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代写coursework,Mockingbird Society Prejudice
发表日期:2013-09-13 08:30:20 | 来源:assignment.cc | 当前的位置:首页 > 代写coursework > 正文
Mockingbird Society Prejudice

Extended Essay

What is the significance of the mockingbird in society in Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird and what other elements of symbolism does the author use to represent prejudice in society?

Harper Lee's novel To Kill a Mockingbird is about a young girl living in the town of Maycomb during the Great Depression, where racism and prejudice are immense issues amongst the society. Lee follows the life of Scout finch, the daughter of a lawyer, as she tries to escape the realism of prejudice in the small Alabama town in the 1930's.

Lee titled her novel To Kill a Mockingbird, which leaves open to many conclusions about what this Mockingbird might represent. Harper Lee effectively used the symbolism of this harmless, beautiful bird to represent the various characters in this book that are being exposed to the issues of prejudice, for example Boo Radley or Tom Robinson who are innocent people that have been injured or destroyed by evil.

Also, using important quotes and objects, she outlines how prejudice and judging a person by their looks can influence a whole society to a point where even an innocent man is found guilty just because of his race. However, not only does Lee use the symbolism of the mockingbird to signify racism and prejudice, but she always uses certain objects like whiskey bottles or the holy bible.

One theory as to why Harper Lee used the word Mockingbird in her title is because of all the characters in the book that are similar to the definition of a mockingbird. The terminology of a mockingbird is a bird that never does anyone any harm and never does anything except sing their hearts out to people. This description is similar to the one Miss Maudie uses when talking to Scout Finch, the female protagonist in this novel. Miss Maudie says Mockingbirds don't do one thing but make music for us to enjoy. They don't eat up people's gardens, don't nest in corncribs, they don't do one thing but sing their hearts out for us.

Obviously, this symbolizes many characters in the novel, such as Boo Radley. Boo Radley is the son of Mr. Radley who lives next door to the Finch's in Maycomb. They kept to themselves and the people of Maycomb considered this unforgivable. They do not go to church but worshipped at home and kept the doors and shutters closed, which was another alien thing to do in Maycomb. Despite these things, the Radley's never did anyone any harm, they just had a different way of living. Especially Boo Radley - who had not been seen for fifteen years.

Yet people still found things to say about the Radley's just because they were different. Boo Radley gets described as a Phantom because people say he exists, but they have never seen him. At this point of the book, Boo is just a childhood fallacy. The people of Maycomb are unwilling to discard their suspicions of anyone, even if there are reasons for it. When Scout asks Jem about Boo on page 14, Jem describes Boo as if he has known him for years, although he is just describing him on account of what he's heard, and just like any other person in that town, he doesn't seem to care that he might be passing on false information.

He says Boo was about six-and-a-half feet tall, judging from his tracks. [...] There was a long jagged scar across his face; what teeth he had were yellow and rotten; his eyes popped, and he drooled most of the time. Jem receives most of his information from Miss Stephanie Crawford, which shows how information is passed along through society. Another example of this is that Jem and Scout think he is dangerous and never want to go near his house. The real reason they are not supposed to disturb them is because Atticus always says Scout and Jem should mind their own business... but people tend to believe the worst and therefore, the two think that he is dangerous solely based on other people's words.

However, when Jem and Scout get saved by Boo and they finally see his true face, they realize that they had been wrong all along, which is the common turn prejudice tends to take. Jem realizes on page 299 that Boo is just a normal person but values different qualities in life - for example, he likes to be on his own, doesn't like too much light and likes to keep to himself. A direct reference of comparing Boo Radley to a mockingbird is made at the end of the novel, where Scout realizes that hurting Boo would be like hurting a mockingbird. Scout finally grasped the fact that Boo would never do anything to harm anyone.

Another character that could be considered a mockingbird in the novel is Tim Johnson. Tim Johnson is a dog that appears to be sick, although no one is too certain about this because he gets killed before he comes to close for anyone to see. Tim Johnson was considered to be the community pet until it was seen limping and acting unusual. Immediately, the people of Maycomb assumed the worst and killed the dog before any further investigation.

