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代写essay,Civil Engineering Technical
发表日期:2013-09-24 08:24:38 | 来源:assignment.cc | 当前的位置:首页 > 代写essay > 正文
Civil Engineering Technical

Learning Journal

Stage 1: Understanding Me

My first degree was in Civil Engineering. I choose the field of civil engineering because I wanted to explore and study the inner details of the structure, also my academic strengths was mathematics and I enjoyed doing civil engineering as the most of the subjects was dealt with calculation and structural concepts. I like studying at the university because of the professors were very cooperative. They give me understanding that how the difficult technical data can be easily understood which really helped me a lot when I start doing my job after the degree. I gain confidence in my university time as I always feel it difficult before my degree to be confident in myself. |However, after building structural concepts in Civil engineering I wanted also to learn management skills in depth, as designing the building and running the project effectively at the site are two different fields so to cope with it I decided to take up an MSc. Construction course at Birmingham City University. While Civil Engineering has been very effective at equipping me with the technical skills of the trade, I find it both useful and practical to be able to acquire the soft skills of management to become a good manager. I feel that in taking up this course, my career horizon would be broadened since I will not be limited only to the Engineering profession. The management component of the course would help me apply it cross functionally. It shall then open new career avenues for me as a professional. Moreover, learning questionnaire results suggests that I am pragmatist type of person according to it I can solve problem in a realistic way which suits the present conditions rather then obeying fixed theories, ideas or rules. Also my MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) results suggest that I am an INTJ (Introverted Intuition with Extraverted thinking).

Stage 2: Learning from Practice

  • Technical Knowledge

The first situation which I want to share on the importance of technical knowledge was when I was assigned a new member of staff who was then tasked to handle a fairly important project even if he was new. The organisation I was working was one of the leading construction company of middle east and my role in the office was an assistant project manager. To train the new staff was quite difficult because I had to ensure that his learning curve was quite fast. If not, his project time line would be adversely affected. To be able to ably lead him, I realised that project management skills are a requisite. This necessarily meant being very familiar with the specifications of the project and be able to translate these requirements into a concrete work plan. Moreover, it is also important to be able to have the basic technical knowledge required with working within one’s industry. When the leader does not have such requisite technical knowledge, it becomes a basis for a sense of inequity among those that he leads. For example, the staff say, ‘How come he was designated to be leader of the group, when I feel that I am even better than him? In this particular case, I felt that I exercised good project management skills since we were able to accomplish what we had set out to reach during the beginning of my assignment as interim superior. However, I was of course limited by my experience. For instance, in this particular case the project that my member of staff has been assigned with was something I was already familiar with, and so I did not have a hard time handling a similar project. In the highly technical aspects of a project, I am honest enough to approach someone who is knowledgeable in that aspect, and ask questions. I am most willing to enter into a buddy up or mentoring relationship with a senior or guru in technical areas, and for this particular situation I also seek help from one of my colleague who was working with me. I took advice from him on particular matters and issues where I felt that I cannot dealt with it properly (Knowledge boundaries) and convey the information I gained from my colleague to the new staff who was under my supervision to enhance his skills.

  • Organisational Knowledge

In the middle of last year, my superior had to take an emergency leave for a substantially long period of time. This necessitated someone taking on the role in the interim. As a direct consequence of this appointment, I had to manage 3 staff who were formerly my equals. This introduced complexity in the way my colleagues and I related to each other. One factor which aggravated the situation was the fact that my superior did not have the time to endorse the role properly because of the flurry with which he had to leave. Although according to company procedures and rules the person who is leaving his post has to give proper understanding about the procedures of the company and the responsibilities he was dealing with to the new coming employee. At first, I felt overwhelmed with my new role, because this meant more responsibility. Moreover, I was very conscious of how my

colleagues would react to my appointment. Two of the three staff who then became my staff for two months were happy with the arrangement; however one member of staff had very serious motivational issues that were directly brought about by my being appointed to the new post. This man had longer tenure and thus more experience in the company compared to me; a culture of entitlement which has pervaded in the company for a long time has created a strong expectation in him of being the next in line, in terms of leadership of the team. Quite obviously, I had a tough time influencing him to follow my lead to be able to accomplish the tasks in the workplan set for the month. The feelings of anxiety, ambiguity, and pressure all built up within the team. These were clearly attested to by the behaviour of the problematic staff. He had frequent absences, did not respond appropriately when called upon, and did not follow instructions as expected. It was a nightmare! What complicated the matter more was the fact that we belonged to different cultures. This colleague was from a collectivist culture (India), and this introduced peculiarities in the way he reacted to the whole situation. I had to be able comprehend why he reacted the way he did and be able to address issues from its roots.

