QQ:41806229 点击这里在线咨询代写
网  址:http://www.assignment.cc/
代写coursework,West End Musical
发表日期:2013-10-09 08:48:16 | 来源: | 当前的位置:首页 > 代写coursework > 正文
Discuss the recent developments in the west end musical scene; this should include an analysis of the 'mega-musical' mania, the trend to create new musicals based on existing songs (song migration) and stage transfers of successful films.

From Sophocles through William Shakespeare to Eminem, writers have sought to use the rhythms of language to accentuate the story they are seeking to share. The pre-Caxton society relied on an oral tradition to deliver stories of fact and fiction. Cultures spanning the entire globe and all ages of civilization have instinctively adopted musical storytelling; it is prominent in various forms even now – be it around a camp fire, at a tribal ceremony, an inner city playground or on a West End stage.

In today's world, language and music are at our fingertips. They are both instantaneous. And they can be married in a second. Technically, music is intricate. Most writers will say the same about language. But in an inspired moment they can conjoin and express something wonderful both sonically and linguistically. The act of constructing such a moment can be the end result of many less fruitful moments – but there is always the chance that it could just happen instantaneously. Our logistical minds tell us that it just is not possible; that we would never be able to express ourselves beautifully and eloquently in musical form. And yet the compulsion to try and do so has arrested most people, even if only for a quickly aborted solitary moment. So perhaps here lies the fascination with musicals. They show 'life as we know it' happily residing in an alternate reality – where music and language are easy bed partners and everything goes to extremes. Or does it?

The West End is one of London's most popular tourist attractions. It has built its reputation, in tandem with New York's Broadway, as the commercial mecca of musical theatre. Las Vegas has the showgirls but Broadway and the West End share the showtunes. Indeed, while their identities are undeniably distinct, the relationship between them is close; same sex twins rather than identical ones. Each has their own nuances of behaviour – the younger twin Broadway hunts that bit more keenly for the next off-beat musical whirlwind; the older West End plays percentages but plays them with palpable success.

The term West End was originally coined as a geographical short cut – a way of describing a part of London synonymous with theatre. Since its inception into London vernacular the phrase 'West End' has mutated to describe something meta-geographical. While once upon a time it merely represented an actual place, now it also describes the gateway to an invented world of glitz, glamour and show. The West End may still be the home of theatre, but the kind of theatre that it houses has become very easily classifiable. The listings do not lie. And neither do they try to. The West End is a haven for small ideas done big; big names, big shows, big spectacles, big budgets, big risks.

The social and artistic significance of theatre as an art form has not suffered in the time since the West End theatres were constructed. But the immediacy of rival entertainments, chiefly television and film, has undoubtedly provided so comfortable an alternative for the borderline theatregoing public that its popularity has. Ultimately, the public's relationship with theatre has somewhat inverted itself; once the entertainment of the people, theatre has become high-brow, elitist, exclusive even. Or so we are led to believe. Every year the people entrusted with running the country's theatres are ensconced in attempts to make theatre more accessible. Nicholas Hytner at the National Theatre has incorporated a sponsorship deal with Travelex with the express purpose of enabling its shows to be available to people for as little as £10 a ticket. Theatrical output is continuing to diversify in new directions. The National Theatre still produces the time-honoured classics that will appease their traditional supporters. But they also invited outside companies including Theatre de Complicite, Improbable, Shunt and Kneehigh to co-develop their new work.

Arts Council funding dictates a certain amount of programming for in-house producing theatres throughout the country. It is impossible to equate the artistic worth of a proposed project while it exists solely as an outline on a piece of paper. But it is easier to quantify the greater social import of the same project. Therefore the involvement in various local outreach initiatives including young people's theatre and new writing programmes serves duplicate purposes. But in doing so it runs the risk of wrestling a certain amount of control from the artistic directors, or at least diluting the intent of their work.

But the West End is not really concerned with any of this. The theatres are privately owned and have little social obligation. West End theatre is a notoriously unpredictable money market. Make a big success of yourself and you can eventually buy it up – which is exactly what Andrew Lloyd Webber and Cameron Mackintosh have ended up doing. Lloyd Webber's Really Useful Group are the proprietors of twelve of the capital's larger theatres. By January 2006 Delfont Mackintosh will control another seven, and will have begun constructing the Sondheim Theatre – the first theatre to be built on Shaftesbury Avenue since 1931. The long-term plan of Delfont Mackintosh is to refurbish and modernise theatreland. But one cannot help but think that their extreme makeover will be restricted to the facilities and layout – and that the entertainment will remain as traditional as ever.