Even though the dog had a case of rabies, it would not have done any harm and had never done anything to damage the people of maycomb, yet people were quick to go and shoot him. Because several people (including Calpurnia) thought he was dangerous, other people thought the same, which, yet again, related to one of the major themes of this novel: prejudice in the society. Since Tim Johnson was acting different than the other dogs were or the way he usually was, he had to die. This character in the novel is considered to be a mockingbird because he was always considered as a friendly dog, yet people had no problem shooting the poor dog, which once again related to how people are careless about mockingbirds.

Mr. Dolphus Raymond, who the reader gets introduced later on in the novel, is another character that can be considered a mockingbird in society. Mr. Raymond is seen sitting in a square with a bunch of negroes sipping from two straws that come out a brown paper bag. This might be what makes Scout think about this character in the first place; the fact that he is sitting with a bunch of black people entirely by choice. Then Jem says He's got a Coca-Cola bottle full of whiskey in there. That's so not to upset the ladies. You'll see him sip it all afternoon , he'll step out for a while and fill it back up. This is another situation in which Jem blatantly passes on information he's received from the folks in town - he doesn't know what is actually inside the bottle but merely because it is covered, he expects the worst.

This specific element is also one of the main symbolic elements of this novel which represents prejudice. Some people say that you should never judge a book by its cover and this expression fits perfectly into this situation: just because Mr. Raymond is sipping a beverage out of a brown paper bag (which is often associated to alcohol), people draw unnecessary conclusions. This is also proven by the conversation Scout has with Mr. Raymond a little while later in the novel. When Scout, Dill and Jem meet him later, he encourages Dill to drink out of the paper bag. Only then does it occur to the three children that the paper bag contains Coca-Cola. Scout, it's nothing but Coca-Cola.

This proves the saying that looks can be deceiving and prejudice is a common part everywhere. Then Mr. Raymond says something interesting: You little folks wont tell on me now, will you? It'd ruin my reputation if you did. [...] Oh yes, you mean why do I pretend? Well, It's very simple. Some folks don't - like the way I live. Now I could say the hell with 'em, I don't care if they don't like it. I do say I Don't care if they don't like it, right enough - but I don't say the hell with 'em, see? I try to give them a reason, you see. It helps if they can latch on to a reason. When I come to town, which is seldom, if I weave a little and drink out of this sack, folks can say Dolphus Raymond in the clutches of whiskey - that's why he wont change his ways.

He cant help him - that's why he wont change his ways. This is a very interesting quote because it illustrates the fact that he has to give people a reason to judge him because he knows they will judge him no matter what because he likes to hang around with coloured people instead of white people. He would be criticized for his affiliation with black people, so he blames his ways on whiskey. He separates himself from society and does not want to change his ways just because some people are too prejudiced against races. Also, it seems that he is the only character in the book who can see past the racism and past the prejudice. At first the reader might think that Atticus can also, but this clearly gets dismissed later in the novel (this will be discussed later on).

Harper Lee may have included this particular character to further exemplify his main theme: that prejudice can change perspective. One thing Scout says after the discussion with Mr. Raymond is: He was fascinating. I had never encountered a being who deliberately perpetrated fraud against himself. Scout, Jem and Dill thought Mr. Raymond was a drinker because the people said so but they never thought about what really was in the bag. This particular element of symbolism could represent that whiskey in a paper bag presents that there is more than meets the eye. However, the reader can distinguish that Mr. Raymond is definitely affected by the racism in society. He pretends to be drunk half the time because he doesn't have the courage to admit his beliefs, i.e. enjoying the company of blacks more than whites. The interesting aspect of this particular character is the fact that he is a wealthy man who had an affair with a coloured woman while he was supposed to marry a white woman.

