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代写coursework,Value Management Risk
发表日期:2013-09-25 14:12:22 | 来源:assignment.cc | 当前的位置:首页 > 代写coursework > 正文
Value Management Risk

INTRODUCTION

  • Rationale for Study

Throughout my 4th year of the Honours Degree Quantity Surveying Programme, I found the Value and Risk Appraisal module very interesting especially the topic of Value Management. I had never really come across this topic before and only heard the term used a few times but didn’t really know what was involved. From undertaking that specific module, it seems that Value Management is mostly used as a tool to achieve Value for Money for Clients. Working for a Contractor for 4 and a half years now, I have only ever seen Value Management used on one Construction Project and this is the one that I am currently based on just now. From my experience, I feel that Value Management has a lot of advantages for Contractors as well as Clients and I wanted to find out why it is not being used to a great extent by Contractors.

  • Indicative Title

Value Management: A Contractors Perspective

1.3 The Aim

To determine the reasons as to why Value Management is not being greatly used by Contractors in the Construction Industry.

1.4 The Main Objectives

In order to achieve the above aim the following objectives must be met:

  • To identify the key principles and elements of Value Management.
  • To identify techniques and working practices adopted and to identify the benefits of Value Management.
  • Examine the reason as to why Value Management is not widely used in the Construction Industry.
  • Critical analysis of the views of Main Contractors about the benefits or short comings of Value Management.
  • To propose recommendations for improved implementation of Value Management for Contractors.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

  • VALUE MANAGEMENT

2.1.1A Definition

“Value Management is a style of management particularly dedicated to motivating people, developing skills and promoting synergies and innovation, with the aim of maximizing the overall performance of an organization.”

The Institute of Value Management [online] http://www.ivm.org.uk/vm_whatis.htm Accessed on 18 July 2007.

Value Management is a team based “process-driven” methodology. Its incentive is to deliver a product, service or project at “optimum whole life performance and cost without detriment to quality.”

By using teams of experts in the Construction Industry, this allows the Value Management process to identify “design and construction solutions which offer the best value for money with regard to the functional requirements of the Client”

Kelly, J. & Male, S. (1988) A Study of Value Management and Quantity Surveying Practice

Value Management plays a key role in the Construction Industry for continuous improvement and innovation.

  • The Background &Concept

Value Management originated in the United States of America in the late 1940’s and the process was originally used in the manufacturing industry. This was soon adopted by the Construction Industry in the UK by the start of the 1990’s as various studies highlighted “between 36% and 45% savings on estimated construction cost to the Client”

Kelly, J. & Male, S. (1988) A Study of Value Management and Quantity Surveying Practice

The concept of ‘Value Analysis’ was introduced by Lawrence Miles in the 1940’s. Miles, a Purchase Engineer working for the General Election, had to find ways to tackle the material shortages which was due to the Second World War. Miles sought to find alternative materials that would provide the same function. This proved effective as Miles found that many of the alternative products he was finding were of an equal, if not better quality than that originally proposed. In addition to this he found that many of these alternatives were at a lower cost. Dallas (2006) states that a short while later, people realised that not only did the technique provide a way to substitute alternative materials but it was also an excellent way to reduce costs while still maintaining the necessary functionality. This system would involve ‘value’ and ‘analysis’ and based on this Miles developed the definition of ‘Value Analysis’.

“An organised approach to providing the necessary functions at the lowest cost.”

Kelly, J.R. & Male, S.P. & Graham, D. (2004) Value Management of Construction Projects.

To further enhance this Miles provides further definition:

“Value Analysis is an organised approach to the identification and elimination of unnecessary cost.”

Kelly, J.R. & Male, S.P. & Graham, D. (2004) Value Management of Construction Projects.

  • Key Principles of Value Management

The institute of Value Management states that the key principles of Value Management are different from other styles of management in that they include attributes that are not normally found together:

Management Style

  • Emphasis on teamwork and communication
  • A focus on what things do, rather than what they are (functional approach)
  • An atmosphere that encourages creativity and innovation
  • A focus on customer’s requirements
  • A requirement to evaluate options qualitatively to enable robust comparisons of option

Positive Human Dynamics

  • Teamwork – encouraging people to work together towards a common solution
  • Satisfaction – recognizing and giving credit
  • Communication – bringing people together by improving communication between them
  • Fostering better common understanding and providing better group decision support
  • Encouraging change – challenging the status quo and bringing about beneficial change
  • Ownership – the assumption of ownership of the outcomes of Value Management activities by those responsible for implementing them

Consideration of External and Internal Environment

  • External conditions – taking account of pre-existing conditions external to the organisation over which managers may have little influence
  • Internal conditions – within the organisation there will be existing conditions which managers may or may not be able to influence
  • Degrees of Freedom – the external and internal conditions will dictate the limits of potential outcomes and should be quantified.

Effective Use of Methods and Tools

  • Means of achieving outcomes

The Institute of Value Management [online} http://www.ivm.org.uk/vm_whatis.htm Accessed on 18 July 2007

From this we can see that Value Management brings Construction teams together and gets them to communicate more effectively with each other, this in turn will have a beneficial effect on the Project. The functionality of a Project will be more focused on being able to achieve Value for Money.

  • Value Management Techniques
  • Function Analysis

‘Function Analysis is a powerful technique in the identification of the principal functional requirements of a project’

Seeley, I. (1997) Quantity Surveying Practice. Second Edition.

