach of moral values and business ethics in handling of the employees. The relationship that exists between the employer and the employees is that of a superior and subordinate and hence there is a likelihood of breach of the rights of the subordinates. This is the reason why there is need for consideration of the rights of the employees in the work place. Moral values form an integral part of the relationship between the employer and the employee. (Thomas, 1993).
But it is the issue of wages that continue to draw mixed reaction and which is a cause of a long time struggle in the work place. A wage can be broadly defined as the compensation that someone receives in return for labor services offered. In the labor market this is the appropriate definition of wages. Which are the ethical issues surrounding wages in the work place?
The issue of wages has been dodged by controversy which leaves us with the question of what can be considered as the right wages. A right wage can be said to be a compensation for a service offered which equals the amount of effort that was used in the service. Going with the labor theories, employer has a moral duty of ensuring that they pay the employees a wage which is equal to their input in their services. An engineer will not be expected to be paid the same amount of wage as a casual laborer. These are some of the segmentation in the labor market that we have to agree with. (Thomas, 1993).
But why is it that those who use more efforts in their work are paid less than those who use less effort? Why is it that supervisors who does nothing more than standing and giving orders will be paid more than casual laborers who use so much effort in their work? These are all ethical issues that surround the labor market and which may take along time to resolve. This arises from the scarcity of skilled labor in the market. (Jackson, 2001).
For the economic progress of any nation, there is need to ensure that the labor is paid in accordance to the living standard of people in that country. This is the bed rock issue that surrounds the controversy of the wage. Working all day and getting paid 2 dollar while the living standard of that nation will force you to use more than the two dollars a day amounts to exploitation of labor. A country cannot develop if its minimum wage doesn’t satisfy the existence of those working under it.
Many people have dismissed the issue of minimum wage in the labor market terming is as a socialist gimmick or government control of the labor market which is supposed to be free operating on the force of demand and supply. What moral responsibility do consumers in the UK have to purchase such products produced under unethical working conditions? These employees are the same people to buy such products and good working conditions should be imposed say good wages. It is out of the good wages that the consumers will be in a position to purchase these products. But if they are not well paid, then they can not buy such products but will instead go for cheap products. (Jackson, 2001).
Clothing is supposed to fulfill basic physical needs of the consumers such as shelter and warmth. If such basic needs are not fulfilled, then you find that the consumer is not satisfied with those products. Fashion in this case plays an important role in the world today. So, when compared to the other products, if the cotton product does not go with the fashion of the customers, then these consumers will in no way purchase those products. It is their right to choose the product they want when given a variety of products to purchase from. So in this case, it will be moral if the consumers don’t purchase that product if it does not meet the physical needs of the consumers. (Robert, 2001, pp 23).
Countries are supposed to benefit from fair-trade agreement. The fair-trade agreements since it was initiated to ensure that goods that are exported to the member countries are duty free, you find that U.K in this case does not go as per this agreement. It is due to this that the developing countries have been exploited since they are locked from exporting their products duty free. It is due to this that most of the infant industries at the developing countries have a slow growth and do not compete effectively with the industries at the U.K. As a result, the consumers in U.K are not ethically to purchase these goods since the other producer’s rights have been neglected. It is unethical to restrict producers from exporting products to that country.
So in this case, under business ethics, it is unethical for these consumers to purchase those products since the other producers have been denied their rights. Fair-trade cotton in U.K still makes up less than 1 per cent of the fiber produced worldwide. In this case, it means that there are other countries who are still members of the trade agreement who also produce cotton products. So it is not morally ethical for consumers at U.K to continue purchasing those products which are produced at their country while there are other countries who also produce high quality products. So in this case, we should consider the moral issue in this case whereby the other producers should also be allowed to trade their products in to other countries so that consumers can have diversified products to purchase from. (Robert, 2001, pp 23).
When producers are locked from exporting their products to other countries, you find that the prices for those products which are produced in that country will definitely go up. This is because there are no other producers to compete in the production of these products. So the consumers will definitely buy these products at a higher price. It is not ethical to exploit consumers from the increased prices. Prices should be standardized to ensure that consumers are not exposed to higher prices. So, in this case, despite the increased growth of cotton in U.K, it is unethical on the side of the consumers since these consumers will be forced to buy these products at a higher price. (Robert, 2001, pp 23).