The Cunninghams, or more specifically Walter Cunningham is an additional character that could be classified as a mockingbird to a great extent. The Cunninghams are said to be a very poor family. When Scout goes to school, she knows immediately that Walter is a Cunningham by the way he acts and is dressed. Also, because he's a Cunningham, he is considered poor: He's a Cunningham Walter is having a hard time when Scout's teacher tells everyone to put their lunch on the table. When Walter fails to show evidence of a present lunch, she asks where his is. She also offers him a quarter to go buy a lunch as long as he pays her back tomorrow but he declines.

Walter Cunningham's face told everybody in the first grade he had hookworms. His absence of shoes told us how he got them. [...] If Walter had owned any shoes he would have worn them the first day of school and then discared them until mid-winter. He did have on a clean shirt and neatly mended overalls. That quote shows yet again how appearances have a major impact of prejudice in society. However, Scout does not seem too fazed by this: Scout doesn't care about how much money the Cunningham's have and she doesn't let this change her perspective of people.

Dill is also a mockingbird in the novel. The first time Scout and Jem see him, Jem says You look right puny for goin' on seven. Just because he isn't very tall, Jem and Scout think that he is younger. Dill provides Jem with a very mature answer, I'm little but I'm old which relates back to the central theme of the novel. Yet again, looks can be deceiving and Dill is older than he looks. This again demonstrates how Jem and Scout are affected by an appearance which eventually takes over their morality and their logical thinking and their reasoning. It is admirable to see how people can be so wrong about something else.

However, Scout and Jem are also mockingbirds at some stage. When they are on their way home from the school recital, they get attacked my Mr. Ewell because they were the kids of Atticus. They never did any harm to him themselves, yet he had no problem hurting and attempting to kill them, no matter how small or innocent they were. This, once again, links back to what Miss Maudie said about the mockingbirds and how they never do any harm to anyone, yet people have no problem shooting them down or hurting them.

Moreover, through Harper Lee's inclusion of Dill, we find out another aspect of what Harper Lee thinks about prejudice in the society. Dill says I helped the engineer for a while and Jem replies: In a pig'sear you did, Dill. Hush This reveals that people in society often lie to fit in to humanity or to make an impression on someone. Scout and Jem are among the only people not prejudiced because they were the only ones sitting in the balcony with black people.

The biggest mockingbird in this story would have to be Tom Robinson. Tom is accused of rape of a small white girl, and even though everyone knows he did not do it, he is convicted simply because of his skin color. He had no chance of defending himself, plainly because he is not white. Even Atticus, who took the job of being Tom's attorney, had doubts from the very beginning about the trial when Scout asked him whether they were going to win. He replies that they won't win the case because coloured people have no chance compared to white people.

Atticus says in our courts, when it's a white man's word against a black man's, the white man always wins which also shows the mentality of the world during that time. It also reinforces the idea that Tom will be denied any form of justice. Despite of various evidence, Atticus was not able to provide a good enough verdict for Tom. Racism decided that Tom Robinson was guilty although he could not have possibly committed the crime, and everyone knew that. The court did not even give him a chance although it was clear that he did not do the crime.

Tom Robinson is characterized by how the people in the society think about him, and this is passed on to other people. People only knew about Tom Robinson through what other people said about him which relates to the story of Boo Radley. These two characters are very similar to each other because Boo is like a smaller version of an outcast than Tom is: Boo is an outcast in the neighborhood whereas Tom is an outcast in the whole society. The only people that actually see Tom Robinson's innocence at the trial are the Finch's;

 