Function analysis is basically a brain storming session with all people involved in the construction project and is used to determine the main needs of a project in order to focus on alternative options that are less expensive although still achieving the functionality as required.

  • FAST Diagrams

Seeley (1997) states that the FAST (Functional Analysis System Technique) has evolved from the functional analysis approach as it establishes a hierarchy of functions in order of importance.

FAST diagrams are a more effective way of showing the main important functions and needs of a project.

Bolton (2002) stated that function analysis was key to success in a workshop and always uses a FAST diagram.

Pasquire and Mauro (2001) cite Norton and McElligott (1995) who suggest that the use of FAST may provide more benefit in the early stages of a project but not so much in the construction phases. It is also highlighted that FAST diagramming requires experience and training on the part of the facilitator to ensure it accurately depicts the function of the project. Another constraining factor is the time required to complete FAST diagrams.

Hunter, K. & Kelly, J. (2006) Is One Day Enough? The Argue for Shorter VM/VE Studies.

  • Value Management Workshops

Value Management Workshops are one of the main techniques of Value Management. This will be discussed in greater detail in Chapter 2.2.

  • Benefits of Value Management

After several post-project reviews with Contractors and Consultants, Kelly & Male identify various positive aspects of the Value Management process. The most significant of these are:

  • Proof that the initial design was indeed the best
  • Peace of mind to the owner that he was receiving good value for money
  • Introduction to higher quality products
  • Best up-to-date technology at least cost
  • A clear focus on project objectives
  • An alternative view of the design
  • Improved project programmes
  • Improved site management structures
  • An opportunity for a detailed analysis of the required project

Kelly, J. & Male, S. (1988) A Study of Value Management and Quantity Surveying Practice.

The Institute of Value Management indicates that Value Management has already been successful in achieving Value for Money for such Clients as BP, British Airways, Pfizer, Stanhope and various water and rail companies. This has resulted in the public sector adopting Value Management techniques in order to cut down construction costs and achieve better Value for Money.

Benefits of Value Management according to the Institute of Value Management focus on greater communication and understanding within the Construction team but do not seem to focus on the cost benefits;

  • Better business decisions by providing decision makers a sound basis for their choice
  • Improved products and services to external customers by clearly understanding and giving due priority to their real needs
  • Enhanced competitiveness by facilitating technical and organisation innovation
  • A common value culture thus enhancing every member’s understanding of the organisation’s goals
  • Improved internal communication and common knowledge of the main success factors for the organisation
  • Simultaneously enhanced communication and efficiency by developing multidisciplinary and multitask teamwork
  • Decisions which can be supported by the stakeholders

The Institute of Value Management [online} http://www.ivm.org.uk/vm_whatis.htm Accessed on 18 July 2007

‘Sir Michael Latham’s report ‘Constructing the Team’ (1994) states the benefits of Value Management and includes Value Management as a factor which is critical to the success of projects in providing the basis for improving value for money in construction.’

Hogg, K. (1999) Value Management: A Failing Opportunity? Nottingham, The Nottingham Trent University.

Value Management is still not being used to a great extent in the construction industry despite the great number of benefits.

‘The reasons for the apparent hesitance of the industry to adopt Value Management on a greater scale are unclear since the benefits of Value Management appear to be widely recognised and the practice continues to be promoted at a high level.’

Hogg, K. (1999) Value Management: A Failing Opportunity? Nottingham, The Nottingham Trent University.

  • Value Management Workshops

‘Before a VM workshop commences information has to be gathered to determine its objectives and deliverables and therefore what shape and form the workshop will take.’

Male, S. & Kelly, J. et al (1998) The Value Management Benchmark: A Good Practice Framework for Clients and Practitioners

  • Value Management Workshop Structure

Kelly (1996), details the key stages involved in a Value Management Workshop;

Value Management workshops are characterised by a three stage process:

  • The Orientation and Diagnostic Phase in which the value manager prepares for the study by: meeting with the project sponsor and key players who will be involved in the study, reviewing documents, conducting interviews and briefings and preparing the agenda for the Workshop Stage.
  • The Workshop Stage is where alternative or complementary views on the value problem are brought together through a structured team based activity facilitated by a value manager and progressed through the application of specific team based techniques. Innovative ideas are brought forward to satisfy the functional requirements identified against a backdrop of the value criteria uncovered. A workshop report will be produced including an Action Plan to ensure that value solutions and options will be implemented in the post workshop phase.
  • The Implementation Phase in which the Action Plan is followed through by those responsible for the investigation and implementation of ideas.

Kelly, J. (1996) Value & Risk Appraisal Lecture Notes

The International Benchmarking Study (1998) identifies the Implementation Phase as one of the key areas in which Value Management fails. At this stage the Value Management team have identified and adopted various approaches to ensure that the Value Problem is minimised as far as possible through various meetings and workshops in the previous phases. At this point an implementation strategy will be discussed with the relevant parties and if possible those involved in the implementation will be interviewed and identified in the action plan at the close of the workshop phase.

  • Value Management Intervention Points

There are three main stages of Value Management workshops and they all produce a great deal of information that is discussed between the Construction parties to find alternatives ways of constructing the building and focusing on achieving Value for Money. These stages are described on the next page.