Conclusion
Business ethics are important in ensuring that the business sector serves the consumer well. This ensures that the business makes profit which is ‘ethically justified’ and at same time the consumers are satisfied. All business should observe the code of ethics in their operation in order to look at the welfare of the society.
Reference
Joseph, D 2003, Introduction to Business Ethics, McGraw Hill, New York.Pp 21.
Norman, E and Hogue, W 2005, Management Ethics. Blackwell Publishing, Malden.
Jackson, K 2001, Globalizing Corporate ethics programs: Journal of Business ethics.
Kennedy, E Lawton, L 1996, The effects of social and moral integration on ethical standards: A comparison of American and Ukrainian Business Students, Journal of business Ethics.
Schlegelmilch, B 1995, The influence of country and industry on ethical perceptions of senior executives in the U.S.Pp 24
Duska, R 2003, Business ethics, Blackwell Publishers, Malden, MA, pp 11
Thomas, R 1993, can ethics be taught? Perspectives, challenges and approach, Harvard Business School, Boston, MA
John, D 2001, The next phase of business ethics: Integration psychology and ethics, Amsterdam, New York.
Robert, S 2002, Morality and market: Ethical and virtue in the conduct of business, McGraw-Hill, Boston.pp 12.
Robert, S 2001, Ethics in social marketing, Georgetown University Press, Washington, D.C. pp 23.
什么是商业道德?
商业道德,可以说是一种艺术形式,其中包括应用伦理学用来寻找解决方案,可以在商业环境中产生的道德和伦理问题,遵循的道德原则。在最近的过去已经有越来越多企业的压力,以确保他们一些道德原则的框架内运作。这已pressurelized ,制定一些法律旨在确保企业在某些道德原则,定义其运作的限制。在更广泛的描述,商业道德可以规范或描述。
举个例子,在该业务将遵守道德作为企业的做法一米。这将是规范的,因为它成为正常业务运作的一部分。商业道德,也可以是描述性的,在客场时,它需要一个学术的角度。这意味着商业道德的学术描述将成为其中的一部分。另一方面指社会问题,影响社会成员的问题或道德问题。社会问题的一些例子包括压制人权,社会不公,和他人之间的暴力。 ( 2002年罗伯特, 12页) 。
你会发现,大部分消费者都被剥削了这么多由生产者。这是因为已经建立了由生产者的道德的代码。在这里,消费者都应该充当道义上的某些不道德的问题时,在开展这些业务时发生的。你会发现,由于在某些产品上的限制,这是由公平贸易棉花说的情况下,消费者只能被迫购买该产品。
在这种情况下,你会发现这个消费者不会有时间品尝到其他产品,因为它们只购买该产品的限制。由于它上面的定义,商业道德应该考虑兼顾生产者和消费者,他们的权利应该得到保护的社会问题的。他们应该有一个选择购买他们想要的每一件产品,应当对这些产品并没有限制。 ( 2002年罗伯特, 12页) 。
道德问题的理解和分析
有很多形式的商业道德的管理整个业务运营幽灵。商业道德缩小到解决一些具体问题影响业务的运作的特定部分。定义了一些实用的职业道德伦理问题和现象的关注与一些特定领域的业务专业。