模仿鸟的意义是什么在社会上,在哈珀·李的“杀死一只知更鸟和其他元素的象征,作者用代表在社会上的偏见吗?
哈珀·李的小说“杀死一只知更鸟”是关于一个年轻的女孩生活在大萧条期间,种族主义和偏见是巨大的社会问题之间的镇Maycomb的。李如下童军雀,一名律师的女儿,她试图逃离现实主义的偏见,在阿拉巴马州的小城镇,在1930年的生活。
李名为她的小说要杀死一只知更鸟,这只知更鸟可能代表很多结论叶开放。哈珀·李有效地使用了象征意义,这是无害的,美丽的鸟,代表各种人物在这本书中暴露的问题的偏见,例如嘘拉德利或汤姆·罗宾逊,谁是无辜的人已经受伤或摧毁邪恶。
此外,使用重要的报价和对象,她概述了如何可以影响整个社会偏见和判断一个人,他们的长相到一个地步,连一个无辜的人被判有罪,只是因为他的种族。然而,不仅没有利用模仿鸟的象征意义,意味着种族主义和偏见,但她始终使用某些物体,如威士忌瓶或圣经。
哈珀·李,为什么用这个词只知更鸟在她的头衔是一种理论,因为所有的书中人物一只知更鸟“的定义是类似的。一只知更鸟“的术语是一只鸟,从来没有任何人造成任何伤害,除了唱他们的心,人们不会做任何事情。这说明是一个Maudie小姐交谈时使用童军芬奇,在这部小说中的女主人公相似。 Maudie小姐说嘲不要做的一件事,但使我们享受音乐。他们不吃人的花园,不要窝在corncribs ,他们不会做的一件事,但他们的心,为我们唱。
显然,这象征着许多小说中的人物,如嘘拉德利。嘘·拉德利·拉德利先生的儿子是谁住在隔壁芬奇的Maycomb 。他们保持自己和Maycomb人民认为这不可原谅。他们不用去教堂,但在家里敬拜和保持门和百叶窗关闭,这是另一种外来的东西在Maycomb做。拉德利尽管这些东西,从来没有任何人造成任何伤害,他们只是以不同的方式生活。尤其是嘘拉德利 - ,谁未曾见过十五年。
然而,人们仍然发现,事情谈谈拉德利的,只是因为他们是不同的。嘘拉德利被描述为一个幻影,因为人们说他的存在,但他们从来没有见过他。在这一点上的书, Boo是只是一个儿时的谬论。人民Maycomb都不愿放弃自己的任何人的怀疑,即使有它的原因。当侦察员问杰姆的第14页上的嘘声,杰姆描述嘘仿佛他已经知道他多年,虽然他只是描述他考虑他听说什么,就像任何其他人在那个小镇,他似乎并不照顾他可能是虚假信息传递。
他说,嘘约六一英尺半高,从他的轨道。 [...]曾经有很长的锯齿形疤痕在他的脸上,他什么样的牙齿是黄色和烂,他的眼睛突然出现流口水,他的大部分时间。杰姆收到他的信息大部分来自斯蒂芬妮小姐连卡佛,它展示了如何通过社会信息传递。另一个例子是,杰姆和侦察员认为他是危险的,从来没有想要去他家附近。真正的原因是因为他们不应该去打扰他们的Atticus总是说,童军和杰姆应该介意自己的生意......但人们往往相信最差的,因此,认为他是危险的,仅仅基于其他人的话。
然而,当杰姆和侦察员得到被嘘,他们终于看到了他的真实面目,他们意识到,他们已经开始就错了,这是常见的转偏见往往采取。杰姆第299页上的实现嘘只是一个普通的人,但值不同质量的生活中 - 例如,他喜欢上自己的,不喜欢太多的光线,并喜欢保持自己。比较嘘拉德利一只知更鸟的小说结束时,侦察员意识到伤害嘘,伤害一只知更鸟“会像一个直接的参考。侦察员终于抓住嘘的事实,永远不会做任何伤害任何人。
