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代写coursework,Tolerance in Various Faiths
发表日期:2013-10-05 10:46:02 | 来源:assignment.cc | 当前的位置:首页 > 代写coursework > 正文
Tolerance in Various Faiths

Tolerance as a skill and an attitude to life has become essential for the very survival of humanity. One of the fallouts of the much discussed globalization process is the demand to meet, work and live with people of totally different culture,.." ethnicity and backgrounds. How one manages this heterogeneity of cultures and lire styles is very crucial for the survival of humanity. In 1995 when UNESCO declared the year as a year of Tolerance, the purpose indeed was to bring to light the high levels of intolerance manifested all over the world. UNESCO called for education for tolerance to counter the influences that lead to fear and exclusion of others. The most significant thing about the whole exercise was the acceptance of the fact that the diversity of our world's many religions, languages, cultures and ethnicities is not a pretext for conflict, but is a treasure that enriches us aI1.(UNESCO,1995).

Just as religion and various faiths have created intolerance, they also have the resources and the fundamental insights and practices to build a tolerant world. This paper is an attempt to highlight how various faiths and religions can contribute to the building of tolerance in the world at large. It will look at the context of the discussion, various religious faiths and search for commonalities that build tolerance. Distortions also need to be identified. The argument of the paper is that the core of any religious faith promotes tolerance and hence the struggle is to keep faithful to the core of religious faiths and practices.

THE CONTEXT: A MULTI-RELIGIOUS SOCIETY

India is known for its multiplicity of religions. It is in fact the cradle of world religions. Being the birth place of many religious traditions and an eternal source of spiritual inspiration and guidance, Indian is looked upon as a source of spiritual succour. It is interesting that everyone in India, barring a very small minority officially profess a religion, though they may not be practicing it.

Table 1. India Land of Religions

Hindus

80 per cent

Muslims

14 per cent

Christian

2.4 per cent

Sikh

2 per cent

Buddhists

0.7 per cent

J ains

0.5 per cent

Others

0.4 per cent

Religion not stated

0.07 per cent

It is only a minuscule section who does not publicly affirm any religious affiliation. It is still a regular experience that people from the West flock to India looking for spiritual guidance and fulfillment.

At the same time, religious fundamentalism and consequent communal disharmony have become everyday experience too. Communal riots have become a regular feature, destroying the very peace that religion tries to build and maintain. There are claims that in three to five years there were 37,000 communal riots in the country (Hussain, 2002). The fact is that there is communal disharmony created by the fundamentalist groups in various religions and abetted by political interests. Religion by its very nature works for harmony. Can these religions regain their original inspiration for harmony and peace?

Understanding Religion

It is important to understand religion in its original meaning. Very broadly, religion is any specific system of belief about deity, often involving rituals, a code of ethics and a philosophy of life. This definition includes all of the great monotheistic religions, Eastern religions, neopagan religions, a wide range of other faith groups, spiritual paths, and ethical systems, beliefs about the existence of Gods and goddesses.(Glock and Stark,www.hewett.norfo/k.sch.uk/curric/soc/reliqion/re/1.htm)

Five core dimensions of religion

Five core dimensions of religion as listed by Glock and Stark (ibid.) are the following:

  • The belief consequence
  • The practice consequence - ritualized worship
  • The knowledge dimension - information and knowledge about the beliefs
  • The consequence dimension - affecting behaviour
  • The expectation experience - Expectations regarding and experience or through prayer.

Invariably every religious system contains these components of belief, rituals, information and knowledge, behavioural consequences and the expectations that guide the whole system. At the primordial level religions come together or are able to vibe with each other in the areas of expectations and experiences. At the belief levels, particularly the dogmatic articulations, the rituals, or the behavioural traditions, there are likely to be diversities.

A brief look at major religions

Hinduism: Hinduism is the world's third largest religion, after Christianity and Islam. It claims about 837 million followers, i.e. 13 per cent of the world's population. Geographically, it is the dominant religion in India, Nepal and among the Tamils in Sri Lanka. According to the Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches there are about 1.1 million Hindus in the U.S. A more accurate estimate may be 7, 66,000 Hindus in 2001 in the U.S. and in Canada

1,57,015. As the world's oldest organized religion, Sanathana dharma, is best known for its tolerance. It is this religion which gave enough freedom for its followers to think on its basic principles. It even accepted and accepts the valuable concepts from other religions. The Rig Veda proclaims, "Let the knowledge come from all the directions." It is this free thought and tolerance that allows the existence of many disciplines under this big tree each respecting one another.

