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代写paper,Supply Chain
发表日期:2013-10-11 08:50:51 | 来源:assignment.cc | 当前的位置:首页 > 代写paper > 正文
A critical summary of the paper - Integrating the Warehousing and Transportation Functions of the Supply Chain.

The old operational models in the order-fulfillment business, i.e., discreet, separated modules along the supply chain – separate operations of order management, warehouse management, and transportation management – are rapidly becoming obsolete given the communication and information management systems available due to digital communications, particularly the Internet.  Excess inventory, sluggish response times to orders, inflexibility in responding to variances in customer demand or outside supply of product, are all pitfalls which can now be avoided and significant cost savings enjoyed through an integration of these modules/processes.

The paper advocates a new model: a fully integrated process along the supply chain, a comprehensive combination of -- and communication between -- order management, warehouse management, and transportation management.  The paper proposes a ‘virtual warehouse’ (VW), in which processes at every stage in the supply chain are tracked and managed in real time, using sophisticated computer algorithms to track the status of any element in the process – the customer’s order in its various components, the company’s workers, the trucks or planes used to deliver supplies to the warehouse or deliver orders from the warehouse to the customer, the amount of inventory on hand at any given point, etc.  The status, quantity, and efficiency of any or all of the above components can be both monitored and adjusted in real-time using the VW model.

In order to test the VW model, the paper’s authors created a simulation to test their assumptions on a supply chain process used to deliver automobile engines, automobile tires, and motor oil to customers who ordered these items from any of a company’s 250 franchises, for example, an AutoZone auto parts store.  The integrated process was organized around “pull” – demand from consumers – instead of “push” – the need to react to inventory supply.  In addition, the VW implemented new processes for order fulfillment, instead of the typical old-fashioned paradigm of FIFO (First In, First Out.  To fulfill orders, the simulation utilized a variety of alternatives to FIFO, the most successful of which was a complex real-time algorithm known as Critical Ratio (CR), which for each order, calculated the ratio of the amount of time left before its due date to the amount of work left to be completed (i.e., processing time).  The job with the smallest ratio was automatically bumped up to the front of the order processing queue.

The results of the simulation were remarkable.   The integration of order management systems, warehouse management systems, and transportation management systems in to a virtual warehouse model processing orders with the CR algorithm resulted in dramatic improvements in supply chain efficiency and costs.  The costs to process orders for engines, tires, and motor oil dropped an amazing 20%, 48%, and 41% respectively.  The only down side, then, would be the cost of implementing the new virtual warehouse management system – a vast and complex task – as well as a slight increase in inventory housing costs.  However, the authors point out that the latter can be addressed by arbitrarily manipulating the algorithmic variables governing inventory levels.

In all, the paper makes convincing arguments both theoretically and empirically about the immense potential value of companies reforming their supply chain systems from top to bottom.  Lowered fulfillment costs and improved customer satisfaction are goals any company would want to achieve, and the virtual warehouse seems to be the way to do it.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Mason, Scott J., Ribera, P. Mauricio, et al.  Integrating the Warehousing and Transportation Functions of the Supply Chain.  Global Concepts Inc., and the Logistics Institute at the University of Arkansas, Pergamon Press, 2003.

 

成供应链的仓储和运输功能的一个重要的总结。
旧的运作模式,在订单履行业务,即谨慎的,分隔的模块以及订单管理,仓库管理,运输管理 - 供应链 - 独立的操作迅速成为过时的通信和信息管理系统由于采用数字通信,特别是互联网。多余的库存,响应时间缓慢的订单,不灵活的应对客户需求的差异或外部电源产品,都是陷阱,现在可以回避,通过整合这些模块/进程享有显着的成本节约。
本文提倡一种新的模式:一个完全集成的供应链过程,一个全面的组合 - 之间的沟通 - 订单管理,仓库管理,运输管理。本文提出了一个“虚拟仓库” ( VW ) ,其中流程在供应链中的每一个阶段都跟踪和管理实时,利用先进的计算机算法跟踪在这个过程中的任何元素的状态 - 客户的订单在其各个组成部分,该公司的工人,卡车或飞机用于运送物资仓库或从仓库到客户的订单,手头上的存货量在任何给定的位置,状态,数量,任何效率或所有上述成分既可以是实时地监测并调节使用的VW模型。
为了测试VW模型,该论文的作者创造了一个模拟,以检验他们的假设在一个供应链的过程中,用于向谁下令这些项目从任何一个公司的250个专营权的客户提供汽车发动机,汽车轮胎,以及发动机油,为例如, AutoZone公司汽车配件商店。集成的过程中,围绕“拉动” - 从消费者的需求 - 而不是“推” - 的需要反应库存供应。此外,大众汽车实施新工艺,订单履行,而不是典型的老式范式的FIFO (先入先出。履行订单,模拟运用多种选择到FIFO ,其中最成功的是复杂的实时算法被称为临界比率(CR),对每一个订单,到期日之前的剩余量的工作完成(即,处理时间)的剩余时间量的比例计算。作业与自动落到最小的比率的顺序处理队列的前面。
模拟的结果是显着的。订单管理系统,仓库管理系统,运输管理系统到虚拟仓库模型处理订单与CR算法集成导致供应链效率和成本的显着改善。处理引擎,轮胎,车用机油的订单的成本下降了一个惊人的20% , 48%和41% 。唯一的缺点的话,将实施新的虚拟仓库管理系统的成本 - 一个庞大而复杂的任务 - 以及库存略有增加住房成本。然而,作者指出,后者可以解决任意操纵算法变量库存水平。
,本文提出了令人信服的论据,理论和实证的巨大的潜在价值,公司改革其供应链系统从上到下。降低交货成本和提高客户满意度是任何公司想要实现的目标,似乎是虚拟仓库的方式做到这一点。
参考书目
梅森,斯科特J. ,里贝拉, P.毛,等。集成供应链的仓储和运输功能。全球概念公司,在阿肯色大学物流研究所, Pergamon出版社, 2003 。