可以考虑一只知更鸟在小说的另一个特点是蒂姆·约翰逊。蒂姆·约翰逊是一个狗,似乎是生病了,虽然没有人是太肯定,因为他被杀害,在他来之前关闭任何人看到。蒂姆·约翰逊被认为是社会的宠物,直到它被视为跛行和演技不寻常的。随即,人的Maycomb假设最坏的打算,并作进一步调查之前杀了狗。
即使狗有狂犬病的情况下,它不会做任何伤害和从来没有做过任何损害人民maycomb的,但人们很快去拍摄他。因为几个人(包括卡尔普尔尼乌斯法)认为他是危险的,其他人认为同样的,再次,涉及到的这本小说的主要题材之一,在社会上的偏见。由于蒂姆·约翰逊是比其他的狗的方式,他通常是不同的,他都得死。这个人物在小说中被认为是一只知更鸟“ ,因为他一直被视为一个友好的狗,但人有没有问题,投篮命中率可怜的狗,这再次涉及到人们是如何粗心模仿鸟。
Dolphus雷蒙德先生,谁是读者被引入以后在小说里,是另一个字符可以被视为社会一只知更鸟。 Raymond先生在广场看到坐在一堆黑人喝着从两个秸秆出来一个牛皮纸袋。这可能是什么让童军认为这个人物摆在首位;事实上,他正坐在一堆黑衣人的选择完全由。杰姆说,他有一个可口可乐瓶威士忌在那里。这是如此不破坏淑女。你会看到他抿了整个下午,他会走出一段时间,填写备份。这是另一种情况,杰姆明目张胆地传递信息,他收到来自镇的乡亲 - 他不知道什么是真正的瓶子里面,但仅仅因为它被覆盖,他预计最差的。
这是特定的元素也代表损害本小说的主要象征性的元素之一。有人说,你不应该来判断一本书的封面和这种表达完全融入了这样的情况:只是因为Raymond先生是一个牛皮纸袋(常常伴有酒精)喝着饮料,人们吸引不必要的结论。这也证明了谈话童子军Raymond先生过了一会儿,在小说中。当侦察员,莳萝和Jem他见面后,他鼓励莳萝喝出的纸袋。只有这样,它的三个孩子,纸袋包含可口可乐发生。童军,这是什么,但可口可乐。
这证明了的说法,看起来可以欺骗和偏见处处是一种常见的一部分。 Raymond先生说一些有趣的事情:我现在不会告诉你少人,你会吗? ,如果你这样做,它会毁了我的名誉。 [...]哦,是的,你的意思是为什么我假装?嗯,这是很简单的。一些人不 - 我喜欢的方式生活。现在我可以说他们的地狱,我不在乎,如果他们不喜欢它。我说我不在乎,如果他们不喜欢它,就足够 - 但我不说他们的地狱,看到吗?我试着给他们一个理由,你看。它帮助,如果他们可以锁定到一个原因。当我来到镇上,这是很少,如果我编织了一点,喝出这一麻袋,人都能说出Dolphus的雷蒙德的魔掌威士忌 - 这就是为什么他不会改变他的方式。
他不能帮助他 - 这就是为什么他不会改变他的方式。这是一个非常有趣的报价,因为它说明了一个事实,他必须给人们一个理由,来判断他,因为他知道他们要审判他,不管是什么,因为他喜欢流连有色人种,而不是白为民。他会被批评他与黑衣人的从属关系,所以他指责他的方式对威士忌。他自己从社会分开,并不想改变他的方式,只是因为有些人太歧视种族。此外,它似乎在书中可以看到过去的种族主义和过去的偏见,他是唯一的字符。起初,读者可能会觉得,阿提库斯可以还,但是这显然被解雇后来在小说(这将在后面讨论) 。
哈珀·李可能包括这个特殊的字符,进一步体现他的主旋律: ,偏见可以改变角度。 Raymond先生是讨论一件事后,侦察员说:他是迷人的。我从来没有遇到过一个被人故意犯下欺诈自己。军,杰姆和莳萝认为Raymond先生是个酒鬼,因为人这么说,但他们从来没有想过真正在袋子。这种象征意义的特定元素可以代表威士忌在一个纸袋提出,有一个以上符合眼睛。然而,读者可以区分Raymond先生肯定是受社会的种族主义。他假装是喝醉了一半的时间,因为他不会有勇气承认自己的信仰,即享受公司的黑人比白人多。这个特殊的字符有趣的方面是事实,他是一个富有的人,谁用彩色的女人有了外遇,而他应该嫁给一个白人女人。