I felt that there was shortcoming in terms of clarifying the organisation that my superior has envisioned while he was absent. Given the circumstances that we were in at that time, there was little time for him to endorse the role formally and to orient my staff about my new role and what the expectations were from their end. Role ambiguity then resulted from the newly established organisation, causing conflict between me as an informal superior and the problematic employee who had aspirations of being promoted. Much had to be done from my end to be able to establish a sense of equity among the members of the team mainly through a thorough discussion of roles, tasks and expectations. First, I had to orient them about the situation, saying that this set-up was in fact only for the interim, until such time that my boss came back to lead our team again. Rapport building also had to be done so that even as the organisational structure was not formal in itself, I would have enough influence on them to enable me to deliver the set goals. Next, I had to call frequent meetings to be able to set clear goals. In carrying out the planning process, I ensured that each one’s objectives were specific, measurable, attainable and realistic. I also took the chance to be able to clarify the processes and procedures that we ought to follow during the 3 months that we were tasked to work together. The conflicts that I have encountered are mainly caused by personality clashes –differences in opinions and ideas that have complicated the set-up at the outset.

c.) Relationships

The third situation which focuses on relationships is one in which I had to deal with the older staff who had aspirations of being promoted (same illustration as that of Organisational Knowledge). At that time, I was assigned as a team lead for 3 months, which caused conflict between the two us. Apart from the fact that he was older in terms of both age and tenure, I have also noticed that we were very different in terms of personality and this all the more aggravated the way we dealt with each other.

The primary reasons for conflict were differences in the perceptions among the parties involved in the situation. For instance, I have an INTJ (Introverted Intuition with Extraverted thinking) profile, which precludes me from being expressive of my feelings and emotions. My staff turned out to be very vocal and confrontational about how they felt about the situation, and I felt it took a lot of effort on my end to be able to reach an equilibrium within the team. One of my weaknesses is not being too open to feedback and constructive criticism, which also did not help in establishing rapport with my staff. There was much that needed to be delivered during that period, by the team, and it did not help that my staff did not have the motivation to deliver these because of psychological and emotional hurdles. I tried my best to motivate them by matching tasks with people very prudently, considering both their strengths and weaknesses. I accorded them autonomy in doing things, and was only there on a consultative role, rather than dictating what they should do on a day-to-day basis.

When I was asked by my boss to act as a team lead for 3 months with this difficult staff in tow, I had to make sure that I gave him and the rest of my team members effective feedback without sounding too bossy or authoritative. This was important since improving work performance and providing feedback about it should be a routine part of the performance management process. Feedback should be based on observed and/or verifiable work-related behaviours, actions, statements, and results. This type of feedback is called behavioural feedback. Effective feedback helps the employee sustain good performance, to develop new skills and to improve performance when necessary.

I also ensured that each member of my team knew what I expected from him or her in terms of goals. Goals or objectives are statements of intent to achieve specific business results. I ensured that they were measurable, controllable and were directly related to such results. I realised that in setting goals or objectives, they should be specific and significant, measurable, achievable, results-oriented, time-bound, engaging, and reviewed.

Apart from this, I ensured that my team should be given constant feedback to know how well they are doing their tasks. Feedback giving also increases the effectiveness of goal setting, feedback should be provided to the employee on his progress in reaching his goal. My feedback can include verbally telling my staff how he is doing, placing a chart on a wall, or displaying a certain color of light in work pace will result in goal attainment and a different color of light when the pace is too slow to reach the goal. I also learned that feedback increases performance best when it is positive and informational rather than negative and controlling.

d.) Situation outside of organizational perspective:

In my role as a family member, there was a time when conflict arose because of lack of role clarification. In our households, we have various roles to play which may be equally important: parent, son, father, and so on. We also have tasks to deliver to be able to sufficiently perform these roles. In one instance, my sibling and I had conflict because it was not clear who would prepare a particular family activity. Both of us were busy with our respective professions/careers and nobody seemed to have the time to prepare this social activity. They expected that I will handle all the arrangements of the activity myself as I am elder in my brother and sisters. Although I was not good in arranging and managing the big party functions at home. The matter come to critical point when at the time of the party function no formal or informal arrangements have been made for the coming guests and this create embarrassment in the family and i was made responsible for this situation. In the end, we were able to resolve the conflict by thoroughly communicating about the activity, specifying who would do what and by when. I realised through this experience the criticality of effective communication, not only within the sphere of the enterprise, but even within the realm of personal relationships. Assigning job responsibilities among participants before the time of any event is important and necessary.