  • Strategic Briefing

The Strategic Briefing stage deals with identifying the broad scope and purpose of the project and its important parameters. The focus is on determining the strategic needs and wants, and the role and purpose of the project for the Client.

  • Project Brief

The Project Brief translates the Strategic Brief into construction terms, specifying performance requirements for each of the elements of the project including spatial relationships and details:

  • ‘A summary of the relevant parts of the Strategic Brief document
  • The aim of the design. This would include priorities for project objectives
  • The site, including details of accessibility and planning
  • The size and configuration of activities
  • Outline specifications of general and specific areas
  • A cost centred budget for all aspects of the project including all elements of the construction project
  • Servicing options and specification implications e.g. security, deliveries, access, etc.’

Kelly, J. (1996) Value & Risk Appraisal Lecture Notes

  • Outline Sketch Design

The Outline Sketch Design (OSD) workshop is a value review of the initial plans, elevations, sections, specification and cost plan of the proposed building using the signed off Project Brief as a reference point.

Kelly (1996) explains what should be involved in an OSD Workshop:

  • ‘As statement of the design direction
  • The site layout and access, identifying ground conditions and planning constraints
  • A detailed cost plan and schedule of activities
  • Dimensioned plans, elevations and sections
  • An outline specification for environmental systems
  • The risks and a risk management strategy
  • The procurement plan
  • The project execution plan with key milestones
  • Performance measure.’

Kelly, J. (1996) Value & Risk Appraisal Lecture Notes

  • Benefits of Value Management Workshops

This is an extract from a journal that describes the benefits from an actual Value Management workshop that took place:

‘All team members confirmed their commitment to continuous improvement. Only three did not feel that it had been as a result of the workshops. The team unanimously believed that more options had been explored within the team and all agreed to that being as a result of the workshops. A principal finding under the section of workshop effectiveness agreed to by all members of the team, was that the workshop provided a good basis for teamwork, created and atmosphere of equality, ensured open and frequent communication and focused the participants on action and achieving results. The team members that indicated team working, cultures and communications as issues prior to the workshops agreed that they had all been resolved through the facilitated workshops.’

Hunter, K. & Kelly, J. (2006) Value Management Workshops and Partnering Conundrums.

From this extract we can see that there is a great deal of benefits for all parties by using Value Management workshops. There are also advantages to a VM workshop if the environment is isolated, these include:

  • It focuses the team on ‘the project’
  • Gestation occurs during the workshop process
  • It commits the team
  • Militates against partial attendance
  • Continuity is ensured.

Male, S. & Kelly, J. et al (1998) The Value Management Benchmark: Research Results of an International Benchmarking Study

RDT Pacific (2007) stated that there are other advantages of Value Management and Workshops.

‘Value Management consistently provides significant improvements to projects:

  • Average capital cost savings of 14% (NSW Government Research)
  • The forging of dedicated, synergistic project teams
  • Auditing on the project brief and the decision making process
  • Provision of additional functionality within existing budget allocations
  • Development of a structured process to move projects efficiently to the next stage and ultimately completion.’

RDT Pacific [online] http://www.rdtpacific.co.nz/services/servicesportfolio/valuemanagement.shtml Accessed on 5 October 2007

From this research we can see that there is a great deal of benefits of using Value Management for all parties involved in a Construction Project. It is the intention of this research paper to find out why Value Management is not being used a great deal by Contractors and therefore this research will provide beneficial when it comes to interviewing Contractors on their views of Value Management workshops. A comparison will be made between the benefits and disadvantages of Value Management in the Research Analysis chapter in order to suggest suitable implementation of this process for Contractors.

CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Secondary Method of Research

The Secondary Research Method proposed includes investigating historic papers and publications to assess the extent to which Value Management is used in the Construction Industry. Information will be obtained from books, journals, websites and lecture notes. The Glasgow Caledonian Library will be used to obtain books. The RICS (Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors) and various websites will be used to obtain journals and information on Value Management.

These methods of research are being used as they are readily available. About 6 books from the Glasgow Caledonian Library were used for research and a lot of information was found, however, the negative aspect of using books is that the information may not be up to date. Lecture notes from the Value and Risk Appraisal were used for the Literature Review in order to explain the processes of Value Management. They were produced by Professor John Kelly who either wrote the notes from his own experience or took extracts from books. A great amount of information was found from the internet on Value Management and this was also used to prepare the Literature Review. Information from the internet can be up to date although the disadvantage is that it can be someone’s opinion and may not be entirely true. Journals on Value Management were found on the RICS website, Athens and also on the Construction and Building News websites. Some journal information was also taken from the Glasgow Caledonian Library. The advantage of Journals is that there was a lot of information available and people’s views are expressed which is helpful for determining any problems that exist in Value Management.

This research will increase the author’s knowledge and understanding of Value Management and will also give an insight into the varying views on the subject.

3.2 Primary Method of Research

The initial Primary Research Method proposed for this paper is to use actual Construction Project Case Studies in an attempt to find out how beneficial Value Management was for those projects. A few case studies were found on Projects that have used Value Management and they will be used to determine whether Value Management has been a success or not for the Project. Case Studies are useful for this research as they can be used to compare and also get people’s views on Value Management.

A second Primary Research Method proposed for this paper will involve interviews with relevant Construction Industry personnel to gain their views and perspectives of Value Management in Construction Projects. Suitable candidates will be mainly Contractors who have worked with Value Management on their previous Construction Projects and also the Chairman of the IVM (Institute of Value Management) in order to achieve the objectives of this paper.