Hinduism is also the world's largest pluralistic tradition. A multiplicity of spiritual paths and ways are recognized as valid in Hinduism. Hinduism is not based on the teachings of a single prophet or a single book. The teachings of many different sages and saints find home within Hinduism. God may be worshipped both in male and female forms. Hinduism has much in common with the earth based religious traditions ofthe world.

Buddhism has the characteristics of what would be expected in a cosmic religion for the future. It transcends a personal God, avoids dogmas and theology. It covers both the natural' and spiritual, and it is based on a religious sense aspiring from the experience of all things, natural and spiritual, as a meaningful unity. It teaches that all existence is suffering, that suffering is born of desire and that freedom from suffering, Nirvana, can be achieved by following the eightfold path that combines ethical behaviour, wisdom and mental discipline, including meditation. It has found followers in substantial number of people.

Christianity as a religion focuses on the Fatherhood of God, and brotherhood of man. Jesus and his life form the basis for Christian faith. The life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ are the means by which God saves the world. Christianity is a way of belief, worship and life characterized by love. With an estimated 2.1 billion adherents in 2001, Christianity is the world's largest religion. It is the predominant religion in Europe, the Americas, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Philippine Islands, Australia, and New Zealand and is spreading widely in Asia, China and South Korea. Though Christianity's association with the colonization of the world has given it a different face, Christianity too like other religions carries a core of tolerance and love.

Islam is a monotheistic religion which originated with the teaching of the Prophet Muhammad, a7th century Arab religious and political leader. Today, Islam is the second largest religion, and has about 1.4 billion followers, spread across the world. Islam emphasizes submission to the will of God. Etymologically it means 'peace', 'acceptance' " submission' and total surrender of one's self to God. The divine revelation was communicated to the world through Muhammad, the prophet, the final one. The Koran, the traditions, Hadith and the manner of life of Muhammad, Sunna guide the life of a Muslim. For Islam, there is no god but God, Allah and Muhammad the prophet, is the apostle.

Judaism propagates monotheism. The primordial experience of this community is the covenant election of Israel to be the bearers of this belief. Divine transcendence, God as the ground of all existence, ethical conception of God, concern for individual moral culture, universalism, election for service, and the unity of history in the purpose of God are some of the basic tenets of this ancient religion of the Jewish people. The practice of Judaism has been marked by the study and observance of the laws and commandments revealed by God and as written in the Torah, as well as those found in the Talmud. Around 14 million followers make Judaism the world's eleventh largest organized religion.

Seeking for the common and the Universal

Religions have contributed to the peace of the world, but they have also led to division, hatred, and war. Religious people have too often betrayed the high ideals they themselves have preached. Thus people have felt obliged to call for sincere acts of repentance and mutual forgiveness, both personally and collectively, to one another, to humanity in general, and to Earth and all living beings.(UNESCO, 1994)

It is true that religions can make a substantial contribution to an emerging culture of peace and harmony. "The contribution the religions can make to an emerging culture of peace and harmony is to seek out what is common, or universal in all the religions. However, discovering a universal ground upon which the various religions could relate is problematic when it is attempted at the level of belief or ideology or in the doctrinal sphere." (Teasdale, Wayne and UNESCO, 1994)

Religiosity divides, Spirituality unites

In discussing religion as an instrument of peace and harmony, one needs to make this distinction between religiosity, which only can divide, and spirituality which can unite all believers. Religiosity focuses on the differences, whereas spirituality emphasizes what is common. Spirituality provides meaning to life and reality. It reveals the significance of life, making sense of situations and helping one to derive a purpose in life. Spirituality focuses on values, beliefs, standards and ethics one must cherish. Transcendence is the quality of spirituality, inviting the believer to move beyond the experienced. Spirituality connects, with the self, others, God and nature. Spirituality is also an invitation to become, to unfold life, reflecting and experiencing, ultimately leading to an experience of who one is and how one knows. In this sense, spirituality is more primary, primordial, numinous and a religious experience, and the emphasis is decidedly on experience, not on doctrine or belief.