职业道德解决具体业务方面,如会计,工资,赔偿,消费和他人。会计职业道德定义会计师应以何种方式开展工作,确保他们不给伪造财务分析。在这种情况下,我将谈论公平贸易棉花市场。 ( Duska , 2003年,第11页) 。
公平贸易认证的棉花被用来解决所有小持有人在大多数发展中国家说,面对严峻的贫困棉农的发展需要,这是大多数发达国家已颁布的补贴说,在英国,扭曲了全球市场。
公平贸易认证已经把棉和公平贸易溢价为他们获得公平的价格,投资于在他们的社区的环境,经济和社会发展,确保农民生产这些产品都得到了保障。所有那些卖服装的公司,这是由公平贸易认证的棉花都应该遵守的规则及本协议的规定。
在商业道德,它是相当的道德,业务规则和规例,以确保他们的业务已经运行良好。但是,对于这种情况下,并不是所有的企业遵守这些规则,因此变得相当不道德。 ( Duska , 2003年,第11页) 。
也有其他的产品,不能由棉。有一些纤维制品,棉制品相比时,这也是一个好的。因此,它是不道德的,这些消费者购买产品,仅棉花。这是因为还有其他的生产商在这种情况下,仍然需要得到保护。例如,其他纤维生产商说,麻,涤纶等产品。
由于本来是要保护公平贸易的生产者仅棉花,这是相当不道德的,因为还有谁不属于本协议项下的其他潜在生产者。因此,它被认为是不道德的英国消费者只购买这些产品的认证协议,并忽视了其他产品。在商业道德,应提供每一个消费者和生产者的人权,任何人都不应被忽视。例如,在这种情况下,棉花仅提供1%的世界棉花被生产。 ( Duska , 2003年,第11页) 。
棉花是全球纺织业的重要纤维作物之一。大多数发达国家在社会和经济发展中也起到了关键的作用说,在美国,尽管其流星的速度增长,公平贸易棉花仍然小于1 %,全世界生产的纤维。在这种情况下,道德问题在这种情况下应用。这是因为道德问题通常会影响这些商品的消费者。
在这种情况下的不公正之一是质量较差的产品。你会发现棉花公平贸易仍在增加,但生产质量低劣产品由贪婪的生产者简单,因为他们是根据本协议的保护。因此,在这种情况下,你会发现,这是很不公正的消费者继续购买这些产品。这是因为这些产品的质量较差。他们生产的产品质量差,因为他们知道,棉的主要消费者喜欢的布制品。
因此,在这种情况下,它是没有道德的这些生产销售此类产品的消费者。这是因为与商业道德的定义,你会发现,既包括农产品和工人双方的规范和社会问题。因此,在这种情况下,道德问题将适用于这种情况。这是因为消费者的权利受到侵犯。这是因为他们认为这些产品实际上是对他们有好处,被迫购买劣质产品。 (约翰,2001)。
在这种情况下产生的另一个道德问题,这是剥削发展中国家。你会发现,英国保护其棉花生产大国,也有外加补贴和配额,以确保有没有对这个国家的进口。因此,它是由于这一点,剩下的棉花生产国家不应该向美国出口这些产品。作为一个结果,你会发现,消费者没有接触到各种各样的商品购买。
他们没有可供选择的各种产品,但只被迫购买仅在美国生产的棉制品。你还发现大部分的产品是由来自不同品种的棉花说,从畜产品说,羊毛和皮革。这些由其他国家生产的产品可以说在中国。作为一个结果,你会发现,消费者只限于购买服装,它是由英国只。消费者被拒绝也由其他国家生产的其他产品的味道。
在这种情况下,一个很好的例子是最近在中国和UKMore的公平贸易问题,以限制对经济的影响是在中国生产的服装,在全球服装行业已被锁定在系统的补贴和配额。这意味着,从自由市场将压倒他们,最近生产服装,所有这些国家都得到了保障。所以,你会发现这些国家向美国出口棉制品保护。 (托马斯,1993)。
在这种情况下,关注的另一个领域是那些在这些工厂和企业工作的人谁的工作条件。我们特别处理,这是劳动力市场。劳动力市场是什么?劳动力市场可谓是一个地方有实际劳务交流。在劳动力市场中,应该考虑到如果市场上有成功也有一些道德价值观。
劳动力市场一直在商业世界的长期冲突地区之一。下乡的历史,记录劳动力市场曾在世界上已经发生的一些重大变化的催化剂。还记得早在工业革命时代,在欧洲和美国的甘蔗种植园的工会斗争?这些都是一些描绘必须有一些基本的规则应该在劳动力市场上观察到的历史发生。
很明显,这些早期的斗争,不是由于在劳动力市场的满意度,而是由于苦难的员工进行了通过在他们的工作场所。这是由于在处理员工违反道德价值观和商业道德。雇主和雇员之间所存在的关系是上级和下属,因此有可能会出现违反下属的权利。这是之所以有需要考虑雇员在工作场所的权利。道德价值观的一个组成部分,雇主和雇员之间的关系。 (托马斯,1993)。
但它的问题,工资继续绘制反应不一,这是一个原因,很长一段时间在工作场所的斗争。工资大致可以定义作为补偿,有人提供劳务收到的回报。在劳动力市场中,这是适当的工资的定义。哪些是工资在工作场所周围的伦理问题?