The purpose of these interviews is to gain a greater insight into the Value Management process and how there can be an improved implementation for Contractors. It is important to choose the correct questions to collect data to prepare a relevant analysis. Interviews are better for communicating as you are face to face to a person and the interviewer is responsible for getting the quality of information that is required. A disadvantage of interviews however can be arranging meetings with the suitable candidates as they may not always be available when you are. To control this, contacting the interviewees at the earliest opportunity is always recommended.

3.3 Research Methodologies Rejected

Having chosen the above methods for research it is important to note that alternative options such as questionnaires and electronic surveys were considered for potential sources of information. However, it was felt that these options would not provide the quality of response and feedback that the other methods would for this research. Questionnaires and electronic surveys would require time to fill in and most construction personnel would probably not have the time required to complete them or would simply disregard the emails or paper copies as they would feel it would be too time consuming. Another disadvantage of these research methods is that the questions could be interpreted the wrong way or the quality of answers could not be as good as asking someone in person.

CHAPTER 4

PROGRESS TO DATE & PLANNED FUTURE WORK

  • Progress to Date

At this stage, the indicative title, main aim and main objectives have been agreed. Research was undertaken throughout the summer on the topic of Value Management and the relevant materials were collected. Books, journals, case studies and website information were read and notes taken from each to form the basis for the literature review. The literature review has now been completed and also most of the information for the Date Analysis Chapter in the Final Dissertation report has been collected, such as books, journals, website information and journals. Everything required for the Dissertation Interim Report is now complete.

4.2Research Methodology

The final piece of methodology to be collected will be from interviews with Construction personnel which are still to be agreed and also the interview questions need to be created. These are both due to happen at the start of the New Year and the planned interviews should take place towards the end of January 2008 at the latest.

4.3Research Analysis and Results

Once the interviews have been conducted, an in depth analysis of the views will be undertaken, along with analysis of the information of other Construction personnel from the data collected via journals, case studies and books. This section will be undertaken from February 2008

4.4 Conclusions and Recommendations

At this stage, it will now be time to come to a conclusion and give recommendations on how to implement Value Management for Contractors. This section will be undertaken near the end of March 2008.

4.5 Structure of the Final Dissertation

Below is the structure proposed for the final Dissertation document to be submitted in April 2008.

Chapter 1 – Introduction

Chapter 1 introduces the rationale for study of the dissertation topic and the indicative title. It also determines the main aims and objectives, the research methodologies to be used and a structured breakdown of each chapter.

Chapter 2 – Value Management

Chapter 2 will focus on the background of Value Management and mainly on the key principles, techniques and advantages and disadvantages of this topic in the Construction Industry.

Chapter 3 – Value Management Workshops

Chapter 3 will focus on value management workshops in the Construction Industry and highlight the main advantages and disadvantages of this approach for Contractors.

Chapter 4 – Value Management in Previous Construction Projects

Chapter 4 will focus on case studies of previous construction projects that have used Value Management. They will be used to determine whether Value Management has been beneficial or not in the completion of the Projects.

Chapter 5 – Research Analysis and Results

Chapter 5 will analyse the information and feedback obtained from the interviews to be conducted. Chapter 5 will also compare the responses to identify the differences in opinion.

Chapter 6 – Conclusions and Recommendations

Chapter 6 will set out the conclusions that have been established with reference to previous chapter literature research and the interview feedback responses. Chapter 6 will also discuss to what extent the aim and objectives have been achieved in this research paper. The author will finally give recommendations for improved implementation of Value Management for Contractors.

References

This section provides a list of all references used for this research which are quoted within the paper and will also provide readers with the sources of views and opinions expressed as a follow-up or extended research on the topic.

Bibliography

This section will provide a list of all other references used in preparation of the paper but not directly quoted.

Appendices

The appendices section shall provide the reader with supplementary information to that provided within Chapters 1 to 5.

  • Programme of Future Work
  • Produce research questions for interviews – Start January 2008
  • Conduct research interviews – End January 2008
  • Data Analysis of interview results & other research methods – February 2008
  • Conclusions and recommendations – End of March 2008
  • Final Dissertation hand in – April 2008

LIST OF REFERENCES

Dallas, M.F. (2006) Value & Risk Management: A Guide to Best Practice

Hogg, K. (1999) Value Management: A Failing Opportunity? Nottingham, The Nottingham Trent University.

Hunter, K. & Kelly, J. (2006) Is One Day Enough? The Argue for Shorter VM/VE Studies.

Hunter, K. & Kelly, J. (2006) Value Management Workshops and Partnering Conundrums.

Kelly, J. & Male, S. (1988) A Study of Value Management and Quantity Surveying Practice

Kelly, J. (1996) Value & Risk Appraisal Lecture Notes

Kelly, J.R. & Male, S.P. & Graham, D. (2004) Value Management of Construction Projects.

Male, S. & Kelly, J. et al (1998) The Value Management Benchmark: Research Results of an International Benchmarking Study

RDT Pacific [online] http://www.rdtpacific.co.nz/services/servicesportfolio/valuemanagement.shtml Accessed on 5 October 2007

Seeley, I. (1997) Quantity Surveying Practice. Second Edition.

