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代写essay,Negotiating Parties Solution
发表日期:2013-09-18 08:56:30 | 来源:assignment.cc | 当前的位置:首页 > 代写essay > 正文
Negotiating Parties Solution

Negotiating is the process by which two or more parties with different needs and goals work to find a mutually acceptable solution to an issue. Because negotiating is an inter-personal process, each negotiating situation is different, and influenced by each party's skills, attitudes and style.

We often look at negotiating as unpleasant, because it implies conflict, but negotiating need not be characterized by bad feelings, or angry behavior. Understanding more about the negotiation process allows us to manage our negotiations with confidence increasing the chance that the outcomes will be positive for both parties.

The negotiation itself is a careful exploration of your position and the other person’s position, with the goal of finding a mutually acceptable compromise that gives you both as much of what you want as possible. People's positions are rarely as fundamentally opposed as they may initially appear - the other person may have very different goals from the ones you expect! In an ideal situation, you will find that the other person wants what you are prepared to trade, and that you are prepared to give what the other person wants.

If this is not the case and one person must give way, then it is fair for this person to try to negotiate some form of compensation for doing so. Ultimately, both sides should feel comfortable with the final solution if the agreement is to be considered win-win. If you "win" there must be a loser, and that can create more difficulty down the road. The best perspective in negotiation is to try to find a solution where both parties "win".

Only consider win-lose negotiation if you don't need to have an ongoing relationship with the other party as, having lost, they are unlikely to want to work with you again. Equally, you should expect that if they need to fulfill some part of a deal in which you have "won," they may be uncooperative and legalistic about the way they do this.

We all negotiate in our personal and professional lives. We negotiate when we go to a garage sale, or when we want to do something different at work, or when we are dealing with members of the public. Sometimes its easy to negotiate, but other times, when we have a great deal at stake or we are upset, the task can be intimidating or difficult.

Since we are trying to find a solution acceptable to both parties, we need to understand the other person's needs, and wants with respect to the issue. If we don't know what the person needs or wants, we will be unable to negotiate properly. Often, when we take the time to find out about the other person, we discover that there is no significant disagreement.

Negotiating is about finding solutions...Arguing is about trying to prove the other person wrong. We know that when negotiating turns into each party trying to prove the other one wrong, no progress gets made.Negotiation need not be confrontational.The attitude that you take in negotiation (hostile, cooperative) will set the tone for the interaction. If you are confrontational, you will have a fight on your hands.

Americans say that the most important factor in considering a job opportunity is salary. 89% of the respondents in a Job Satisfaction Survey conducted by SurveySite for CareerPath.com rated salary as being as most important when deciding whether to accept a job offer. In addition, more than 50% of the survey respondents believe they are underpaid.

Negotiating your salary is a two-way process where you and your prospective employer are each trying to get something you need. In a negotiation, you're both designing the terms of a transaction so that each of you will receive the maximum benefit from the final agreement.

It's all negotiable. Every new job - every performance review, in fact - is an opportunity to negotiate base salary, various kinds of bonuses, benefits, stock options, and other incentives that add to job satisfaction and provide financial security. The negotiation process is an opportunity to define, communicate, and achieve what you want out of your job offer. But to get offered the right job that pays what you deserve, you'll need to do your homework. The first step in the negotiation game is to understand the negotiation basics.

Negotiation requires gathering information, planning your approach, considering different alternatives and viewpoints, communicating clearly and specifically, and making decisions to reach your goal. Each party in a negotiation can fulfill specific needs and wants of the other party, a concept called "relative power." Understanding your strengths and resources; being able to respond to the needs of the other party; and knowing your competition enable you to assess your bargaining position more accurately.

For the first time, employees have access to the equivalent of a Kelley Blue Book for jobs. The availability of online compensation information has leveled the playing field between employer and employee when it comes to negotiation and job offers. Employers who are confident in their pay practices should welcome these new data sources, as they provide external validation that their compensation is competitive with the market.

