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代写paper,Terrorism Threat Politics
发表日期:2013-09-27 10:54:44 | 来源:assignment.cc | 当前的位置:首页 > 代写paper > 正文
Terrorism Threat Politics

Defeating Terrorism

Abstract

Terrorism threatens the entire world and the United States does not stand alone. The United States, coupled with several countries, including Canada and Australia, and also including the United Nations, have vowed to protect their own countries as well as assist in protecting each other in the fight against terrorism. This is executed through advisement, as well as providing a physical presence that assists against this global threat.

Acts of terrorism can strike against virtually any target in just about any country in the world. When a terrorist attack occurs against U.S. interests overseas, Americans that are affected as well as the host nation need rapid, coordinated, effective assistance to resolve the situation. That is where the Foreign Emergency Support Team (FEST) comes in. FEST was created to respond to situations when assistance by the United States is requested by the host government or directed by the President of the United States. The FEST has provided rapid assistance to Americans abroad and countries around the world which have suffered terrorist attacks (Department of State, n.d.).

The FEST is a rapid-response interagency team sent to support the President’s top representative in the host nation (Chief of Mission) and host government. During a terrorist incident the FEST provides a wide range of specialized skills. The Department of State, through the Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism, is the lead agency coordinating the FEST. Specifically, the FEST provides the Chief of Mission, host government leaders and incident managers’ guidance concerning U.S. capabilities to resolve terrorist incidents or mitigate the consequences of an incident/attack (Department of State, n.d.).

The FEST provides unique capabilities not normally available. On October 12, 2001, the FEST deployed in support of American Embassy Sanaa to Aden Yemen to coordinate the response to the USS Cole bombing. The FEST established their headquarters at a local hotel and provided valuable support to the Ambassador to include enhanced secure communications and reporting to Washington (Department of State, n.d.).

Australia is one of the biggest allies the United States has around the world. Under the laws of Australia, terrorist actions or threats have a political, ideological or spiritual origin that intimidate the Australian or foreign government, causing harm to people or property, creating a risk to the lives and safety to the citizens, or having a direct impact on trading or critical infrastructure. A ‘terrorist incident’ consists of a mixture of conditions that may lead to a terrorist act and will require mitigating or responsive actions (International Relations and Security Network (ISN), 2005).

The nature of terrorism means may cross jurisdictional boundaries. Because of these actions, mitigating actions and capabilities necessitates Australia must maintain a national, cooperative approach to counter terrorism. Detailed coordination and communication must take place amongst the jurisdictions to formalize. This coordination helped forge the Inter-governmental Agreement on Australia’s National Counter-Terrorism Arrangements of 24 October 2002 (ISN, 2005).

The Australian Security Intelligence Organization (ASIO) National Threat Assessment Centre (NTAC) issues specific threat assessments (these include people, locations, and even interests). Jurisdictions and associated agencies make decisions on how to respond to specific threats and apply measures to decrease risk to an acceptable level. At any time, national counter-terrorism alert levels may be raised or lowered lower than ASIO threat assessment levels relating to specific people, locations, major events or (foreign) interests in Australia. Implemented security measures may also vary across jurisdictions or sectors in Australia (ISN, 2005).

Australia also uses a national public alert system that can be utilized at the judgment of the Prime Minister, Australian Government Attorney-General or other senior Australian Government minister. This alert is based upon previously agreed upon policies to inform the public of proper responses and handle public information and questions (ISN, 2005).

The states and territories are also responsible for developing, implementing and maintaining emergency plans that include the prevention and management consequences of chemical, biological and radiological (CBR) incidents. These plans are incorporated with counterterrorism plans (ISN, 2005).

In the event that a National Terrorist Situation is declared, the overall responsibility is transferred to the government of Australia. This could involve determining policy objectives, establishing priorities, pre-positioning assets, liaison amongst allies and determining public notification. Operational management and deployment of emergency services is the sole responsibility of individual states and territories (ISN, 2005).

In Canada, the fight against terrorism includes diplomacy, intelligence, security and law enforcement, customs and immigration, transportation, justice and finance expertise. All branches of government work together to identify and arrest terrorists, halt their operations, to protect and defend people, societies, and economies from terrorist attack and mitigate effects of any attack (Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada, 2007).

It is Canada’s idea to “practice like they would play”. In other words, the Canadian National Exercise Program (NEP) consists of training courses and operation center exercises that hone the national emergency response system. The government, first responders and active military officials must work together, simulating emergency situations that include natural disasters, health threats and possible terrorist attacks. Exercises are often held across department lines that also include provincial, territorial and municipal governments. This helps in ensuring well-organized and efficient responses (Public Safety Canada, 2008).

