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代写coursework,Federal Government Process
发表日期:2013-09-23 08:31:20 | 来源:assignment.cc | 当前的位置:首页 > 代写coursework > 正文

Federal Government Hiring Process for Jobs in the Competitive Civil Service

Before Federal government workers in the United States can start to serve the country, they all must go through a hiring process just like all other applicants in the private sector although there are distinguishing protocols put in place to suit this type of service. Due to the need for centralization and fairness of resources in government, hiring process is logically more complicated than most non-government companies or corporations. According to Crosby (2004), the said requirements entailed regulations thus the standardization of job titles. In addition, resumes are more detailed to match more specific job qualifications.

The said characteristics shape the federal government hiring process for jobs in the competitive civil service in the US. As the leading world power, it is very helpful to understand and equally interesting to know how the US Federal Government is run particularly in the selection of individuals that constitute it.

This necessitates the analysis of the hiring process in place and identifying unique areas of process management towards drafting a recommendation for a better strategy. Apart from the above objective, this paper also aims to combine the proposed process in the form of a flow chart and testing it using a standard for best practices in order to come up with the pest possible federal hiring process (US MSPB, 2007; Crosby, 2004; GAO, 2004).

There are more than 1,700,000 jobs in the US Federal Government under more than 400 occupational specialties. The top three federal agencies with the most employment are the US Department of Veterans Affairs, US Army and US Navy with 232, 644; 223, 086 and 179, 806 employees respectively.

The US Department of Homeland Security and US Air force complete the top five while US Department of Agriculture, US Department of Justice and US Department of Defense follow with workers numbering over a hundred thousand. The three smallest of the 25 US Federal agencies in terms of number of employees are the Smithsonian Institution with 4, 997 employees, US Department of Education with 4, 574 and US Securities and Exchange Commission with 3, 570 employees (Crosby, 2004).

Job titles in the Federal Government are standardized. This means the government uses a set of occupational titles called occupational series that is uniform across agencies. There are highly specific titles and there are job titles that cover broad specializations or fields of work depending on the agency where these are needed. Examples of common or broad titles include program analyst and technical writers.

The occupational series of the Federal Government shows that the most common occupation is under the category miscellaneous clerks and assistants with 74, 380 employees, followed by miscellaneous administration and programs positions with 69, 185 and information technology management positions with 64, 209 workers. The least number of employees can be found in correctional officers and budget analysis positions categories (US MSPB, 2007; Crosby, 2004).

Qualifications for US Federal Government employment primarily includes US citizenship and other experience, education or specializations depending on the position applied for. The system used for classifying jobs in terms of qualifications and other requirements is called the General Schedule (GS). This system indicates every job a 1 to 15 grade level, depending on the qualifications; the lower the grade level the lesser the qualifications (Crosby, 2004).

The main objective of the hiring process is to find the best suited person for the job position to be filled (Bennett, 2003). Appropriate laws for this process are myriad and have been established (LMC HR, 2003). The Federal Government has protocols in place for the said purpose with a standard protocol and 45- and 30-day versions.

There are five major steps in the competitive screening process. The first step involves the identification of the job and related assessments. This is followed by the recruitment and announcement step. The third step is accepting and reviewing an application which is followed by the assessment of applicants. The final major step is the certification of eligible applicants.

Under the first major step are three sub-steps which are reviewing of hiring flexibilities, conduction of job analysis and identification of competencies or KSAs, identification of assessment tools, and submission of request to the assigned examination officer. The second major step includes recruitment, creation of job announcement, and satisfaction of public notice announcements.

Review of requirements and notification of applications if requirements are not satisfied or review of qualifications if satisfied are the two subsets of the third major step. Under the fourth major step rating and ranking, case examination and competitor inventory are done. The last major step involves the drafting of selection order, issuance of certificate, selection and auditing (OPM, 2005).

Below are the current examining processes based from The Delegated Examining Operations Handbook (OPM, 2005). The first flowchart is the Competitive Examining Process which is currently utilized for hiring in competitive civil service (Figure 1). The second flow chart is the same process but with a 45-day hiring model integrated (Fig. 2). The third flow chart is the 30-day model of the SES Merit Staffing Process (Fig. 3).

In order to identify areas of improvement, there should be measurements on the current performance of the said processes. The key is therefore to mine data or statistics pertaining to each of the steps described above. Also, prior studies related to success of such steps can be reviewed to further validate the observed trends in performance.

The first area in this case is the review of hiring flexibilities. Parallel agencies should have data pertaining to the performance of this protocol. Statistics highlighting resources and equivalent decisions will show the efficiency of the methodology. Analysis should date as far back as possible so that a trend can be seen.