Better access to data improves the quality of salary negotiations by making it possible to start on common ground. The new salary negotiation is starting to look more like this.

1. Agree on a benchmark job.

2. Agree on your proficiency and performance level.

3. Agree on the market value of the job.

4. Agree on where your salary should fall.

5. Agree on what performance is necessary for future salary increases.

Step 1. Agree on a benchmark job

You and your employer compare your job description to that of a benchmark job. Your responsibilities should be at least a 70 percent match to those of the benchmark position. Chances are, your employer has already done this. You have to make sure you know what job the company has compared yours to, and understand any discrepancies between their idea of your level and your own. For example, they might think you are at the middle level of a job (e.g., a Level II) while you think you're at a senior level (e.g., a Level III). If so, work with your boss to understand each other's reasoning and resolve the differences.

If you really are working at a higher level, you may be able to negotiate for a promotion. Or you may have advanced as far as you can in your position. If there is no path for you with the company, you may have to choose between doing the same job for a long time and moving to another company. On the other hand, if you have shown that you can handle additional responsibility and the company has room for growth, this may be your time to move up.

Step 2. Agree on your proficiency and performance level

Whether you are receiving a job offer from a company or going through your performance review, you and your employer should agree on where your performance fits in relation to the benchmark job description. If you are new to the position, for example, chances are that you already have some of the required skills but are developing others. In the new salary negotiation, your level of proficiency and performance will determine how close to the median you'll be paid.

Proficiency and performance are related, but not the same. You become proficient in a job as you acquire the relevant skills. Your level of performance is how well you do that job. Proficiency is only one component of your work that should be measured in your performance review - attitude, punctuality, teamwork, and other general skills are also taken into consideration.

If you are very good at the technical requirements of your job, but have not developed solid soft skills, your performance review is likely to reflect these deficiencies. Conversely, if you have a winning attitude and are a solid team player but aren't yet good at the specific skills required for the job, your lack of proficiency could hold you back.

Step 3. Agree on the market value of the job

You've researched the numbers, and so has your employer. Online compensation data is a good starting point for the conversation about what your job should pay.

If you have agreed on a benchmark job in Step 1, it should be relatively easy to agree on the market value for that job. Your employer is likely to have access to additional sources of data that provide a better level of detail than what is available to you. The data your company has is generally very specific to the company's compensation philosophy.

Your employer's data might show what your company and a dozen or so direct competitors are paying for the job. Depending on the industry and the region in which you work, this number could be higher or lower than your number.

If you get to the point in a salary negotiation where you and your employer are discussing the applicability of various data sources to your situation, you're doing great.

Step 4. Agree on where your salary should fall

After you and your employer have agreed what job you're doing, how well you're doing it, and what the market pays for that job, you're ready to discuss what you're worth to the company.

Let's assume for a moment that your performance is at exactly the midpoint of what is expected for someone in your job. You have shown your employer an average proficiency and average performance. You should expect to earn the approximate median for the job.

The company's pay philosophy and pay structure come into play here. Depending on the importance of your job to the company, your employer might actually pay you more than the median as part of a pay philosophy geared toward retaining people in your position.

For example, a law firm might pay its administrative assistants above the market rate, because they are critical to organizing the firm's work and maintaining relationships with clients. Or, a software company might pay its programmers above market because their skills are so scarce.

A company might pay you less than the median in base salary as part of an overall total compensation program that could be at or above market. In other words, some companies provide higher or lower pay levels to balance with their bonus plans, stock options, benefits and even intangible rewards. Still other companies might pay people in your position less than the median because your job is not as critical to the company's success as some other jobs.

The company might agree that you're worth a certain amount, but be unable to pay it. If raises really are 4 percent across the board, you have to make the case why you have earned a bigger increase. From the manager's perspective, a larger raise for you often means a smaller one for someone else. But if you agree on what you should be paid, you can start to create a path for how your employer is going to bring you there - maybe not during this review period, but over time.

After you've discussed where you should fall in the context of the company's pay philosophy and structure, you're ready to agree on a number and and start earning your new salary.