The Institute of Value Management [online] http://www.ivm.org.uk/vm_whatis.htm Accessed on 18 July 2007.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adam, E. (1993) Value Management: Cost Reduction Strategies for the 1990s

Dallas, M.F. (2006) Value & Risk Management: A Guide to Best Practice

Hogg, K. The Nottingham Trent University (1999) Value Management: A Failing Opportunity?

Kelly, J. & Male, S. (1988) A Study of Value Management and Quantity Surveying Practice

Male, S. & Kelly, J. & Fernie, S. & Gronqvist, M. & Bowles, G. (1998) The Value Management Benchmark: A Good Practice Framework for Clients and Practitioners

Male, S. & Kelly, J. & Fernie, S. & Gronqvist, M. & Bowles, G. (1998) The Value Management Benchmark: Research Results of an International Benchmarking Study

Seeley, I.H. (1997) Quantity Surveying Practice

The Institute of Value Management [online] http://www.ivm.org.uk/vm_whatis.htm Accessed on 18 July 2007.

 

简介
学习的理由
在整个我荣誉学位工料测量计划的第四年,我发现价值与风险评估模块非常有趣,特别是价值管理的话题。我真的从来没有遇到这个话题之前,只是听说过这个词用了几次,但真的不知道什么是参与。从事特定模块,似乎价值管理主要是用来作为一种工具来实现客户抵食。承包商工作4年半,现在,我唯一见过的价值管理上使用一个建设项目,这是我目前的基础上刚才。从我的经验,我觉得有很多价值管理承包商以及客户的优势,我想找出为什么它没有被用来在很大程度上由承包商。
指示标题
价值管理:承包商的角度来看
1.3的目的
要确定原因,为什么价值管理是不是被大大用于建造业承包商。
1.4的主要目标
为了实现上述目的,必须满足以下目标:
要确定价值管理的关键原则和要素。
要识别技术和工作做法,并确定价值管理的好处。
检查的原因,以价值管理为什么没有被广泛用于建筑业。
价值管理有关的利益或短的缺憾主要承包商的意见,批判性分析。
要提出建议,以提高实施价值管理为承包商。
第2章
文献回顾
价值管理
2.1.1A定义
“价值管理是管理的风格,特别是致力于激励人,发展技能和促进协同和创新,最大限度地提高组织的整体性能的目的。 ”
价值管理学会[在线] http://www.ivm.org.uk/vm_whatis.htm访问的2007年7月18日。
价值管理是一个团队为基础的“流程驱动”的方法。其诱因是提供“最佳全寿命性能和成本的产品,服务或项目,而不损害质量。 ”
通过使用在建筑行业的专家团队,这使得价值管理流程,以识别“设计与施工解决方案方面的功能要求客户提供最好的价值的钱”
凯利J. &男, S. (1988)的研究价值管理及工料测量实践
价值管理在建造业中起着关键的作用,不断改进和创新。
背景及概念
价值管理起源于美利坚合众国的在1940年年底,最初是用在制造业和过程。这是很快就通过在英国建造业开始由1990年的各种研究突出了“建造费用估计介于36%和45 %的储蓄客户”
凯利J. &男, S. (1988)的研究价值管理及工料测量实践
引入“价值分析”的概念在1940年由劳伦斯万里。万里,采购工程师,为换届选举工作,必须找到办法来解决原材料短缺,是由于第二次世界大战。万里试图寻找替代材料,将提供相同的功能。这被证明是有效的,因为万里发现,一种平等,如果没有更好的质量比原先建议的替代产品,他发现很多人。除了这个,他发现许多这些替代品以较低的成本。达拉斯(2006年) ,片刻后,人们意识到,不仅提供了一种方法来代替替代材料,但它是一个很好的方式来降低成本,同时仍保持了必要的功能。这一制度将涉及“价值”和“分析”的基础上开发的定义“价值分析”这万里。
“有组织的方式,以最低的成本提供了必要的功能。 ”
凯利, JR男, SP和格雷厄姆, D. (2004年)建设项目管理价值。
为了进一步加强这方面万里提供了进一步的定义:
“价值分析是一个有组织的方法来识别和消除不必要的成本。 ”
凯利, JR男, SP和格雷厄姆, D. (2004年)建设项目管理价值。
价值管理的关键原则