In doing so, a database can be put in place which can be readily available. The following factors should be noted: the size of the agency, the department and division; the load of those involved; the approximate amount of resources before and after hiring; the efficiency of the office before and after the employment; the length of service of the newly employed individual; number of additional employment related to the position. Apart from the individual statistics of the said factor, there should also be derived figures so as to give a grade or scale signifying the resulting efficiency of the target employment.

This numerical grade will be an easy and concrete guide for evaluating the need for hiring a new employee which can be used both by the office concerned and the Delegated Examining Officer. This can lower the first major step and also provide a numerical basis for every decision that will be made. Cumulatively, this will render a very significant reduction on the initial processing time in all applicable levels and agencies in the Federal Government.

The proposal, therefore, is to insert or replace altogether the first to third sub-steps in the first major step. This means the proposed sub-step would indicate: “consultation of database for job analysis” and will be directly connected to the fourth sub-step which is submission of request to the delegated examining officer.

The second area where there is possible improvement is the creation of job announcement and satisfaction of public notice requirements. There is a measurement that can be applied in this stage to determine the efficiency or past successes of the process in place.

This can be done by digging over the records in past hiring efforts and researching literature related to this. The number of applicants, speed of applications and overall turnout can be correlated to the efficiency of spreading the job announcements in the target demographics. A very high turnout would be regarded as ideal although the specificity of those recruited should be the main focus of the review.

On the other hand, mass media studies should also be used as established markers of job announcement efficiency. These should include all the forms of communication or information media such as newspaper or print, radio announcements, television advertisements and internet website posts.

The method would involve collating articles on these avenues which align the turnout of applicants with the medium used, the specificity of these applications, number of short-listed individuals and the speed of reaction to the advertisements. Also the success rate for each of form of dissemination can be a gauge of the applicability of each method. Again, a numerical figure in the form of percentage for each of the medium analyzed can be very helpful in placing in rank probable method to be used for a particular job announcement.

In the context of the hiring process, the above information gathered can be highly useful before proceeding with making of job announcement and recruitment. If there is already a previous study or data which can be ideally retrieved from a network database, the step between recruitment and review of applications can be greatly reduced. Therefore, a single sub-step, namely use of announcement wizard, can replace the two sub-steps called creating job announcement and satisfying public notice requirements.

To better the federal government hiring process, it is imperative to look for loopholes in the system. Also, consulting available best practices in the said area will definitely provide a good example in refining the system. There are problem areas and challenges and identifying those are already a task on itself.

The US Merit Systems Protection Board or US MSPB (2007) enumerated the problems concerning the process. It said on its report that the hiring process is long, not applicant-friendly and ineffective; standards have limited use and inadequate; reduces competition; waste resources; does not use automation effectively and do not include government-wide reforms (US MSPB).

According to the NCAA (2005) some of the areas of hiring best practices include increasing the diversity of the candidate pool, exploiting job posting avenues, looking beyond paper qualifications, using search firms, resources and databases.

Character and leadership skills that are not easily transferred on the job through training or staff development but critical for high performance in a particular position should be the main focus of every job search processes in terms of best practices (Schoonover, 2002).

According to Corlett (2003), best practices in hiring include appropriate scheduling, hiring talent and skill and not personality, using networks to better search, improving job announcements and avoiding limited choices among other ideal practices.

Hands-on training with actual tools or apparatus that are used in the company and allocating available time for job applicants and not for examiner or interviewer are just two of the best practices in hiring, according to Bitzenburg (2003). NowHire (2007) gives importance on understanding applicant demographics, providing an easy mode of application and taking advantage of the availability of technology.

According to InterviewExchange (2006), when using the internet for recruiting purposes the following best practices would be of great help: focusing on the top applicants, running an active career site and getting everyone involve among its seven listed practices.

The abovementioned best practices can be fitted into a currently in use hiring process and produce a more ideal version. After looking at the said practices, it can be noted that there are points that have been forwarded in some studies or articles that are of little importance in other best practices manual.

For example, some put importance on having an online presence to better disseminate the job announcement. One manual elaborates on the focus on skills and talent and not on personality. Some highlight the role of time and other factors in conducting interview and examination while some put emphasis on maintaining diversity in the workplace as seen from the above publications.

Having encountered such best practices and recommendations, it is now appropriate to apply those points when developing a better version of the already existing federal government hiring process for competitive civil service (Figure 1). This would include suggestions based from the concerned areas as listed in this paper such as installing database for job vacancy evaluation and for making job announcements.