Wider learning and New Narrative:

Technical development. I have realised that one source of power and authority is the level of technical knowledge that one has. To be able to develop a stronger business sense, achievement orientation, and technical competence as well, I would like to have a mentoring relationship with a guru, or at least someone who is more senior than me who works in a field I am interested in pursuing. I want to learn both technical and soft competencies through this mentoring relationship. It would also be useful to attend seminars or workshops that focus on business acumen and strategy since these are among my weaknesses. I am also interested in pursuing classes that may sharpen my interpersonal relationship skills so that I may leverage more on my social networks and see things from a long term view.

Areas which I need to develop. In the end, the situation which I have discussed above in technical, organizational knowledge and relationships has been very helpful in making me realise what I need to improve in myself. I realised that first and foremost, I must be able to understand myself to be able to better relate with others. In fact, because of the experience I got during my job, I have volunteered to take the MBTI just to provide better insight on how my personality affects the way I relate to others. Based on my personal assessment and feedback from others, my strengths as a leader (at least during the time I took on the post of my boss) include leading by example and being a strategic thinker. However, I have several areas for improvement which I may further develop, including being more imaginative and creative; being mature and developing a clear and convincing vision for the future; creating a performing organisation and team and being a team player myself; extracting value from social networks; pursuing goals long term; positive framing of events and people; recognizing opportunities for absorbing uncertainty; learning from all over the world; and seeing and preserving the whole venture in a long-term prospective. I am also very good at probing attested to my high score in being an investigator. However, a weakness may be not being too open to feedback and constructive criticism. Moreover, my MBTI results suggest that I am an INTJ. This suggests that I am insightful, conceptual and creative; rational, detached and objectively critical; am likely to have a clear vision of future possibilities; apt to enjoy complex challenges; am likely to value knowledge and competence; apply high standards to themselves and others; independent; trust their own judgments and perceptions more than those of others; and usually seen by others as private, reserved and hard to know. While I may be able to work more effectively with those who have the same profile, I must be able to adapt to those who have a different preference. To make this possible, I should be able to exercise situational leadership – that is, being able to assess both the needs of my staff and the circumstances to be able to manage or lead him more effectively. Many of the areas that I need to develop are not necessarily technical but have much to do with people Finally, after experiencing this situation, I have a more staunch desire to develop my leadership potential in the upcoming years.

Everything that I will do or say as a leader will be greater than before in importance beyond all reason. Having the aim to develop and achieve objectives has geared me for success. I have enough motivation to exert all my best efforts to realise my capabilities and be able to use them in harnessing my skills. Aiming to be a leader entails a lot of effort; I should be responsible with my actions and be sympathetic with others. I should be prepared with radical changes in behaviours and become a critical thinker towards management affairs and issues. All people have their own abilities to lead, but not all are given the opportunity to lead, so, given the chance to lead I will definitely grab the chance of proving my capabilities in leading people and making a difference in future. After this experience, my belief that effective leaders are not born with the talent of knowing how to lead has been reinforced. To a certain extent, they absorb knowledge, they gain experience, they listen to and see the world around and beyond their organisation. They are also competent of providing the qualities of leadership required for particular conditions. There are various types of effective leaders and they are the transformational leader, the pragmatic leader and the charismatic leader; however these unique qualities can be mixed altogether in one person in different times and ways . I have learned that leaders can truly become transformational when they boost awareness of what is good, right, beautiful and important; when they facilitate to raise the needs of the followers in terms of self-actualisation and achievement; when they cultivate high moral maturity in followers; and when they push followers to go further than their self-interests for the benefit of their organisation, society or group. Embracing the theory of transformational leadership and having the objective of developing my leadership skills, I would like to see myself as a transformational leader, who can someday rebuild and organisation without having to enforce personality but instead appeal to people, influence them and be able to gain their respect and trust ,As a leader, I would like to develop my ability to portray a clear vision, to see a realisable goal for the team’s action and efforts of accomplishing unified goals. I would like to be someone who will trust people, who will provide their needed resources and someone who will encourage them to go forward. I know I can lead, since everyone can learn how to lead by realizing the capability of each person to respond to the call of leadership and be able to make a difference. Having the will to learn, anyone can take the challenge of leadership to another level, because leadership can be practised in all aspects of life; it is a an aptitude that I can learn to broaden my perception, set goals and have a holistic understanding of human behaviour and act in full force to be able to get to where I want to be.