该研究所价值管理,价值管理的关键原则是不同的管理,因为它们包含的属性,一般都不会发现一起从其他样式:
管理风格
强调团队合作和沟通
把重点放在什么事情做,而不是它们是什么(功能的方法)
鼓励创造力和创新的气氛,
把重点放在客户的要求
定性评估的要求,能够提供可靠的选项比较
正人类动力学
团队精神 - 鼓励人们共同努力,朝着一个共同的解决方案
满意度 - 认识和给予信贷
沟通 - 改善它们之间的通信,将人们聚集在一起
培养更好的共同理解,并提供更好的群体决策支持
令人鼓舞的变化 - 挑战现状,并带来有益的变化
所有权 - 负责实施价值管理活动的成果所有权的假设
外部和内部环境的代价
外部条件 - 预先存在的条件下考虑到组织外部的经理可能有一点点影响
内部条件 - 在组织内会有现有的条件下,管理人员可能会或可能不会在能够影响
自由度 - 外部和内部条件的限制,将决定潜在结果,并应量化。
有效使用的方法和工具
手段取得成果
研究所2007年7月18日访问价值管理[在线} http://www.ivm.org.uk/vm_whatis.htm
从这里我们可以看出,价值管理带来的施工队伍一起,让他们更有效地沟通彼此,这反过来将有利于对项目的影响。项目的功能将更加专注于能够实现抵食。
价值管理方法
功能分析
功能分析是一个强大的技术在鉴定项目的主要功能要求'
西利, I. (1997)工料测量实习。第二版。
功能分析基本上是一个头脑风暴会议,与在建项目涉及所有的人,为了专注于更便宜的替代选项,虽然仍需要实现的功能是用来判断一个项目的主要需求。
FAST图
西利(1997)指出, FAST (功能分析系统技术)已经从功能分析的方法,因为它建立了一个层次功能的重要性顺序。
FAST图显示重要的功能和项目的需求主要是更有效的方式。
博尔顿(2002)指出,成功在车间的关键功能分析和始终使用快速图。
Pasquire和Mauro (2001)举诺顿和麦克利戈特(1995)建议使用FAST可提供更多的好处,在项目的早期阶段,但与其说是在建设阶段。它也强调,快图表需要调解人的经验和培训,以确保它准确地描绘了该项目的功能。另一个制约因素是完成FAST图所需的时间。
猎人, K. &凯利, J. (2006)是一天够吗?主张缩短VM / VE研究。
价值管理研讨会
价值管理工作坊是价值管理的主要技术之一。这将在第2.2章中更详细地讨论。
价值管理的好处
经过几个项目后评论与承建商及顾问公司,凯利男识别价值管理过程中的各种积极的方面。其中最显着的是:
证明,最初的设计的确是最好的
平和的心态,他的所有者接收物有所值
更高质量的产品介绍
最佳最新技术以最低的成本
明确重点项目目标
另一种观点的设计
改进的项目计划
改进现场管理结构
详细分析了一个机会,将所需的项目
凯利J.男, S. (1988)的研究价值管理及工料测量实践。
价值管理学会表示,已成功地实现BP ,英国航空,辉瑞制药,斯坦霍普和各种水上和铁路公司等客户物有所值的价值管理。这就造成了在公共部门采取价值管理技术,为了降低建设成本,达到更好的抵食。
价值管理,价值管理的重点研究所内的施工队伍,加强沟通和理解,但似乎没有把重点放在成本效益的好处;
为决策者提供了坚实的基础为他们选择更好的业务决策
改进产品和服务的外部客户清楚地了解他们的真正需求,并给予适当的优先
通过促进技术创新和组织创新增强竞争力
共同的价值文化,从而提高每个成员的理解组织的目标
改进内部沟通和组织的主要成功因素常识
同时加强沟通和发展多学科和多任务团队效率
决定可以由利益相关者的支持
研究所2007年7月18日访问价值管理[在线} http://www.ivm.org.uk/vm_whatis.htm
“迈克尔·莱瑟姆爵士的报告”团队建设“ ( 1994年)指出价值管理的好处,包括价值管理提供修建的钱的基础值提高项目的成功是至关重要的一个因素。 ”
霍格, K. (1999)价值管理:一个失败的机会?诺丁汉大学,诺丁汉特伦特大学。
价值管理仍然没有被用来在建筑行业在很大程度上尽管大量的好处。
业界采用规模更大的价值管理的表观犹豫的原因是不清楚的,因为出现价值管理的好处,得到广泛的认可和,实践继续推动在一个较高的水平。
霍格, K. (1999)价值管理:一个失败的机会?诺丁汉大学,诺丁汉特伦特大学。
价值管理研讨会
一个虚拟机车间开始之前的信息有齐聚一堂,以确定其目标和交付,因此什么形状和形式研讨会将采取。 “
男, S. &凯利J.等人(1998)的价值管理指标:客户端和从业者一个很好的实践框架
价值管理工作坊结构的
凯利( 1996年) ,详细信息在价值管理研讨会涉及的关键阶段;
价值管理研讨会的特点是由一个三阶段的过程:
的定位和诊断价值经理准备阶段,在此阶段的研究:谁将会参与这项研究,审查文件,进行面试和简报,并准备工作坊阶段的议程项目发起人和关键球员的会议。
工作坊阶段的价值问题的替代或补充意见汇集了通过结构化的基于团队的活动,促进了价值经理,并通过应用程序特定的基于团队的技术进步。提出创新的想法,发现价值标准的背景下确定,以满足功能要求。一个车间报告将包括一项行动计划,以确保价值的解决方案和选项会在后期的研讨阶段实施。
行动计划实施阶段,通过那些负责调查和实施思路。
凯利, J. (1996)的价值及风险评估讲义