The result therefore is to incorporate salient points in the best practices in the sub-steps already existing. The use of electronic resources has already been added. Skills and talent focus can be found in the review of applications sub-step. What remains are time considerations and diversity improvement. The former would be an end result for the entire process and will be ensured with the addition of databases and networks as mentioned above. The latter will be incorporated to the job vacancy analysis or the first sub-step of the first major step.

To measure the efficiency of the above process, the flowchart has points wherein evaluation techniques can be put in place (stars). The first star is placed after submission of request to examining officer. The approval rating of requests can be used as a measure of success of the new sub-step.

The time expended to complete the whole major step will also be indicative of the efficiency of the new system. The second star after notice maker will measure the extent of persons reached by the announcement. The third star placed after qualifications review will give an indication of the specificity of the previous steps. The more appropriate applicants are found, the better is the performance of the new process. Overall, the time and number of qualified applicants will therefore be the basic measure of success of the proposed model.

Reference List

Bennett, J.D. (2003). Hiring compliance guidelines. Retrieved 28 June 2008 from www.nextaff.com/.../employers/white-papers/White%20Paper%20-%20 Hiring%20Compliance%20Guidelines.pdf

Bitzenburg, J. (2003). Hiring assessment and training program. Retrieved 28 June 2008 from www.rc2000.org/docs/enhancing_external_resources.pdf

Corlett, B. (2003). Ten best practices for non-profit hiring. Retrieved 28 June 2008 from www.workfornonprofits.org/Media/Articles/10best.pdf

Crosby, O. (2004). How to get a job in the Federal Government. Occupational Outlook Quarterly. Retrieved 28 June 2008 from www.bls.gov/opub/ooq/2004/summer/ art01.pdf

GAO. (2004). Human capital: Status of efforts to improve federal hiring. United States General Accounting Office. Retrieved 28 June 2008 from www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-04-796T

InterviewExchange. (2006). E-recruiting best practices. Retrieved 28 June 2008 from http://interviewexchange.com

LMC HR. (2003). Applicable state and federal laws. League of Minnesota Cities Human Resources. Retrieved 28 June 2008 from lmc.org/media/document/1/ applicablestateandfederallaws.pdf

NCAA. (2005). Best hiring practices. Retrieved 28 June 2008 from www.ncaa.org/ library/membership/best_hiring_practices/best_hiring_practices.pdf

NowHire. (2007). Best practices in choosing enterprise-level applicant tracking/Hiring management system. Retrieved 28 June 2008 from www.nowhire.com/ downloads/applicant_whitepaper.pdf

OPM (2002). SES merit staffing process 30-day model. US Office of Personnel Management. Retrieved 28 June 2008 from http://www.opm.gov./ses/memo04-17-02.asp

OPM (2005). Competitive examining process 45-day model. US Office of Personnel Management. Retrieved 28 June 2008 from http://www.opm.gov./ viewDocuments.aspx?q=526

OPM. (2003). Delegated examining operations handbook. US Office of Personnel Management. Retrieved 28 June 2008 from http://www.opm.gov/ deu/Handbook_2003/Introduction.asp

OPM. (2005). Strategic management of human capital. US Office of Personnel Management. Retrieved 28 June 2008 from http:www.opm.gov/ Strategic_Management_of_Human_Capital/fhfrc/default.asp

Schoonover, S.C. (2002). Interviewing best practices / Hiring and Selection. Schoonover Associates. Retrieved 28 June 2008 from www.schoonover.com/pdf/PDF _Interview _Best_Practices_Hiring_Selection.pdf

US MSPB. (2007). Reforming federal hiring. A report to the President and the Congress of the United States by the US Merit Systems Protection Board. Retrieved 28 June 2008 from www.mspb.gov/netsearch/viewdocs.aspx?docnumber=224102& version=224321&application=ACROBAT

 