The musical-as-we-know-it grew out of the 19th Century tradition of music hall, which itself was the bastard son of drink and rowdiness. After removing the alcohol from drunken singalongs, and relocating from the pub to theatres, the 1860s saw the popularity of the newly-arrived music hall go from good idea to massively popular entertainment. The humbling beginnings of the musical cannot help but reveal the nucleus of the idea; it was born of accident – of people seeking to have pure, unadulterated entertainment. In that respect, it has no one form; no one philosophy; indeed no real sense of philosophy; no real sense of purpose other than fun, fun, fun!

As the musical was developing it was the bastion of popular music of the time. Through Gilbert and Sullivan, Irving Berlin, Bertolt Brecht and Kurt Weill and Cole Porter, the men and women behind musical were the most revered song writers at work in the Western world. Ten years into the post-war era there was a marked shift. The 'musical standards' that made dry, wry and witty observations about upper middle class were about to be trumped by rock and roll. And John Osbourne's 1956 'kitchen-sink-drama' Look Back In Anger was going to have repercussions outside the world of the well-made play.

The birth of transmittable media was only going to swell the amount of music being produced. In the early days of the wireless radio, families gathered to listen to the songs of Ivor Novello or Noel Coward. By the mid-1960s many families had television sets in their front rooms; radio broadcasts were a competitive business; and air transport links had made the world traversable for all those who could afford it. Music was a commodity that could be sent from one side of the world to the other. And in the slipstream of the music were the musicians themselves.

Through television and radio, songwriters and musicians had an identity. They became icons – the most celebrated people on the planet. And their music was nowhere near the West End stage. For the first time since their inception musicals were not using the popular music of the time. Rock'n'roll was being held in musical purgatory by traditionalists unhappy at its low-brow ideals. While cinema was running as fast and far as it could with the concept of the film musical, the stage was seeking to deliver variations on earlier themes. Elvis Presley made numerous musical films – as did The Beatles. In the 1960s the West End was awash with Broadway imports – the influence of Leonard Bernstein, Rodgers and Hammerstein, Lerner and Loewe and other transatlantic success stories was diluting the integrity of the West End as the older brother of the musical. But the psychedelic overtones of that time were to create musical anomalies; while some composers flirted with the concept of rock, others weren't afraid to dive headlong into its bottomless pit. After its anti-Vietnam stance and inclusion of group nudity caused outrage on Broadway, Hair opened in the West End in 1968. From being the chosen playground of mild-mannered conservatives, the musical was being politicised – and modernised. Within five years, the 'Age of Aquarius' had been further capitalized upon byGodspellOh Calcutta and even Jesus Christ Superstar – which proved to be the foundation on which the new dawn of the musical would be built. Today's twin Godfathers of musical composition for Broadway and the West End carry the bright torch of yesteryear; Stephen Sondheim represents his forefathers' fascination with the off-beat, with Andrew Lloyd Webber never straying from the musically conservative beat.

There are various factors that dictate the recent successes and failures in West End theatre. But the starting point for every West End production is money – a fact beautifully demonstrated by the plot of one of the West End's most popular current productions 'The Producers'. Essentially, the capitalist dawn that swallowed up free love has made currency the new leading man in musical theatre. Producers need big ideas and big songs to legislate for big budgets. So instead of trying to predict what people may like and creating a musical story around it, the West End decided to reduce the risk and simply take the music that people already like and create a story around that.

In some ways the origin of song migration is old revue style shows – popular hits belted out with no real desire to create an accompanying piece of drama or comedy. Coupled with the screen to stage success of musical films like The Lion King, a producer was now able to weigh up potential West End shows safe in the knowledge that a stable of worldwide smash hits could enable a musical to run for years, even with a bad review. Suddenly the sheer bankability of Lloyd Webber was looking like an outlandish risk alongside the music of Abba, Queen or even (the critically lauded but never supergroup status) of Madness. Negotiations are in process for the trend to continue, with Bob Marley, The Beatles and Elton John just some of the musical legends in line to have their songs shoe-horned into some money-spinning stage extravaganza that makes almost no sense at all. Not that the public really care. They want to go and sing-a-long like the pub dwellers of the 1840s that unknowingly helped begin the process of musical theatre. And who shall we choose to lead the sing-song? Well, preferably someone famous off the telly, of course.

The West End is a remarkably lucrative place. For his unscheduled stint in the opening cast run of The Producers at the end of 2004, Nathan Lane was being paid £42,000 a week for the lead role as Max Bialystock. It is a clear indication of the simple transaction between moneymen and talent; the star name guarantees the box office receipts. The West End has been flooded with stars – some of whom have no musical pedigree – because celebrity is deemed to have finally overridden talent. The good, bad and ugly (in no particular order) of recent years include David Hasselhoff, Martine McCutcheon and Denise Van Outen.