Step 5. Agree on what performance is necessary for future salary increases

Performance reviews and salary negotiations are continual processes. The last step of one salary negotiation should be the first step of the next. With this in mind, talk about your future - the next three to six months.

Now is a perfect time to set the groundwork for what specific performance objectives you need to achieve to get a larger raise or promotion in the near future. One of the major reasons people are dissatisfied with their salary increases is that the raise is less than expected and the boss doesn't have room to increase it. Setting the expectations early doesn't guarantee anything, but it does cause your boss at least mentally to "reserve" that money for you from the next raise pool.

By talking about future performance and expectations, you are jointly committing to a positive working relationship going forward. This helps end your negotiation on a positive note for both sides.

Negotiate for a win-win The data itself is neutral, but subject to a great deal of interpretation. It is a set of facts, but it is not law. You should negotiate in relation to it - and so should your employer. Demands and ultimatums based on any published data without open discussion are likely to leave everyone dissatisfied. A good negotiation is a discussion in which each party understands and respects the other's position and it ends when all parties feel their positions have been heard and their needs have been optimized within the other party's limitations.

For a negotiation to be 'win-win', both parties should feel positive about the negotiation once it's over. This helps people keep good working relationships afterwards. Displays of emotion are clearly inappropriate because they undermine the rational basis of the negotiation and because they bring a manipulative aspect to them. Despite this, emotion can be an important subject of discussion because people's emotional needs must fairly be met. If emotion is not discussed where it needs to be, then the agreement reached can be unsatisfactory and temporary.

Negotiating is a complex process but one worth mastering. Failure to consider all important aspects brings undue aggravation and frustration. My personal experience illustrates just this situation. Originally from Romania, I came to this country as part of an internship program. I ended up working for one of the best country clubs in Naples, FL. My plan was to improve my communication skills, gain as much experience as possible by working in different departments, save some money and finally get my MBA.

When one of the assistant managers left for a better opportunity, the general manager offered me the job and the possibility of being permanently employed by the club. He promised me he would sponsor my H1B visa and that was very important to me so I took the opportunity and went ahead and negotiated the salary and the benefits. We covered a lot of different aspects like regular benefits, further education, evaluations and so forth. We estimated the expenses related to my sponsorship at around $5000 so I accepted a salary that was more or less the normal pay for my position minus the $5000, which seemed fair at that time. We never signed a written contract since it was not customarily for the club to do so.

A couple of months after, the general manager himself went for a better opportunity and he wrote me a letter as proof of our verbal agreement. The gentleman that replaced him continued to offer me the support I needed with my sponsorship and I finally got my employment visa.

Everything went fine and dandy so the next year I was evaluated and offered a raise. This was the tricky part. Instead of getting a lump sum to absorb the loss in salary from the previous year, I received a percentage increase, which, applied to my base salary, barely raised my pay to the original value. Now that was frustrating… I went to my general manager and explained to him the situation, but he believed I was trying to twist his arm, so I didn’t insist at that time.

The following months I had all these mixed emotions, from feeling unappreciated to feeling like I was being used ( since my visa only allowed me to work for the club, nobody was concerned about me leaving).

I finally set an appointment with my boss and my proposal was to start a new salary negotiation from the idea of me being a new employee. I followed the 5 steps presented before and a managed to increase my base salary and have the possibility of a new raise with the new evaluations.

They say that if you accept a job that pays you $5000 less than you deserve, when you are in your twenties, you will end up losing half a million throughout your career. I am happy to have all that extra money to spend…

Reference:

Robert Bacal www.work911.com

Johanna Schlegel www.salary.com

Prof. Sungu Amargan Organizational Behavior (course)

 