Cunninghams ,或者更具体地说沃尔特·坎宁安是一只知更鸟在很大程度上可以被归类为一个额外的字符。 Cunninghams说是一个非常贫穷的家庭。当侦察员去上学,她立即知道沃尔特坎宁安是一个由他的行为方式和穿着。此外,因为他是一个坎宁安,他被认为是穷人:他是一个沃尔特·坎宁安是不好受的时候,童军的老师告诉大家把自己的桌子上吃午饭。当沃尔特失败证明现时的午餐,她问他是。她还为他提供一季度去买午餐只要他支付她明天回来,但他拒绝透露。
沃尔特·坎宁安的表情告诉大家他有钩虫在一年级。他没有鞋,告诉我们他是如何得到它们。 [...]如果沃尔特·曾拥有的鞋子,他会穿他们开学的第一天,然后他们,直到中旬冬季discared 。他也有在一个干净的衬衫和修补整齐的工作服。报价再次显示出场如何在社会有重大影响的偏见。然而,童军似乎并没有太烦扰这个侦察员大概多少钱 - 坎宁安的,她不让这个改变她的观点的人并不关心。
莳萝也是小说中的一只知更鸟。首次童军和杰姆看到他,杰姆说,你看的权利微不足道布莱恩'的七个。就因为他不是很高,杰姆和侦察员认为他是年轻的。莳萝提供杰姆一个非常成熟的答案,我有点,但我老了回小说的中心主题。再次,长相如何,都可以欺骗和莳萝是看起来年纪比他大。这再次证明了杰姆和侦察员如何受的外观最终接管他们的道德和他们的逻辑思维能力和推理。看看人家怎么可以这么错别的东西,这是令人钦佩的。
然而,童军和杰姆还模仿鸟在某些阶段。当他们从学校演奏会在回家的路上,他们被攻击我的先生尤厄尔因为他们是孩子的Atticus 。他们从来没有做过任何伤害他自己,但他没有伤害,并试图杀死他们的问题,不管多么小或无辜的,他们是。 ,再次链接Maudie小姐说模仿鸟怎么也不会做任何伤害任何人,但人们有没有问题拍摄下来,或伤害他们。
此外,通过哈珀·李的加入​​莳萝,我们发现另一个方面,哈珀·李认为在社会的偏见。迪尔说,我帮的工程师了一会儿,杰姆回复:你在pig'sear ,莳萝。嘘这表明社会上的人经常说谎,以适应在人类或对某人的印象。童军和杰姆是没有偏见的人,因为他们是唯一的与黑衣人坐在阳台上。
在这个故事里最大的模仿鸟会是汤姆·罗宾逊。汤姆被指控强奸一个白色的小女孩,即使每个人都知道他并没有这样做,仅仅是因为他的肤色,他被定罪。他没有为自己辩护的机会,说白了,因为他是不是白色的。即使阿提卡斯,谁是汤姆的律师的工作,从一开始就对审判产生了怀疑,当侦察员问他是否要赢。他回答说,他们不会打赢这场官司,因为白的人相比,有色人种的机会都没有。
阿提卡斯说,在我们的法院,当它是对黑人的白人的字,白人总是赢,这也说明了世界的心态在这段时间。这也增强了汤姆的想法,将拒绝任何形式的正义。尽管各种证据,阿提卡斯是不能够提供足够好的判决汤姆。种族主义决定,汤姆·罗宾逊是有罪的,尽管他不能有可能犯了罪,每个人都知道。法院甚至没有给他机会,但很明显,他并没有做犯罪。
汤姆·罗宾逊的特点是在社会上的人如何想他,这是传递给其他人。人们只知道汤姆·罗宾逊通过其他人说什么他有关的故事驸拉德利。这两个字符是非常相似,彼此像一个较小的版本比汤姆是一个弃儿,因为Boo是: Boo是一个弃儿在附近,而汤姆则是整个社会的弃儿。实际看到的唯一的人,汤姆·罗宾逊的清白在审讯芬奇的;