And if you don't want to spend money on star names, then you'd better be sure to have some seriously impressive stage gimmicks; Miss Saigon famously had a helicopter, Chitty Chitty Bang Bang got in to hot water when the eponymous flying car failed to take off in previews, andPhantom of the Opera has a plunging chandelier moment that will wake up anyone snoozing in the stalls. So with standard tickets averaging out at around £40, the theatregoer demands a truly amazing experience. But amazing and original are poles apart – and that's why when the formula is right, all you need to do is repeat it. There are exceptions. The Bombitty of Errorswas a rap interpretation of Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors, and was a small but perfectly-formed global success. Stomp became a phenomenon through gradual word of mouth and because it is a different kind of spectacle. Jerry Springer: The Opera began life as an idea at a scratch night at the Battersea Arts Centre and grabbed the attention of every newspaper and fundamentalist Christian in the Western World. But such shows grow from humble beginnings and are swept away on public curiosity.

As in any art form, there are people willing to take risks because they believe their work has a market. Bombay Dreams and The Far Pavilions identify a recently developed appreciation of Asian music and culture. The off-Broadway hit Batboy continues in the tradition of earlier pacesetters The Rocky Horror Picture Show and Hedwig and the Angry Inch for kitsch rock operas. But some of these are accidental intruders in the world of the West End. They weren't sure if they were really invited but came anyway.

One group that certainly were invited are blockbuster films; whether they have songs in them or not. Seemingly the films don't even have to have been that successful. The Witches of Eastwickhad a successful run in the West End. But more than likely, the film will have a readymade audience. The Full Monty was relocated to middle America from Sheffield to make it a Broadway success. Billy Elliott is well into previews, but the advance word is that it will be a significant hit. Or better still, just take a film with songs already in them – you don't stand to make as much money, but the guarantee of an audience is that much stronger. Mary Poppins has been well-received by most, and Chitty Chitty Bang Bang is in its third year.

There are currently 36 theatres in the West End of London's theatreland. As of Monday 2 May 2005, 27 are currently housing a production. 17 of those are musicals. This ratio is fairly consistent – and shows no signs of relenting. Essentially a hit West End musical needs a hook; star name, hit songs, hit movie, famous composer, popular revival. Something that can be reduced to a two-word phrase. If you haven't got any of those, then heaven help you. Because the West End public certainly won't.