This pre-emptive strategy is based on the recognition by federal, provincial, and territorial governments that mitigation is an important ingredient of a strong emergency management framework and all stakeholders are dedicated to working together to support all of Canada. A successful strategy depends on contributions from all governmental levels. The mitigation strategy encourages new and developing activities (e.g. climate change adaptation, water and dam safety and the transportation dangerous goods) (Public Safety Canada, 2008).

It is the responsibility of the United Nations (UN) to ensure that peace is sought out when resolving deadly conflicts around the world and promote peace. The UN is dedicated to undertake pre-emptive measures to defeat terrorism, in particular by denying terrorists access the ability to carry out their assault to their desired goal of their attacks. The UN intends to help fully in the fight against terrorism, in accordance with the international law, to find, deny safe haven and bring to justice, any person who supports or participates in the financial backing, planning, preparation or execution of terrorist acts or provides safe havens to terrorists (UN, n.d.).

A good insurance program is a financial management tool or at least it is referred to this when adequately replacing assets when a situation did not go as planned. This insurance program will be used to repay lost revenues and the increased costs that are acquired as a result of reduced business activity following a loss (Kaye, 2007).

In order to prepare and improve the security and protection of vulnerable targets such as infrastructure and public places, the United States and allies must continue to work together. This global fight cannot be fought and won alone. This will not only be a global response, but a worldwide coordinated mitigation plan to prevent these acts from occurring.

References

Department of State. (n.d.). What is FEST? Retrieved April 9, 2008, from http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/fs/2002/13045.htm#1.

Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. (2007, June 12). Terrorism. Retrieved April 9, 2008, from http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/internationalcrime/terrorism-en.asp.

ISN. (2005, September 1). National Counter-Terrorism Plan. Retrieved April 9, 2008, from <http://se2.isn.ch/serviceengine/FileContent?serviceID=23&fileid=99CA5D08-6463-723F-15E4-553B8D27F1BB&lng=en>.

Kaye, D. (2007, January 1). Why do we need risk management, we're insured right? Disaster Management, 1(1), 12. Retrieved April 9, 2008, from http://www.ccep.ca/dmc/archive/dmcv1i1.pdf.

Public Safety Canada. (2008, February 13). Canada's national disaster mitigation strategy. Retrieved April 9, 2008, from http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/prg/em/ndms/strategy-eng.aspx#a033.

Public Safety Canada. (2008, February 13). National Exercise Program. Retrieved April 9, 2008, from http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/prg/em/nep/index-en.asp.

UN. (n.d.). United nations general assembly adopts global counter-Terrorism strategy. Retrieved April 9, 2008, from http://www.un.org/terrorism/strategy-counter-terrorism.shtml#poa2.

 

恐怖主义威胁政治

击败恐怖主义

文摘

恐怖主义威胁着整个世界和美国不独立。美国,加上几个国家,包括加拿大和澳大利亚,还包括联合国,誓言要保护他们自己的国家以及协助保护彼此对抗恐怖主义。这是执行通过磋商,以及提供一个实体存在,对这一全球威胁的助攻。

恐怖主义行为可以打击几乎任何目标在任何国家在世界上。当恐怖袭击发生反对美国的海外利益,美国人影响以及东道主需要快速、协调、有效地帮助解决问题。这就是外国紧急支持团队(节)进来。节日是创建响应情况当援助,美国政府要求的主机或执导的美国总统。这个节日已经提供了快速援助国外美国人以及世界各国已遭受了恐怖袭击(国务院、北达科他州。)。

这个节日是一个快速反应跨部门团队送到支持总统的首席代表在东道国(团长)和主机的政府。在一个恐怖事件的节提供了一个广泛的专业技能。美国国务院,通过办公室协调员反恐、是领导机构协调节日。具体来说,节日提供了团长,主人政府领导人和事件经理指导有关美国的能力来解决恐怖主义事件或减轻事故的后果/攻击(国务院、北达科他州。)。

这个节日提供了独特的功能不正常可用。2001年10月12日,电影节的部署在美国大使馆的支持到亚丁湾也门萨那协调应对美国“科尔”号爆炸案。这个节日的总部设立在当地一家酒店和提供了宝贵的支持,包括增强的安全通信大使并汇报给华盛顿(国务院、北达科他州。)。

澳大利亚是最大的盟友美国世界各地。澳大利亚法律的情况下,恐怖行为或威胁有政治、思想或精神的起源,恐吓澳大利亚或外国政府,导致伤害人或财产,创造一个生命危险和安全的公民,或有一个直接影响交易或关键基础设施。一个“恐怖事件”包括一个混合的条件,可能会导致一个恐怖行动,需要减轻或积极的行动(国际关系和安全网络(还),2005)。

恐怖主义的本质意味着可能跨辖区边界。因为这些行动,减缓措施和功能需要澳大利亚必须保持一个国家,合作的方法来对抗恐怖主义。详细的协调和沟通必须发生在辖区形式化。这种协调帮助建立政府间协议的澳大利亚国家反恐安排2002年10月24日(还,2005)。