Points of Similarity found in dialogue between spiritualities

A close analysis of the various spiritualities reveals the following similarities which would really become a basis for building a culture of peace, harmony and tolerance

1. Experience of an ultimate reality, known by different names e.g. Allah, God, and Brahman and so on

  • Ultimate reality cannot be limited by any name or concept
  • Ultimate reality is the ground of infinite potentiality and actualization

4. Faith is opening, accepting and responding to Ultimate reality. Faith in this sense precedes every belief system

5. The potential for human wholeness- Enlightenment, Salvation, Blessedness, Nirvana etc.

6. Ultimate reality may be experienced not only through religious practices but also through nature, art, human relationships and service of others

7. As long as the human condition is experienced as separate from ultimate reality, it is subject to ignorance and illusion, weakness and suffering.

8. Disciplined practice is essential to the spiritual life; yet spiritual attainment is not the result of one's own efforts, but the result of the experience of oneness with Ultimate reality.

Similarly there are some common practices too in all spiritualities.

1. Practice of Compassion

2. Service to others

3. Practising moral precepts and virtues

4. Training in meditation technique and regularity of practice

5. Attention to diet and exercise

6. Fasting and abstinence

7. Relationship with a qualified teacher

8. Repetition of sacred words( Mantra, Japa etc) 9. Movement and dance

9. Formative Community.

It is an amazing unity. There is so much common in the religious striving of humanity, in the common search for peace, harmony and ultimate satisfaction. Whereas fundamentalist and disruptive forces will focus on the religiosity and the differences, spirituality will seek for the commonalities and the harmonious.

Agenda for the youth and Youth Animators.

The social scenario in India and the world over demands an active youth population striving for peace and tolerance. In order to build a world of peace and harmony, tolerance as a skill and an attitude must precede. Hence the youth needs to take this agenda. And in this agenda for a harmonious world, where tolerance is the hallmark of every interaction, the youth must get involved in the following agenda:

1. Facilitate a change from religiosity to spirituality.

Where there is so much of exhibitionism in religiosity, spirituality is quietly practicing peace, harmony and tolerance.

2. Confront the social and religious reality with insights from social sciences.

Much of fundamentalism is fed on rumors, stereotypes and prejudices. This can be challenged with data and insights gathered from Social Science research. When factual data and critical analysis are combined, insights follow which will make a difference to practice.

3.Promote a new culture of spiritual activism.

The society does witness substantial religious activism, the kind that divides and disrupts. A new culture of spiritual activism can and must be promoted to build a tolerant world, a world of peace and harmony. The commonalities in the spiritualities provide the basis for action.

Conclusion

There is far too much of communal disharmony in India and the world over. All of this is created by human being and much of it in the name of religion. The survival of humanity depends on the levels of tolerance that men and women are willing to develop and practice in their every day living. Religiosity has helped deepen this crisis. If communal disharmony is man made, communal harmony and tolerance also can only b e made by man. The only difference being that the latter needs to be built up as the result of a planned action towards a tolerant, just and humane society. As the paper argues, this can be facilitated by a focus on the spiritualities that unite. The youth and the youth animators can contribute to the building of a tolerant society by inculcating and training youth in healthy spirituality and by downplaying the difference creating religiosity. As UNESCO declared,

"We are aware of the world's cultural and religious diversity. Each culture represents a universe in itself and yet it is not closed. Cultures give religions their language, and religions offer ultimate meaning to each culture. Unless we recognize pluralism and respect diversity, no peace is possible. We strive for the harmony which is at the very core of peace."