从索福克勒斯通过莎士比亚阿姆,作家都试图利用语言的节奏,强调故事,他们正在寻求共享。预卡克斯顿社会依靠口头传统,提供的事实和虚构的故事。跨越整个地球的文明和所有年龄的文化本能地通过音乐讲故事,它是突出以各种形式,甚至现在 - 围绕篝火,在部落仪式,内城游乐场或西尾阶段。
在今天的世界,语言和音乐是在我们的指尖。他们都是瞬间。他们可以在第二结婚。从技术上来说,音乐是复杂的。大多数作家会说关于语言相同。但是,在一个灵感的时刻,他们可以相遇,并在声音和语言表达美妙的东西。构建这样一个时刻的行为,可最终的结果,许多卓有成效的时刻 - 但总是有机会,它可能只是瞬间发生。我们后勤的头脑告诉我们,这恰恰是不可能的,我们将永远无法精美,雄辩地表达自己的音乐形式。强制尝试这样做已经逮捕了大多数人来说,即使只为快速中止孤的时刻。因此,也许在这里与音乐剧的魅力所在。他们展示的生活,因为我们知道它快乐地居住在一个备用的现实 - 在音乐和语言都容易的床伙伴和一切都将极端。确实如此吗?
西区是伦敦最热门的旅游景点之一。它已经建立了自己的声誉,随着纽约的百老汇的音乐剧作为商业圣地。拉斯维加斯的歌舞女郎,但百老汇和西区份额的showtunes 。事实上,虽然他们的身份是无可否认的不同,它们之间的关系是密切的,同性别的双胞胎,而不是相同的。每个人都有自己的行为的细微差别 - 年轻的双胞胎百老汇狩猎该位为下一关拍的音乐旋风更敏锐的旧西区播放百分比,但播放它们可扪及的成功。
长期西区最初创造作为一个地理走捷径 - 一种描述的一部分,伦敦剧院的代名词。公司自成立以来到伦敦白话那句“西区”突变来形容的东西荟萃的地域。虽然曾几何时,它只是代表一个实际的地方,现在它也描述了网关发明世界的浮华,魅力和显示。伦敦西区(West End) ,可能仍然是家庭影院,但影院的那种,它的房子已经成为很容易归类。房源不撒谎。他们也不尝试。西区是做小点子大大牌,大展示,大眼镜,大预算,大风险的避风港。
作为一种艺术形式的社会和艺术剧院的意义已经不遭受在规定的时间构建了自伦敦西区剧院。但的直接竞争对手娱乐,主要是电视和电影,无疑提供如此舒适的的交界theatregoing市民,其受欢迎程度的替代。最终,公众的关系与戏剧有所倒本身,一旦娱乐的人,戏剧已成为达官显贵,精英,甚至独占。还是让我们被引导去相信。每年委托国家剧院的人都藏身在试图让影院更容易。尼古拉斯Hytner在国家大剧院的明确目的,使节目可少10英镑门票的人已经加入了赞助协议济。戏剧输出持续多元化发展的新方向。国家大剧院仍然经得起时间考验的经典,会安抚他们的传统支持者。但他们也邀请外部公司包括剧院Complicite ,不可能,分流和Kneehigh共同开发他们的新工作。
但西方到底是不是真的任何关注。剧院是私人拥有和有小社会责任。西区剧院是一个出了名的不可预知的货币市场。自己做了很大的成功,并最终可以购买 - 这正是安德鲁·劳埃德·韦伯和卡梅隆·麦金托什已经结束了做。 ·劳埃德·韦伯的真正好集团十二首都大剧院的老板。麦金托什2006年1月Delfont控制另外七个,并将建设桑德海姆剧院 - 第一战区Shaftesbury大道自1931年以来,建立在已经开始。长期计划的Delfont麦金托什是翻新和现代化剧院。但是人们不禁认为他们改头换面的设施和布局 - 娱乐将保持以往传统将被限制。
音乐,我们知道它的前身是19世纪传统的音乐殿堂,这本身是私生子饮料和吵闹。 19世纪60年代后除去醇醉酒耳熟能详, ,从酒馆搬迁剧院,看见新来港音乐厅的普及好主意,以广受欢迎的娱乐。震撼人心的音乐开始不能帮助,但揭示了细胞核的想法;它诞生事故 - 人寻求有纯净的,纯粹的娱乐。在这方面,有没有一种形式,没有人理念;确实没有真正意义上的哲学,没有真正意义上的目的以外的乐趣,好玩,有趣!
随着音乐的发展,这是流行音乐的时间的堡垒。通过吉尔伯特和沙利文,欧文柏林,布莱希特和库尔特威尔和科尔·波特,音乐背后的男人和女人是最崇敬的歌曲作家在西方世界的工作。十年战后时代,有一个显着的转变。 “音乐标准” ,使干燥,苦笑和诙谐的观察上层中产阶级即将被莫须有的摇滚乐。约翰·奥斯本1956年的“厨房水槽剧”愤怒地回望过去将有制作精良的戏之外的世界的反响。