联邦政府在竞争公务员职位的招聘过程
之前在美国联邦政府工作人员可以开始报国,他们都必须通过招聘过程中去,就像所有其他申请人在私营部门,虽然有区别的协议落实到位,以适应这种类型的服务。由于政府资源的集中和公平的需要,招聘过程比大多数非政府的公司或企业在逻辑上是更复杂的。据克罗斯比(2004年),而上述要求entailed法规职称的标准化。此外,简历更详细更具体的匹配工作资格。
上述特点塑造在竞争激烈的公务员职位在美国联邦政府的招聘过程。作为世界领先的功率,它是非常有必要了解和知道如何在美国联邦政府个人构成它的选择,特别是在运行同样有趣。
这就需要招聘过程的分析到位,​​确定独特的领域的过程管理,对起草一份建议,更好的策略。除了上述目标,本文还旨在结合流程图的形式和测试过程中建议使用最佳实践的标准,以便拿出害虫可能联邦政府的招聘流程(美国,2007年,克罗斯比MSPB 2004年,高,2004)。
有170多万个就业机会,美国联邦政府在400多名职业特色。前三个联邦机构提供最多就业机会的美国退伍军人事务部,美国陆军和美国海军, 232 , 644 , 223 , 086和179 , 806名员工。
美国国土安全部和美国空军完成的前五名,而美国农业部,美国司法部和美国国防部的员工人数超过十万。三个最小的25个美国联邦机构的雇员人数是史密森学会的有4个,员工997人,美国教育部的有4个, 574和美国证券交易委员会有3个, 570名雇员(克罗斯比,2004年) 。
在联邦政府的职称是标准化的。这意味着政府采用了一套职业名称叫职业系列,是跨机构统一。有高度特异性的职称,有职称,涵盖广泛的专业或领域的工作机构,这些都需要取决于。共同或广泛职称的例子包括程序分析员和技术作家。
职业系列联邦政府显示,最常见的职业是杂74的书记员和助手,员工380人,其次是杂项管理和节目持仓69 ,185和信息技术管理职位, 64 , 209名工人的范畴。员工人数至少可以发现在惩教人员和预算分析职位类别(美国MSPB , 2007年克罗斯比,2004年) 。
美国联邦政府就业资格主要包括美国公民和其他经验,教育或专业,根据申请的位置。学历及其他要求方面的工作进行分类的系统被称为一般的附表( GS ) 。该系统表示每工作1到15级水平,根据的资格;较低级较小的资历(克罗斯比2004年) 。
招聘过程中的主要目标是要找到最适合的人来填补职位(贝内特,2003年) 。这个过程是无数适当的法律,并已成立( LMC HR ,2003年) 。联邦政府有协议说,一个标准的协议和45 - 30天的版本的目的。
在竞争激烈的筛选过程中,有五个主要步骤。第一步涉及的作业的识别及有关的评估。其次是招聘和公布步骤。第三步是一个应用程序,其次是评估申请人的受理和审查。的最后一个主要步骤是合资格的申请人的认证。
根据第一个重大步骤,三个子步骤,检讨招聘的灵活性,传导工作分析和识别能力和能力,确定评估工具,以及提交请求到指定的检查人员。第二个主要的步骤包括招聘,创建工作的公告,公示公告和满意度。
审查的要求和通知的应用程序如果不满足要求或资格审查,如果满意的是两个亚群的第三个主要步骤。根据评级和排名第四个主要步骤,逐项检查和竞争对手的库存完成。最后一个重要步骤涉及选择顺序的起草,签发的证书,选择和审计( OPM ,2005) 。
下面是委派的检查操作手册( OPM ,2005年)的基础,从目前的检查过程。第一流程图是竞争力的审查过程,这是目前用于竞争性的公务员招聘(图1) 。第二个流程图是相同的过程,但45天的的雇佣模型集成(图2) 。第三个流程图,是在30天的SES优异人手过程模型(图3) 。
为了识别改进的地方,应该是上述过程的当前性能的测量。因此,关键是我的数据或每个上面描述的步骤有关的统计信息。此外,以往的研究等步骤成功进行审查,以进一步验证观察到的趋势表现。
在这种情况下,第一个方面是审查招聘灵活性。并行的机构应具有有关此协议的性能数据。统计信息突出资源和等同的决定将显示该方法的效率。分析日期可以追溯到尽可能可以看到这样一个趋势。
这样做,可以把数据库的地方,可随时查阅。应注意以下因素:规模的机构,部门和分工;负载当事者近似雇用之前和之后的资源量;前和就业后的办公效率,服务的长度新聘的个别的位置有关的更多的就业机会的数量。除了在个别统计,所述的因素,也应该得到的数字,给一个等级或规模,表示产生的效率的目标就业。
此数值成绩将雇用新员工都可以使用有关办事处和授权检查人员评估是否需要一个简单而具体的指导。这可以降低的第一个重大步骤,并为将要作出的每一个决定也提供了数值依据。累积,这将呈现一个非常显着的水平,并在联邦政府机构在所有适用的初步处理时间减少。