Because of the serious time constraints which I have experienced, I realised that I should strive to live the time management principles that are taught by Stephen Covey to seriously develop my leadership potential. According to the third habit, a manager must be able to “put first things first” . In my line of work, I have to learn how to prioritize tasks based on sense of urgency and importance. Many times during that period, there were so many things, people and situations that easily distracted me from the task that I have at hand. I have observed this among the staff that I supervised. The phone ringing, emails, unnecessary breaks, among others. I am striving to make efficient use of my time by reducing if not totally avoiding activities that do are both not urgent and not important. These are activities that fall under Stephen Covey’s 4th quadrant. I also wish to emphasise those tasks which are important and yet are not urgent. In being able to constantly prioritise these tasks, I will not have to cram or be up in a flurry all the time. Sometimes, these activities start out as not urgent, and yet because of procrastination, they eventually turn out to be urgent. This discipline of constant work (and not cramming) is important in effective time management. I should also be able to allot sufficient time for other facets of my life, including social, spiritual, and emotional facets, which are as equally important as my work or professional life

Organizational structural development

I have realized that organizational structure change and development needs to be effectively and constantly managed to ensure the team shall be able to deliver the results expected. I feel that it is very important for a successful leader to know how to motivate his employees. Why was the transition to my leadership difficult? The difficulty actually lies in intangible factors, particularly spelling out our team’s culture. I now learn that there is both a visible and an invisible organisation. The former focuses on the easily observable components of the organisation, including its tools, processes, roles, and other components within the formal parameters of the group. Underneath these tangibles are the more influential facets which make up our culture, namely, our customers, values, beliefs, taboos, stereotypes, traditions, language, and behaviours. In effect, when transitioning into this new set-up of leadership, I had to understand all these intangibles. If this is not done, then the leadership change would have ostensibly failed because only the formal structures have been moved for the change, but not those which are practically more important.

I have seen how my staff have set goals and teams can influence work behaviour by influencing these goals. I encouraged participation in goal setting among my staff to increase commitment and acceptance of the new set-up. I also realised that individual goal setting was more effective than group goals because it is the impact of goals on intentions that is important. However, I also do realise that although participation in goal setting may increase satisfaction, it does not always lead to higher performance. As much as possible, I would strive to involve my staff in decisions that affect them and ensure that their targets are challenging enough to keep them motivated.

Due to fact that the problematic employee had a different culture, I also learned that the way in which the social environment is interpreted is strongly influenced by the cultural background of the perceiver. This implies that the attributes that are seen as characteristic or prototypical for leaders may also strongly vary in different cultures. I had to exert influence and exercise leadership with prudent consideration of the culture of the staff. Finally, knowledge on the peculiarities of motivating employees from across cultures is critical if I am to espouse a multi-cultural work setting, And I will motivate people in future by keeping a deep look at their needs, for example some people get motivated if their salary is increased and some people like that their job responsibilities increase. I want to develop further my ability to create a strong sense of equity among my employees or staff in future.

Through this experience, I realised that people choose the behaviour they believe will maximize their payoff. It states that people look at various actions and choose the one they believe is most likely to lead to the rewards they want the most. I learned that anticipation of rewards is important as well as the perceived contingency between the behaviours desired by the organisation and the desired rewards I also learned that since different people desire different rewards, I must, as superior, try to match rewards with what my staff want. On my end as an interim superior, it is important that I have a knowledge of the rewards that appeal to them so that I may match these with their attainment of objectives, and in future I will try to be more socialise among my employees so that I better know about their need and demands.