References:

  • 1. Hussain Syed Shanawaz. 2002. Reported in rediffmail. com 26 April
  • 2. UNESCO. 1995. Various Papers in connection with the International Year of Tolerance
  • 3. UNESCO. 1994. Declaration on the role of religion in the promotion of a culture of peace
  • 4. Glock and Stark. Quoted in Sociology at Hewett.
  • 5. www.hewett.norfolk.scl1.uk/curric/soc/religion/reI1.htm
  • 宽容作为一种技能和一种生活态度已经成为人类的生存至关重要。其中备受讨论全球化进程中的微尘需求满足,工作和生活的人完全不同的文化,.. “种族和背景,如何管理这种异质文化和风格的里拉的生存是非常重要的人类在1995年,联合国教科文组织宣布今年一年的公差,目的的确是带来了光明的不容忍高水平表现在世界各地教科文组织呼吁容忍教育对抗的影响,导致恐惧和排斥别人对整个演习的最重要的事情是接受,我们世界的许多宗教,语言,文化和种族的多样性是不冲突的借口,但是是一个宝藏,丰富我们薏。 (教科文组织, ,1995)。
    正如宗教和创建各种信仰不容忍,他们也有资源和基本见解和做法,建立一个宽容的世界。本文试图强调不同信仰和宗教如何可以促进大型建筑在世界上的宽容。将着眼于讨论的背景下,各种宗教的信仰和搜索建立宽容的共性。扭曲也需要加以鉴别。纸张的论点是任何宗教的核心,从而促进宽容的斗争是忠心耿耿宗教的信仰和实践的核心。
    背景情况:一个多宗教的社会
    被称为印度其多重的宗教。事实上,它是在世界宗教的摇篮。许多宗教传统和精神的启示和指导一个永恒的源出生的地方,印度视作为源的精神救助。有趣的是,每个人都在印度,除非有极少数正式信奉宗教,但他们可能不练。
    表1中。印度的宗教土地
    印度教徒
    80%
    穆斯林
    14%
    基督教
    2.4%
    锡克教
    2%
    佛教徒
    0.7%
    Ĵ AINS的
    0.5%
    他人
    0.4%
    宗教没有说明
    0.07%
    这只是一个微不足道的部分,谁不公开申明任何宗教信仰。它仍然是一个定期的经验,人们从西方涌向印度寻找精神指导和履行。
    与此同时,宗教原教旨主义和随之而来的社区不和谐已成为日常生活经验。公共骚乱已经成为一项经常性的功能,破坏非常和平,宗教试图建立和维护。有说法称,在三到五年内有37000社区暴乱在该国(侯赛因,2002年) 。事实是,在各种宗教的原教旨主义团体和政治利益教唆社区不和谐。其本质的宗教和谐。这些宗教可以恢复其原有的和谐与和平的灵感吗?
    了解宗教
    重要的是要理解宗教在其本义。非常广泛,宗教是对神的信仰,任何特定的系统往往涉及礼仪,道德守则,是一种生活哲学。这个定义包括了所有伟大的一神教,东方宗教,宗教neopagan ,其他信仰团体的广泛的,精神的路径,和道德体系,信仰神和女神的存在。 (格洛克和斯塔克, www.hewett.norfo / k.sch.uk/curric/soc/reliqion/re/1.htm )
    五个核心维度的宗教
    五个核心维度宗教作为格洛克和斯塔克(同上)上市有以下几方面:
    相信后果
    这种做法的后果 - 崇拜仪式
    知识维度 - 信息和知识的信念
    其后果维度 - 影响行为
    经验的期望 - 期望及经验,或通过祈祷。
    不变的是,每一个宗教系统包含这些组件的信仰,礼仪,信息和知识,行为的后果,并引导全系统的期望。在原始宗教走到一起,或者是能够盛传与对方的期望和经验的领域。在信仰的水平,特别是关节的教条,仪式或行为的传统,也有可能是多样性的。