国际基准研究( 1998年)确定实施阶段作为价值管理失败的关键领域之一。在这个阶段,价值管理团队已经确定,并采取了很多措施,以确保最小化的价值问题是尽可能通过各种会议和讲习班,在前面的阶段。此时实施战略将与有关各方进行讨论,如果可能的话,那些参与实施面试和行动计划中确定的车间相接近。
价值管理的介入点
价值管理研讨会有三个主要的阶段,他们都产生了大量的信息,建设各方之间的讨论,以找到替代品的方式建造的建筑物,专注于实现抵食。这些阶段下页。
战略简报
战略简报阶段涉及的项目和它的重要参数识别广泛的范围和目的。重点是确定的战略需求和欲望,并为客户的项目的作用和目的。
项目简介
项目简介将战略转为建设方面的参考资料,指定每个元素的项目,包括空间关系和细节的性能要求:
“战略的简要文件的相关部分的摘要
设计的目的。这将包括项目目标的优先次序
该网站,包括无障碍的细节和规划
的大小和配置的活动
外形规格一般及特定地区
一个成本中心的预算方面的项目,包括建设项目的所有元素
服务选项和规范的影响,例如安全,交货,访问等'
凯利, J. (1996)的价值及风险评估讲义
大纲草图设计
大纲草图设计(OSD)的车间是一个值检讨,初步计划,立面图,节,规格和成本计划的拟议建筑物使用签署了项目简介作为一个参考点。
凯利(1996)解释了什么是应该参与的OSD​​研讨会:
“作为表的设计方向
该网站的布局和访问,确定地面状况及规划限制
详细的成本计划和活动时间表
尺寸计划,立面图和剖面图
环保系统的轮廓规范
风险和风险管理策略
采购计划
项目执行计划的重要里程碑
绩效指标。
凯利, J. (1996)的价值及风险评估讲义
价值管理研讨会的好处
这是从一本杂志,它描述了从实际价值管理车间发生利益摘录:
“所有的团队成员证实其持续改进的承诺。只有三个没感觉,它一直作为研讨会的结果。该小组一致认为,有更多的选项已被队内的探讨,并都同意,作为研讨会的结果。所有团队成员的同意下的部分车间有效性的一个主要发现,车间为团队合作提供了一个良好的基础,创造平等的气氛,确保开放和频繁的交流和集中行动的参与者和实现结果。团队合作的团队成员表示,文化和通信问题研讨会之前同意,原来他们都已经解决通过便利工作坊。
猎人, K. &凯利, J. (2006)价值管理研讨会和合作伙伴的难题。
这种提取物中,我们可以看到,所有各方的利益,通过价值管理研讨会有一个很大。到VM车间也有优势,如果环境是孤立的,其中包括:
它着重球队在“项目”
妊娠期间发生的车间工艺
它承诺的团队
部分出席有碍于
确保连续性。
男, S. &凯利J.等人(1998)的价值管理基准:国际基准研究的研究结果
RDT太平洋(2007 )指出,价值管理及工作坊,还有其他的优点。
“价值管理始终如一地提供显着改善的项目:
平均资本成本节省了14% (新南威尔士州政府研究)
敬业,协同项目团队的锻造
项目简介和决定决策过程的审计
在现有的预算分配提供的附加功能
发展的一个结构化的过程中有效地移动到项目的下一个阶段,最终完成。
RDT太平洋[在线] 2007年10月5日访问http://www.rdtpacific.co.nz/services/servicesportfolio/valuemanagement.shtml
从这项研究中,我们可以看到,有一个很大的利用价值管理的建设项目所涉及的所有各方的利益。本研究报告的意图是找出为什么价值管理是不是正在使用大量的承包商,因此,这项研究将提供有益的,当它涉及到面试承包商对他们的意见价值管理研讨会。价值管理的研究分析“一章中的优点和缺点之间将作出比较,以承包商建议合适的实现这个过程。
第3章
研究方法
3.1次要方法研究
次要研究方法包括调查评估价值管理在何种程度上是用来建造业的历史文件和出版物。信息将获得从书本,杂志,网站和讲义。格拉斯哥卡里多尼亚图书馆将被用来获取书籍。 RICS (英国皇家特许测量师学会)和各种网站将被用来获取期刊和信息的价值管理。
这些方法的研究正在使用,因为它们都是现成的。约6从格拉斯哥卡里多尼亚图书馆的书籍被用于研究和大量的信息被发现,但是,用书的消极方面是信息可能不是最新的。从价值与风险评估的讲义,用于“文学评论” ,以解释价值管理的过程。他们所产生的教授约翰·凯利,无论是谁写的音符从自己的经验或从书本上摘录。发现大量的信息从互联网上的价值管理,这也被用来准备“文学评论” 。从互联网上的信息可以是日期,但缺点是,它可以是一个人的意见,可能不完全是真实的。英国皇家特许测量师学会网站,雅典和建设与建筑新闻网站上发现期刊的价值管理。有些日志信息也被带走从格拉斯哥苏格兰图书馆。期刊的优点是有很多可用的信息和人们的意见得到充分表达,这有助于确定在价值管理中存在的任何问题。
这项研究将提高作者的价值管理的认识和理解,也会给洞察关于这个问题的不同意见。
3.2研究的主要方法
本文提出的最初的主要研究方法是使用实际的建设项目的案例研究试图找出如何有利于这些项目的价值管理为。少数病例的研究中发现,用价值管理的项目,它们将被用来确定价值管理一直是项目成功与否。这项研究是有用的,因为它们可以被用来比较,也得到人们的欣赏价值管理案例。
本文提出的第二个主要的研究方法,将涉及与建造业有关人员的访谈,以价值管理在建设项目中得到他们的看法和观点。合适人选将是主要承包商谁曾与他们以前的建设项目价值管理的IVM (价值管理研究所)主席,以达到本文的目标。