,因此,该提案是完全插入或更换的第一到第三子步骤的第一个重大步骤。这意味着建议的子步骤表示:“协商工作分析数据库” ,将被直接连接到第四子步骤,这是提交请求委派的检查人员。
有可能的改进的第二个领域是创建工作的公告和公示要求的满意度。存在这样一种测量,可以应用在这个阶段中的处理的效率或过去的成功确定。
这是可以做到通过挖过去的的租用努力和与此相关的研究文献中的记录。申请人的数量,速度的应用和整体投票相关公布的目标人群传播的工作效率。将被视为理想的,虽然他们聘请的特异性非常高的投票率应该是主要的重点审查。
另一方面,大众媒体的研究也应该可以用来建立标记工作的公告效率。这些应该包括各种形式的通讯或信息媒体,如报纸或打印,电台广播,电视广告和互联网网站上张贴。
该方法将涉及文章整理这些渠道,调整申请人的投票与使用介质,这些应用的特殊性,入围者数量和广告的反应速度。的传播形式的成功率也可以是一个轨距的每一种方法的适用性。同样,数字的百分比的形式为每个介质分析可以放置在排名方法可能被用于特定的工作的公告是非常有益的。
在招聘过程中的背景下,上述收集到的信息是非常有用的,然后再进行公告及招聘工作。如果已经有先前的研究或理想可以从网络数据库检索数据,可以大大降低招聘和审查申请步骤。因此,一个单一的子步骤,即使用公告向导,可以代替两个子步骤称为创造就业公告及令人满意的公示要求。
为了更好的联邦政府的招聘流程,当务之急是寻找系统中的漏洞。此外,咨询在上述区域内可用的最好的做法肯定会提供一个很好的例子,在炼油系统。有问题的领域和挑战,并找出那些本身已经是一个任务。
美国考绩制度保护委员会或美国MSPB (2007)列举问题的过程。在其报告中说,在招聘过程长,申请人友好的和无效的标准使用有限和不足,减少竞争,浪费资源,不有效地使用自动化,不包括政府各部门的改革(美国MSPB ) 。
据在NCAA (2005)聘请最佳做法的一些领域,包括增加候选池的多样性,利用职位的途径,寻找超越纸资格,使用猎头公司,资源和数据库。
性格和领导能力是不容易转移工作,通过培训或开发人员,但高性能的关键在一个特定的位置,应该是每一个求职过程中的主要焦点,方面最佳实践(斯库诺弗,2002年) 。
据科利特(2003年),最佳做法在雇用包括适当的调度,聘用人才和技能,而不是个性,利用网络更好的搜索,提高了作业的公告,避免有限的选择,其中包括理想的做法。
培训与实际的工具或设备中所使用的公司,分配的可用时间,让求职者和考官或主考官只是两个雇用的最佳做法,根据Bitzenburg (2003) 。 NowHire (2007年)的重视了解申请人人口统计,提供了一种简单的应用模式,并利用技术的可用性。
据到InterviewExchange (2006年) ,为招聘目的使用互联网时,将有很大的帮助以下最佳实践:注重在顶部申请人,运行一个积极的职业生涯网站,并让每个人都参与其中的7家上市做法。
上述最佳做法可以安装到当前使用招聘过程中,产生一个比较理想的版本。看着说,实践后,它可以指出的是,还有点已转发在一些研究文章,是没有多大的重要性在其他最佳实践手册。
例如,一些投入的重要性有一个在线的存在,更好地传播工作的公告。一本手册阐述了技能和天赋的重点,而不是个性。一些亮点进行面试和考试时间等因素的作用,而有的强调保持工作场所的多样性,从​​上述出版物。
遇到这样的最佳实践和建议,现在是在开发一个更好的版本已经存在的联邦政府公务员招聘过程中的竞争(图1)时,适当应用这些点。这将包括安装数据库的职位空缺评估和制定工作公告如本文中列出有关地区的建议。
因此,结果是把已有的子步骤的最佳做法的要点。电子资源的使用已添加。技能和人才的重点,可以发现在应用分步审查。剩下的时间考虑和分集改善。前者将是为整个过程的最终结果,将确保与如上所述此外,数据库和网络。后者将被纳入到作业的空缺分析或第一子步骤中的第一个主要步骤。
为了测量上述过程的效率,该流程图可以放在这里(分)点,其特征在于,评价技术。首批星级放置后提交请求检查人员。请求认证等级可以用来作为衡量新的子步骤的成功。
花费的时间完成整个的重要一步,也将是新系统的效率指标。第二星级通知后,厂商将测量公布达成的程度。放置资格审查后,将第三颗星星给指示的特殊性前面的步骤。找到更合适的申请人,新工艺,性能越好。总体而言,合资格的申请人的时间和次数,因此该模型成功的基本措施。
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