工资的问题已经躲开了争议,这给我们留下了什么可以被认为是正确的工资问题。甲正确的工资,可以说是一个服务所提供的补偿,等于服务中所用的大量的精力。与劳动理论,雇主有道义上的责任,确保他们支付员工的工资,这是等于他们的投入,他们的服务。工程师不会被预期将支付相同数额的工资打短工。这些都是一些在劳动力市场的分割,我们不得不同意。 (托马斯,1993)。
但为什么那些谁使用更多的努力,在他们的工作支付少于那些谁使用较少的努力?为什么是什么,谁做什么比站在发号施令的监事将支付超过使用这么多的努力,在他们的工作的临时工?这些都是道德的问题,围绕劳动力市场,并沿着这可能需要时间去解决。出现这种情况,从熟练劳动力在市场上的稀缺性。 (杰克逊,2001年) 。
对于任何一个国家的经济进步,有需要确保劳动支付根据在该国人民的生活水平。这是岩床的问题,围绕着工资的争议。工作了一整天,并支付2美元,而该国的生活水平将迫使你使用超过每天两美元金额,以剥削劳工。一个国家不能发展,如果最低工资不能满足下工作的人的存在。
在劳动力市场terming的最低工资的问题是作为一个社会主义的噱头还是政府控制的劳动力市场需求和供给的力量,应该是自由操作系统,很多人都驳回。什么道义上的责任,在英国有消费者购买此类产品,不道德的工作条件下产生?这些员工都是一样的人来购买此类产品和良好的工作条件,应施加说好工资。它是良好的工资,消费者将在购买这些产品的位置。但是,如果他们不支付,那么他们可以不买这样的产品,但质优价廉的产品,而不是去。 (杰克逊,2001年) 。
服装应该是满足消费者的基本生理需求,如住房和温暖。如果这样的基本需求得不到满足,那么你会发现消费者并不满足于这些产品。时装在这种情况下,起着重要的作用,在当今世界。所以,当其他产品相比,如果不走棉产品与时尚的客户,那么这些消费者绝不会购买这些产品。这是他们有权选择他们想要购买的产品赋予了各种产品。因此,在这种情况下,这将是道德的,如果消费者不购买该产品,如果它不能满足消费者的生理需求。 (罗伯特, 2001年,第23页) 。
各国应该受益于公平贸易的协议。公平贸易协议,因为它是发起,以确保出口到成员国的货物是免税的,你会发现在这种情况下,英国每本协议不走。正是由于这一点,发展中国家被剥削,因为他们被锁定,从出口产品免税。这是由于这个,大多数发展中国家的婴幼儿产业有一个缓慢的增长和做不竞争有效地在英国行业作为一个结果,在英国的消费者是没有道德来购买这些商品,因为其他生产者的权利却被忽略了。这是不道德的限制生产者从产品出口到该国。
所以在这种情况下,商业道德,这是不道德的,这些消费者购买这些产品,因为其他生产商已经剥夺了他们的权利。英国公平贸易棉花仍然占不到1 %,全世界生产的纤维。在这种情况下,这意味着,还有其他的国家仍然是贸易协定的成员谁也生产棉产品。因此,它是没有道德的道德在英国消费者继续购买那些在本国所生产的产品,同时也有其他国家谁也生产高品质的产品。因此,在这种情况下,我们应该考虑在这种情况下,道德问题,使其他生产商也应该被允许交易他们的产品在其他国家,让消费者可以有多元化的产品购买。 (罗伯特, 2001年,第23页) 。
生产者锁定他们的产品出口到其他国家时,你会发现,对于那些在该国所生产的产品,价格肯定会去。这是因为有没有其他的生产商在生产这些产品的竞争。因此,消费者一定会以更高的价格购买这些产品。这是没有道德的利用消费者的价格上涨。价格应该是标准化,以确保消费者不会接触到更高的价格。所以,在这种情况下,尽管增加生长的棉花在英国,它是不道德的一侧的消费者,因为这些消费者将被迫以更高的价格购买这些产品。 (罗伯特, 2001年,第23页) 。
结论
确保业务部门服务的消费者以及商业道德是非常重要的。这确保业务获利,这是'伦理上对齐,并在同一时间的消费者满意。在他们的运作,所有业务应遵守道德规范,以寻找在社会的福利。
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