    主要宗教的简要回顾
    印度教:印度教是世界上第三大的宗教,基督教和伊斯兰教后。它声称约837万的追随者,即世界人口的13 % 。地理上,它是在印度,尼泊尔和斯里兰卡的泰米尔人之间的占主导地位的宗教。据美国和加拿大教会年鉴有大约110万印度教徒在美国的一个更准确的估计可能是7 , 66,000印度教徒于2001年在美国和加拿大
    1,57,015 。作为世界上最古老的宗教组织,佛法Sanathana ,最出名的是它的宽容。是宗教给予足够的自由,它的追随者认为其基本原则。它甚至可以接受,并接受从其他宗教的有价值的概念。梨俱吠陀宣称, “让来自所有方向的知识。 ”正是这种思想自由和宽容,这棵大树下彼此尊重,允许存在许多学科。
    印度教是世界上最大的多元化的传统。被确认为有效的印度教精神的多重路径和方式。印度教不是基于一个单一的先知的教导,或一本书。许多不同的先贤圣人的教诲内找到回家印度教。可能是上帝在男性和女性的形式崇拜。印度教基于宗教传统OFTHE的世界与地球共同有很多。
    佛教有什么将有望在未来的宇宙宗教的特点。它超越个人的神,避免教条和神学。它涵盖自然和精神,它是基于一个宗教意义上追求一切事物的经验,自然和精神,作为一个有意义的团结。它教导我们,所有的存在很痛苦,这种痛苦是天生的欲望和免于痛苦,涅槃后,八正道,结合道德行为,智慧和精神的纪律,包括冥想,可以实现。大量的人已发现的追随者。
    基督教作为一种宗教专注于上帝的慈爱,兄弟情谊的男人。耶稣和他的生活形成基督教信仰的基础。生命,死亡和复活的耶稣基督是上帝拯救世界的手段。基督教是一个特点是爱的信仰,崇拜和生活的方式。在2001年估计的2.1亿信徒,基督教是世界上最大的宗教。它是占主导地位的宗教,在欧洲,美洲,非洲撒哈拉以南地区,菲律宾群岛,澳大利亚和新西兰,并普遍蔓延在亚洲,中国和韩国。虽然基督教协会与世界的殖民化,给它一个不同的面貌,基督教和其他宗教一样也带有宽容和爱的核心。
    伊斯兰教是一神论宗教起源与教学的先知穆罕默德, a7th世纪阿拉伯的宗教和政治领袖。今天,伊斯兰教是第二大宗教,拥有约1.4亿追随者,在世界各地蔓延。伊斯兰教强调提交给神的旨意。词源,它意味着'和平' , '接受' “提交”和一个人的自我神总投降的神圣的启示,传达给世界通过穆罕默德,先知,最后一个“古兰经” ,传统,圣训和方式松纳引导生活的一个穆斯林。伊斯兰教,穆罕默德的生活,有没有上帝,但上帝,真主和先知穆罕默德,是使徒。
    犹太教的传播一神教。这个社会的原始经验是以色列的约选举是承载这个信念。神圣的超越,关注个人的道德文化,普遍服务,选举,和历史的统一,在神的旨意,神地面所有的存在,神的道德观念,是这个古老宗教的一些基本原理犹太人民。学习和遵守的法律和揭示了上帝的诫命,并写在诵读经文,以及那些被发现在塔木德犹太教的做法已被标记。大约有14万追随者,犹太教世界第十一大的有组织的宗教。
    寻找常见和通用的
    宗教世界和平作出了贡献,但同时也导致了分裂,仇恨和战争。宗教人往往出卖自己宣讲的崇高理想。因此,人们觉得有义务呼吁真诚悔改和相互宽恕的行为,个人和集体,彼此对人类一般,地球和所有众生。 (教科文组织, 1994年)
    这是真正的宗教,可以使一个新兴的和平与和谐文化的重大贡献。 “的宗教可以让一个新兴的和平与和谐文化的贡献是找出什么是共同的,普遍在所有的宗教。然而,发现一个普遍的地面各宗教可能涉及的问题,当尝试信仰或意识形态的水平或在教义球。 “ (蒂斯代尔,韦恩和教科文组织,1994年)
    宗教性划分,灵性团结
    在讨论宗教的和平与和谐作为一种工具,人们需要宗教,这不仅可以分化,可以团结所有信徒的灵性之间的区别。宗教性的重点上的差异, ,而灵性强调什么是常见的。灵性提供生活和现实的意义。它揭示了生命的意义,决策意识的情况下,帮助推导出一个生命的目的。灵性的重点必须珍惜的价值观,信念,准则和道德规范。超越是灵性的质量,邀请信徒超越经验丰富的移动。灵性连接,与自我,他人,神与自然。灵性也是邀请成为展现生活,反映和体验,最终导致一个是谁的经验,以及如何知道。从这个意义上说,精神是更初级,原始的,超自然和宗教的经验,强调的是断然的经验,而不是教义或信仰。