谈判是两个或两个以上的当事人有不同的需求和目标的过程,工作的问题找到一个双方都能接受的解决方案。由于谈判是一个个人间的过程中,每个谈判的情况是不同的,而且每个党的技能,态度和风格的影响。
我们经常看为不愉快的谈判,因为它意味着冲突,但谈判不必特征的不良情绪,或愤怒的行为。了解更多有关的谈判进程,使我们能够管理我们的信心增加谈判的机会,结果将是积极为双方。
谈判本身是一个仔细探查您的位置和其他人的位置,找到一个双方都能接受的妥协,给你你想要什么,尽可能尽可能多的目标。人民的立场是很少从根本上反对,因为他们最初可能会出现 - 从你期望的,其他人可能有非常不同的目标!在理想情况下,你会发现,其他人想要什么你正在准备进行贸易,你准备给其他人想要什么。
如果是这样的情况并非如此,一个人必须让路,那么它是公平的,这个人尝试这样做某种形式的补偿谈判。最终,双方都应该感到舒适,最终的解决方案,如果该协议被视为双赢。如果“赢”必须是一个失败者,可以创造更多的困难在路上。在谈判的最佳视角,试图找到一个解决方案,双方都“赢” 。
只有考虑胜负谈判,如果你并不需要有一个持续的与对方的关系,失去了,他们不太想再次与您合作。同样,你应该想到,如果他们需要履行的某些部分的交易中,有“夺, ”他们可能是不合作和墨守成规的方式,他们这样做。
我们所有谈判,在我们的个人生活和职业生涯。我们谈判时,我们去一个车库出售,或当我们要在工作中做不同的东西,或者当我们处理市民。有时它容易谈判,但其他时候,当我们有一个事关重大或我们心烦,任务可以是恐吓或困难。
因为我们正试图找到一个双方都能接受的解决方案,我们需要了解对方的需求,并希望有关的问题。如果我们不知道什么样的人需要或想要的,我们将无法正确洽谈。通常情况下,当我们花时间了解其他人,我们发现,有没有明显的分歧。
谈判是找到解决办法...争论是关于试图证明其他人错了。我们知道,谈判时,轮流到每一方试图证明一个错误,没有取得任何进展得到made.Negotiation毋须态度confrontational.The你参加谈判(敌意,合作)的相互作用会定下了基调。如果你是对抗性的,你将不得不在你的手中一拼。
美国人说,在考虑就业机会的最重要因素是工资。 89 %的受访者在工作满意度调查由SurveySite进行为CareerPath.com额定工资作为决定是否接受一份工作时最重要的。此外,超过50 %的受访者认为他们的薪酬偏低。
商谈你的薪水是一个双向的过程,你和你未来的雇主均试图获得你需要的东西。在谈判中,你设计的交易条款,让你们每个人都将获得最大的好处从最终协议。
这是所有流通。每一个新的工作 - 每一个绩效考核, - 事实上是一个机会,谈判基本工资,各种奖金,福利,股票期权和其他激励措施,增加工作满意度和提供经济保障。谈判过程的定义,沟通,达到你想要你的工作提供了一个机会。但提供合适的工作,支付你应得的,你需要做的功课。在谈判游戏中的第一步是要了解谈判的基础。
谈判需要收集信息,规划方法,考虑不同的选择和观点,明确和具体的沟通,以及决策,以达到自己的目标。每一方在谈判中能满足特定的需求,并希望其他方,一个概念叫做“相对权力。 ”了解自己的长处和资源,能够应对另一方的需求,知道你的竞争对手,使您能够更准确地评估你的谈判地位。
第一次,员工获得相当于工作的凯利蓝皮书。在线补偿信息的可用性扳平雇主和雇员之间的公平竞争,当它涉及到谈判和招聘。他们有信心在他们的薪酬惯例的雇主应该欢迎这些新的数据源,因为它们提供了外部验证他们的补偿是具有市场竞争力。
更好地访问数据,提高了工资谈判的质量,使它能够开始共同点。新的工资谈判开始看起来更像是这个。
1。同意在基准工作。