这些访谈的目的是为了获得更大的洞察价值管理过程中,如何可以有一个改进的承包商实施。重要的是要选择正确的问题,收集数据,准备了相关的分析。面试是更好的一个人面对面的沟通,因为你是,和面试官负责获取所需要的信息的质量。然而,面试的缺点,可以安排与合适的人选,因为他们可能不总是可以当你的会议。要控制这一点,接触的受访者在最早的时机总是建议。
3.3研究方法拒绝
在选择了上述的方法研究后,重要的是要注意,替代方案,如问卷和电子调查被认为是潜在的信息来源。然而,有人认为,这些选项将不提供上述质量的响应和反馈等方法,将这项研究。问卷调查和电子调查将需要时间来填补,大部分施工人员可能会没有足够的时间来完成他们需要或者根本不顾电子邮件或纸质副本,因为他们会觉得那就太费时。这些研究方法的另一个缺点是走错了路的问题可以解释或答案的质量不能亲自问别人不如。
第4章
进展日期和未来工作计划
迄今取得的进展
指示标题,在这个阶段,主要目标和主要目标已同意。整个夏天价值管理的话题进行研究,并收集相关材料。图书,期刊,案例研究和读取网站信息和从每个音符的文献回顾的基础上形成的。文献综述现已完成大部分的信息在最后的论文报告的日期分析第已收集,如图书,期刊,网站信息和期刊。论文中期报告所需的一切现在已经完成。
4.2Research方法论
方法收集的最后一块将是从施工人员的访谈仍然同意,也需要创建面试问题。这些都是由于发生在新年的开始,并计划访谈,最迟应在2008年1月接近尾声。
4.3Research分析和结果
一旦已进行了采访,在深入分析的意见将进行一起分析其他施工人员从收集到的数据通过期刊,案例研究和书籍的信息。本节将进行从2008年2月
4.4结论和建议
在这个阶段,它现在将时间得出一个结论,并给予建议,就如何实施价值管理为承包商。本节将进行2008年3月接近尾声。
4.5结构的最终论文
下面是为最后的博士论文文件提交于2008年4月提出的结构。
第1章 - 简介
第1章介绍了理研究的博士论文题目和指示称号。这也决定了主要的宗旨和目标,要使用的研究方法和结构化的细分每章。
第2章 - 价值管理
第2章将重点放在价值管理的背景和主要的关键原则,技术和建造业在这个话题的优点和缺点。
第3章 - 价值管理研讨会
第3章将重点放在价值管理研讨会在建造业和突出的主要承包商的这种做法的优点和缺点。
第4章 - 上一页建设项目价值管理
第4章将重点放在以前已经使用的建设项目价值管理案例研究。他们将被用于确定是否价值管理是有益的,或在完成项目。
第5章 - 研究分析和结果
第5章将进行访谈获得的信息进行分析和反馈。第5章也将比较反应,确定不同的意见。
第6章 - 结论和建议
第6章所载的结论已经建立了与前一章文献研究和访谈的反馈响应。第6章还将讨论到什么程度本研究论文的目的和目标已经实现。笔者终于将改进实施价值管理为承包商提供建议。
参考文献
本节提供了一个列表内引述的文件,并且还将提供读者意见和表达的意见作为后续或扩展的研究课题的来源本研究使用的所有引用。
参考书目
本节将提供准备的纸张使用,但不直接引用的所有其他引用的列表。
附录
附录部分应为读者提供补充资料内提供第1章至5 。
未来工作计划
产生研究问题采访 - 2008年1月
进行调研访谈 - 2008年1月底
面试结果与其他研究方法的数据分析 - 2008年2月
结论和建议 - 2008年3月结束
最终论文手 - 2008年4月
引用列表
达拉斯, M.F. (2006年)的价值及风险管理的最佳实践指南
霍格, K. (1999)价值管理:一个失败的机会?诺丁汉大学,诺丁汉特伦特大学。
猎人, K. &凯利, J. (2006)是一天够吗?主张缩短VM / VE研究。
猎人, K. &凯利, J. (2006)价值管理研讨会和合作伙伴的难题。
凯利J. &男, S. (1988)的研究价值管理及工料测量实践
凯利, J. (1996)的价值及风险评估讲义
凯利, JR男, SP和格雷厄姆, D. (2004年)建设项目管理价值。
男, S. &凯利J.等人(1998)的价值管理基准:国际基准研究的研究结果
RDT太平洋[在线] 2007年10月5日访问http://www.rdtpacific.co.nz/services/servicesportfolio/valuemanagement.shtml
西利, I. (1997)工料测量实习。第二版。
价值管理学会[在线] http://www.ivm.org.uk/vm_whatis.htm访问的2007年7月18日。
参考书目
亚当, E. (1993)价值管理: 20世纪90年代的成本削减策略
达拉斯, M.F. (2006年)的价值及风险管理的最佳实践指南
霍格, K.诺丁汉特伦特大学(1999 )价值管理:一个失败的机会?
凯利J. &男, S. (1988)的研究价值管理及工料测量实践
男, S. &凯利J. &弗尼, S. & Gronqvist , M. &鲍尔斯, G. (1998)的价值管理指标:客户端和从业者一个很好的实践框架
男, S. &凯利J. &弗尼, S. & Gronqvist的, M. &鲍尔斯, G. (1998)的价值管理基准:国际基准研究的研究结果
西利, I.H. (1997)工料测量实践
价值管理学会[在线] http://www.ivm.org.uk/vm_whatis.htm访问的2007年7月18日。