    灵性之间的对话中发现相似点
    仔细分析了各种灵性揭示了以下的相似之处,这将真正成为一个基础,为建设一个和平,和谐和宽容的文化
    1。最终现实的经验,不同的名称,例如真主,上帝,婆罗门等
    最终现实不能局限于任何名称或概念
    最终的现实是无限的潜力和现实化的地面
    4 。信仰开放,接受和响应终极现实。在这个意义上,每一个信仰体系之前信仰
    5 。人类整体性启蒙救国,幸福,涅槃等的潜力
    6 。最终可能会遇到现实不仅通过宗教习俗,但也可通过自然,艺术,人与人之间的关系和为他人服务
    7。只要人类生存条件被体验为最终现实分开,它是无知和幻想,虚弱和痛苦。
    8。纪律实践是必不可少的精神生活; ,精神文明程度是不是自己努力的结果,但最终现实的结果的统一性与经验。
    同样也有一些共同的做法太灵性。
    1。实践慈悲
    2。服务他人
    3。执业道德戒律和美德
    4 。在冥想技术培训和规律性的实践
    5 。注意饮食和锻炼
    6 。空腹和禁欲
    7。一个合格的教师的关系
    8。重复神圣的词(咒, JAPA等) , 9 。运动和舞蹈
    9。形成社区。
    这是一个了不起的团结。有如此多的共同追求人类在宗教,共同寻求和平,和谐和最终满意度。而原教旨主义的和破坏性的力量将集中在宗教的差异,灵性寻求共性与和谐的。
    青年和青年漫画家议程。
    在印度和世界各地的社会场景需要一个活跃的青年人口,追求和平与宽容。为了建立一个和平与和谐的世界,宽容作为一个技能和态度必须先。因此,青年需要采取这一议程。在这个议程的和谐世界,宽容是每一次互动的标志,青年必须涉足以下议程:
    1。推动改变从宗教灵性。
    哪里有这么多宗教暴露狂,灵性悄悄练习的和平,和谐和宽容。
    2。面对社会和宗教的现实与社会科学的见解。
    原教旨主义的大部分是美联储的传言,成见和偏见。这可以挑战从社会科学的研究收集的数据和见解。当事实数据和关键分析相结合,见解后续,会有所作为练习。
    3。有利于推进一种新的文化精神激进主义。
    社会确实见证了大量的宗教激进主义,那种划分和破坏。一种新的文化精神激进主义能够而且必须促进建立一个宽容的世界,世界的和平与和谐。在灵性的共性行动提供依据。
    结论
    有太多在印度和世界各地的社区不和谐。所有这一切都创造了人,而且许多是在宗教的名义下。人类的生存依赖于宽容,男人和女人都愿意在他们每天的生活,以培养和实践水平。宗教性加深这场危机。社区不和谐如果是人造的,社区的和谐和宽容也只能由人。唯一的区别是,后者需要建立有计划的行动,以一个宽容,公正和人道的社会的结果。本文认为,这可以促进一家专注于灵性团结。青年和青年漫画家可以促进一个宽容的社会建设的灌输和培养青少年健康灵性,淡化差异创造宗教。正如联合国教科文组织宣布,
    “我们知道世界的文化和宗教的多样性,每一种文化代表一个宇宙本身和尚未它是不封闭。文化给宗教的语言,和宗教提供每一种文化的最终意义。除非我们承认多元化,尊重多样性,否则,没有和平是可能的,我们追求的和谐,这是非常核心的和平。 “
    参考文献:
    1。侯赛因·赛义德Shanawaz 。 2002年。报道rediffmail 。 COM 4月26日
    2。联合国教科文组织。 1995年。各种论文与国际宽容年
    3。联合国教科文组织。 1994年。宗教的作用,在促进和平文化宣言“
    4 。格洛克和斯塔克。在社会学所报休伊特。
    5 。 www.hewett.norfolk.scl1.uk/curric/soc/religion/reI1.htm