2。同意你的熟练程度和性能水平。
3。同意作业的市场价值。
4 。同意你的工资应该在哪里跌倒。
5 。同意未来薪酬增加哪些性能是必要的。
步骤1 。同意在基准工作
你和你的雇主你的工作描述比较基准工作。你的责任,应至少为70%的基准位置匹配。机会是,你的雇主已经做到了这一点。你必须确保你知道什么样的工作的公司相比,你,了解他们的想法,你的水平和你自己的任何差异。例如,他们可能会认为你是处于中等水平的工作(例如, II级) ,而你认为你是在高层(例如, III级) 。如果是这样,你的老板工作,了解对方的推理和解决分歧。
如果你真的是在更高层次上工作,你可能会能够为促进谈判。或者,你可能已经先进的,只要你能在你的位置。如果你与公司不存在路径,你可能有很长一段时间,并移动到另一家公司做同样的工作之间做出选择。另一方面,如果你有,你可以处理更多的责任和公司增长空间,这可能是你的时间走高。
步骤2。同意你的熟练程度和性能水平
无论你是从公司接受一个工作机会,或通过你的表现检讨,你和你的雇主应该同意你的性能符合有关基准的职位描述。例如,如果你是新的位置,机会是你已经有一些所需的技能,但发展他人。在新的工资谈判中,你的熟练程度和性能水平将决定如何接近中位数会支付。
熟练程度和性能是相关的,但并不相同。你掌握相关的技能,在工作中成为精通。您的性能水平,以及你如何做的工作。能力是你的工作只有一个组成部分,应测量的绩效考核 - 态度,守时,团队合作,和其他一般技能,也考虑。
如果你在你的工作的技术要求都非常好,但还没有建立稳固的软技能,你的表现则可能反映了这些不足。相反,如果你有一个成功的态度,是一个坚实的团队球员,但尚未在特定工作所需的技能,你缺乏的熟练程度可以多抱你回来。
步骤3。就业市场上的价值达成一致
你研究的数字,所以有您的雇主。在线补偿数据是你的工作要谈话的一个很好的起点。
如果您同意在基准工作在步骤1中,它应该是比较容易达成一致意见,工作的市场价值。您的雇主可能有机会获得其他来源的数据,可提供更好的详细程度比提供给您的是什么。公司拥有的数据一般是非常具体的公司的薪酬理念。
你的雇主的数据可能会显示您的公司和一打左右的直接竞争对手支付工作。根据不同的行业和你的工作在哪个地区,这个数字可能会高于或低于你的电话号码。
如果你在工资谈判的角度,你和你的雇主讨论各种数据源的适用性,以您的情况,你正在做的伟大的。
步骤4。同意你的工资应该在哪里下降
当你和你的雇主已同意你做什么工作,你如何做,什么市场支付这项工作,你准备讨论你值得公司。
让我们假设一下,你的表现正好在中点的期望是什么在你的工作的人。你叫你的雇主的平均能力和平均性能。你应该期望获得近似位数的工作。
该公司的薪酬理念和薪酬结构来这里打球。根据该公司的重要性,你的工作,你的雇主可能实际支付超过中位数的薪酬理念,面向你的位置留住人才的一部分。
例如,一家律师事务所可能支付高于市场利率的行政助理,因为他们公司的组织工作和维护与客户的关系是至关重要的。或一家软件公司可能支付高于市场的程序员,因为他们的技能是如此稀少。
一个公司可能要低于基本工资的中位数作为整体补偿方案,可能是等于或高于市场的一部分。换句话说,一些企业提供的薪酬水平更高或更低,以平衡他们的奖金计划,股票期权,福利,甚至是无形的回报。还有一些公司可能会支付你的位置低于中位数的人,因为你的工作是不是作为公司成功的一些其他工作的关键。
该公司可能会同意,你是值得一定的量,但无法支付它。如果真的提高4%一刀切,你必须做出的情况下,为什么你已经获得了较大的增长。从经理人的角度来看,为您较大的提升往往意味着一个较小的为别人。但是如果你认同什么,你应该支付,你就可以开始你的雇主会为您带来 - 也许不是回顾期间如何创建一个路径,但随着时间的推移。