通过电视和电台,词曲作者和音乐家的身份。他们成了图标 - 这个星球上最有名的人。和他们的音乐远不及西区(West End)阶段。自成立以来的第一次音乐剧,流行音乐的时间不使用。当时正在举行摇滚音乐炼狱由在低眉头理想的传统主义者的不满。虽然电影运行又快又远,因为它可以与电影音乐的概念,舞台寻求提供更早的主题上的变化。猫王众多的音乐电影 - 像披头士。在20世纪60年代伦敦西区(West End)是充斥着进口百老汇 - 伯恩斯坦,罗杰斯和汉默斯坦, Lerner和Loewe和其他跨大西洋的成功故事的影响稀释伦敦西区的音乐作为哥哥的完整性。但那个时候的迷幻色彩是创造音乐的异常,而一些作曲家调情摇滚的概念,其他人没有害怕潜水扎进无底洞。其反越战的立场,包括组裸体在百老汇引起众怒后,于1968年在伦敦西区开头发。从举止温和的保守派所选择的操场,音乐被政治化 - 现代化。五年之内, “水瓶座”的年龄已经得到了进一步的资本后,哦,加尔各答,甚至耶稣基督超级巨星 - 这被证明是音乐剧的新的曙光将建成的基础上,由GODSPELL 。今天的双胞胎教父百老汇和伦敦西区的音乐组合物携带昔日明亮的火炬,斯蒂芬·桑德海姆表示他的祖先“迷恋关闭节拍,安德鲁·劳埃德·韦伯从来没有偏离音乐保守的节拍。
有各种不同的因素,决定了最近的成功和失败在伦敦西区剧院。但每西区生产的起点就是金钱 - 精美的事实证明由西区的当下最流行的制作'生产者'之一的情节。从本质上讲,资本主义吞噬了自由恋爱的黎明已取得货币的新的音乐剧的男主角。生产者需要大思路和大歌大预算立法。因此,而不是试图预测哪些人可能喜欢它周围创建一个音乐故事,西区的决定,以减少风险,干脆把音乐,人们已经喜欢并创建一个故事围绕。
在某些方面,起源歌曲迁移是老滑稽剧式节目 - 流行歌曲轰出了创建一个随附戏剧或喜剧片没有真正的愿望。再加上屏幕阶段的成功,如“狮子王”的音乐电影,制片人是现在能够权衡潜在西区显示安全的知识,可以使音乐的全球扣球命中稳定运行多年,即使有差评。 ·劳埃德·韦伯的纯粹的银行可贴现性突然阿爸,皇后,甚至(极为称赞,但从来没有超群的状态) ,疯狂的音乐一起看起来像一个古怪的风险。谈判过程中的趋势继续下去,与鲍勃·马利,甲壳虫乐队和埃尔顿·约翰只是一些的音乐传说符合他们的歌曲到一些钱纺在舞台表演,使得几乎没有任何感觉鞋角。这并不是说公众真正关心的。他们想要去唱,一长的像19世纪40年代,在不知不觉中开始了音乐剧的过程中,酒吧居民。我们应该选择谁带领卖唱?嗯,最好有人著名的电视关闭,当然。
西区是一个非常有利可图的地方。对于他的意外进站投运行的生产商在2004年年底开幕,弥敦道里被有偿的£ 42,000每周最大比亚里斯托克方面发挥带头作用。这是一个明确的迹象显示,金融家和人才之间的简单交易;明星的名字,保证票房收入。伦敦西区(West End)已充斥着恒星 - 其中一些人有没有音乐的开山鼻祖 - ,因为名人被视为拥有终于重写人才。好的,坏的和丑陋的(没有特别的顺序)近年来包括大卫哈塞尔霍夫的Martine McCutcheon的丹尼斯·范· OUTEN 。
如果你不想把钱花在明星的名字,然后你最好确保有一些严重令人印象深刻的舞台噱头;著名的“西贡小姐”有一架直升机,奇蒂奇蒂棒棒得到热水齐名的飞行汽车未能起飞预览,魅影暴跌吊灯的时刻,将唤醒任何人想睡在摊位。戏的标准门票平均在40英镑左右,所以需要一个真正了不起的经验。但惊人的,原来是南辕北辙 - 这就是为什么当公式是对的,所有你需要做的就是重复。但也有例外。错误Bombitty是一个说唱演绎莎士比亚的喜剧错误,是小,但完全形成全球性的成功。重踏通过逐步的口碑,成为了一种现象,因为它是一种别样的奇观。杰里·斯普林格: ,歌剧开始作为一个想法生活在一个从无到有的夜晚在巴特西艺术中心,并抓住每家报纸和基督教原教旨主义在西方世界的关注。但是,这样的节目长大出身卑微和公众的好奇心被一扫而空。
任何艺术形式,还有人愿意承担风险,因为他们相信他们的工作具有一定的市场。孟买的梦想和远东展馆确定最近开发的亚洲音乐和文化欣赏。的的外百老汇命中Batboy继续早期标兵洛基恐怖秀和海德薇和愤怒英寸媚俗的摇滚歌剧的传统。但其中也不乏一些在世界上的西区(West End)的意外的入侵者。他们不知道,如果他们真的邀请,但还是来了。
当然被邀请的一组大片,他们是否有在他们的歌曲,或不。看似电影甚至没有已经成功的。东镇女巫,在伦敦西区有一个成功的运行。但更可能,该片将有一个现成的观众。全蒙蒂从谢菲尔德迁往美国中部使其百老汇的成功。比利·埃利奥特是早已进入预览, ,但事先字,这将是一个重大的打击。或者更好的是,只是把一部电影已经在他们的歌曲 - 你没有信念,使尽可能多的钱,但保证观众的更坚强。 Mary Poppins的已收到最棒棒奇蒂奇蒂是第三个年头。
目前有36个伦敦的剧院在伦敦西区剧院。截至2005年5月2日(星期一) , 27 ,目前住房生产。 17这些都是音乐剧。这个比例是相当一致的 - 并没有显示出松口的迹象。本质上是一个命中伦敦西区音乐剧需要一个钩子,明星的名字,流行歌曲,热门电影,著名作曲家,流行的复兴。的东西,可以减少到一个双字短语。如果你没有得到任何人,老天保佑你。因为西区的市民肯定不会。