澳大利亚安全情报组织(ASIO)国家威胁评估中心(NTAC)问题特定的威胁评估(包括人,地点,甚至利益)。司法管辖区和相关机构决定如何应对特定的威胁和应用措施,降低风险到可以接受的水平。在任何时候,国家反恐警戒级别可能上调或下调低于ASIO威胁评估水平有关特定的人,地点,主要事件或(外国)在澳大利亚的利益。实施安全措施也可能各不相同的司法管辖区或行业在澳大利亚(还,2005)。

澳大利亚也使用一个国家公共警报系统,可以被利用在总理的判断,澳大利亚政府司法部长或其他澳大利亚政府高级部长。这个警告是基于预先约定的政策来告知公众适当的反应和处理公共信息和问题(还,2005)。

各州和领地也负责开发、实施和维护应急计划,包括预防和管理的后果的化学、生物和放射(CBR)事件。这些计划都与反恐计划(还,2005)。

如果一个国家恐怖主义形势宣布,整体的责任转移到澳大利亚的政府。这可能包括确定政策目标,建立优先级、预置资产,联络在盟国和决定公共通知。运营管理和部署应急服务是唯一的责任的各州和领地(还,2005)。

在加拿大,打击恐怖主义包括外交、情报、安全与执法部门、海关和移民、交通、司法、金融专业知识。政府的所有部门一起工作来识别并逮捕恐怖分子,阻止他们的行动,来保护和捍卫人类、社会和经济从恐怖袭击和减轻影响的任何攻击(外交事务和国际贸易加拿大,2007)。

它是加拿大的想法“实践像他们会玩”。换句话说,加拿大的国家运动项目(NEP)包括培训课程和操作中心练习磨练国家应急响应系统。政府、应急部门人员和活跃的军事官员必须一起工作,模拟紧急情况,包括自然灾害、健康的威胁和可能的恐怖袭击。练习经常举办跨部门线路,还包括省、领土和市政府。这有助于确保组织良好和高效的响应(公共安全加拿大,2008)。

这种先发制人的策略是基于识别由联邦、省和地方政府,缓解是一项重要的成分一个强大的应急管理框架和所有涉众都致力于共同努力支持所有的加拿大。一个成功的策略取决于从所有政府部门的贡献。的缓解策略鼓励新的和开发活动(如气候变化适应、水和大坝安全与运输危险品)(公共安全加拿大,2008)。

它的职责是联合国(UN),以确保和平解决致命冲突时寻找世界各地和促进和平。联合国致力于进行先发制人的措施打击恐怖主义,特别是拒绝访问能力的恐怖分子实施他们的攻击,其预期目标的攻击。联合国想帮助完全在打击恐怖主义,按照国际法,去发现,否认避风港和绳之以法,任何人支持或参与金融支持、规划、准备和执行恐怖行为或向恐怖分子提供安全避风港(联合国,北达科他州。)。

一个好的保险计划是一个金融管理工具或者至少是指这个当充分取代资产当形势没有按计划进行。这个保险计划将用于偿还收入损失和增加的成本获得结果之后出现的经营活动的减少损失(凯耶,2007)。

为了准备和提高安全性和保护脆弱的目标,如基础设施和公共场所,美国及其盟友必须继续一起工作。这个全球战斗不能独自奋斗并且取得胜利。这将不仅是一个全球的响应,但是全球协调的缓解计划来阻止这些行为的发生。

引用

国务部。(无日期)。什么是节日吗?检索2008年4月9日,从http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/fs/2002/13045.htm # 1。

加拿大外交与国际贸易。(2007年6月12日)。恐怖主义。检索2008年4月9日,从http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/internationalcrime/terrorism-en.asp。

并。(2005年,9月1日)。国家反恐计划。检索2008年4月9日,从< http://se2.isn.ch/serviceengine/filecontent?serviceid=23&fileid=99ca5d08 - 6463 - 723 f - 15 - e4 - 553 b8d27f1bb&lng=en >。

凯,d .(2007年1月1日),为什么我们需要风险管理,我们保险对吗?灾害管理,1(1)、12。检索2008年4月9日,从http://www.ccep.ca/dmc/archive/dmcv1i1.pdf。

加拿大公共安全。(2008年,2月13日)。加拿大国家减灾策略。检索2008年4月9日,从http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/prg/em/ndms/strategy-eng.aspx # a033。

加拿大公共安全。(2008年,2月13日)。国家运动计划。检索2008年4月9日,从http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/prg/em/nep/index-en.asp。

联合国。(无日期)。联合国大会采用全球反恐战略。检索2008年4月9日,从http://www.un.org/terrorism/strategy-counter-terrorism.shtml # poa2。