当你讨论,你应该下降的背景下,公司的薪酬理念和结构,你准备同意在数量和开始赢得新的工资。
步骤5。同意未来薪酬增加哪些性能是必要的
绩效考核与薪酬谈判是持续不断的过程。一个工资谈判的最后一步中,应该是下一个的第一个步骤。考虑到这一点,谈论你的未来 - 未来三到六个月。
现在是一个完美的时间设定什么具体的绩效目标,你需要实现,在不久的将来得到较大的提升或推广的基础。人们不满,他们的工资增加的重要原因之一是,提高低于预期,老板没有增加的空间。提前设定的期望并不能保证什么,但它会导致你的老板,至少在精神上“储备”你那笔钱从明年加薪池。
谈论未来表现的预期,共同实施一个积极的工作关系向前发展。这有助于结束双方谈判一个积极的。
谈判双赢的数据本身是中性的,但受了很大的解释。这是一组事实,但它不是法律。你应该在有关谈判 - 你的雇主也应该如此。要求和最后通牒的基础上不公开讨论任何公布的数据有可能离开大家的不满。一个很好的谈判,每一方理解并尊重对方的立场是一个讨论结束时,各方都觉得已经听到了他们的立场,并在对方的限制,他们的需求都得到了优化。
是'双赢'的谈判,双方都应该感到积极的谈判一旦结束。这有助于人们保持良好的工作关系之后。显示的情感显然是不合适的,因为他们破坏了合理的谈判基础,因为他们带来了操控性方面给他们。尽管这样,情感可以讨论的一个重要课题,因为必须公平地满足人们的情感需求。如果情感不讨论它需要的地方,然后达成的协议可以是令人满意的和临时的。
谈判是一个复杂的过程,但一个值得掌握。如果考虑到所有重要方面带来不必要的恶化和挫折。只是我个人的经验说明这种情况。来自罗马尼亚,我来到了这个国家作为一个实习计划的一部分。我结束了工作,在佛罗里达州的那不勒斯,俱乐部最好的国家之一。我的计划是提高我的沟通技巧,获得尽可能多的经验,在不同的部门工作,节省一些钱,终于拿到了自己的MBA 。
当一个助理经理离开,总经理给我提供了一个更好的机会被永久雇用的俱乐部工作的可能性。他答应我,他会赞助我的H-1B签证,这是对我很重要,所以我趁机说干就干,谈判工资和利益。我们涵盖了很多不同的方面,如定期福利,继续教育,评估等等。我们估计,所以我接受了我的赞助商有关的费用在5000元左右的薪水是或多或少我的位置减去正常工资5000元,这在当时似乎是公平的。我们从来没有签订书面合同,因为它不是习惯俱乐部这样做。
两三个月后,总经理亲自去了一个更好的机会,他给我写了一封信,以证明我们的口头协议。继续提供我的支持,我需要与我的赞助,取代他的绅士,我终于得到了我的工作签证。
一切都很好,很正常,所以在未来的一年里,我被评估,并提出加薪。这是最棘手的部分。除了得到一笔薪水从上年吸收损失,我收到了,适用于我的基本工资的百分比增加,我的工资,勉强提高到原来的值。现在这是令人沮丧的......我去了我的总经理,并解释说他的情况,但他相信我试图扭他的胳膊,所以我当时没有坚持。
随后的几个月里,我有所有这些复杂的情绪,感觉不受重视的感觉,就像我正在使用(因为我的签证只允许我为俱乐部工作,没有人关心我离开) 。
我终于预约我的老板,我的建议是开始一个新的想法,我作为一个新雇员的工资谈判。我跟着前5个步骤,和设法增加我的基本工资,并有一个新的提高,新的评估的可能性。
他们说,如果你接受一份工作,支付你5000美元,小于你应得的,当你在你二十多岁,你将最终失去五十万整个职业生涯。我很高兴有花额外的钱......
参考:
罗伯特阅览Bacal www.work911.com
约翰娜·施莱格尔www.salary.com
教授松古Amargan组织的行为(当然)