References

  • Bass, B. (1990). Bass & Stogdill's handbook of leadership: theory, research and managerial applications. New York: The Free Press.
  • Covey, S. (2000). The 7 habits of highly effective people. Running Press Publishers.
  • Hartog, D. N., House, R.. J., Hanges, P. J., et al. (1999). Culture specific and cross-culturally generalisable implicit leadership theories: Are attributes of charismatic/ transformational leadership universally endorsed? Leadership Quarterly, 10(2), 219-256.
  • Hofstede, G. (1983). Dimension of national cultures in fifty countries and three regions. In Deregowski, J.B., Dziurawiec, S, Annis, R.C. (eds.). Explications in Cross-Cultural Psychology. Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets and Zeitlinger.
  • House, R. J. (1995). Leadership in the 21st century: A speculative inquiry. In Howard, A. (ed.) The changing nature of work. San Francisco Jossey-Bass.
  • Tichy, N. M., & Devanna, M. A. (1990). The transformational leader (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.
  • Yukl, G., & Van Fleet, D. D. (1992). Theory and research on leadership in organizations. In Dunette, M. & Hough, L. M. (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 147-197). (2nd ed., Vol. 3). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting.
  • 第1阶段:了解我
    我的第一个学位是土木工程。我选择了土木工程领域的,因为我想探讨和研究内部结构的细节,也是我的学术强项是数学,我喜欢做土木工程,大多数的拍摄,处理,计算和结构概念。我喜欢在大学学习,因为教授都非常合作。他们给我理解是如何困难的技术数据可以很容易理解这真的帮了我很多,当我开始做我的工作后度。在我大学的时候我获得信心,因为我总是觉得很难我的学位前要对自己充满信心。 |然而,在土木建筑结构的概念后,我也想学习管理技巧的深入,设计建设和有效运行项目在现场是两个不同的领域,所以应付它,我决定采取硕士。伯明翰城市大学的建设历程。虽然土木工程一直非常有效的贸易与技术技能装备我,我觉得是有益而实用的是能够获得管理的软技能,成为一名优秀的经理。我觉得,在服用了这门课程,我的职业生涯视野将扩大,因为我不会仅限于工程专业。该课程的管理组件会帮我申请它穿越功能。然后,它必须打开新的职业生涯的途径,对我来说,作为一个专业。此外,学习问卷调查结果表明,我是实用主义者类型的人根据它,我可以解决问题的现实途径,是适合目前的条件,而不是服从固定的理论,思想或规则。也是我的迈尔斯 - 布里格斯类型指标( MBTI )的研究结果表明,我是一个INTJ (内向直觉与倾情思维) 。
    第2阶段:从实践中学习
    技术知识
    第一种情况,我想分享技术知识的重要性时,我被分配的新成员,谁当时负责处理相当重要的项目,即使他是新员工。我的工作是该组织中东领先的建筑公司之一,并在办公室里我的角色是一个项目经理助理。为了训练新员工主要是相当困难的,因为我必须保证他的学习曲线是相当快。如果不是这样,他的项目的时间线会受到不利影响。为了能够能带领他,我意识到,是一个必要的项目管理技能。这一定是非常熟悉该项目的规格,能够把这些需求转化为一项具体的工作计划。此外,它也是重要的是要能够有内工作工业所需的基本技术知识。当领导没有这样的必要的技术知识,成为那些他所领导之间的不公平感的基础。例如,工作人员说, “怎么会,他被指定为组长,当我觉得我什至比他更好的吗?在这种特定的情况下,我觉得我行使良好的项目管理技能,因为我们能够做到,我们已经达到在我的任务开始的中期出众。不过,我当然是由我的经验有限。例如,在这种特殊情况下,我的一名工作人员已被指派的项目是我已经熟悉的东西,所以我也没有时间处理一个类似的项目。在技术方面的一个项目,我诚实地接近别人,谁在这方面的知识,并提出问题。我最愿意进入一个好友或师徒关系的高级或技术领域的大师,对于这种特殊的情况,我也从我的同事们和我一起工作的一个寻求帮助。我把他的意见,对特定事项和问题,我觉得,我不能用它处理正常(知识边界)和传达的信息从我的同事,我获得了新的工作人员,谁是我的监督下,以提高他的技能。
    组织知识
    在去年年中,我的上司不得不采取紧急事假,基本上很长一段时间。这需要有人考虑在中期的作用。这一任命的直接后果是,我不得不管理3名工作人员,以前我等于。这引入了复杂的方式,我的同事和我的相互关系。这加剧了局势的一个因素是事实,我的上司并没有因为慌张,他不得不离开的时候正确赞同的作用。尽管按照公司的程序和规则,给予适当的了解公司的程序和处理新员工的职责,他离任的人谁是。起初,我与我的新角色感到不堪重负,因为这意味着更多的责任。此外,我非常清楚如何我
    同事们会有什么反应我的任命。谁成为我的员工两个月的两三个工作人员的安排感到满意,但一名工作人员,我被任命为新的岗位直接带来非常严重的激励问题。任期较长,从而更有经验的公司相比,我这个人有很长一段时间的文化权利已经弥漫在公司已经建立了一个强烈的期望,他是在网上下的,在领导的团队。很明显,我做了一个艰难的时间,影响他跟着我的领导是能够完成每月的工作计划中设置的任务。焦虑,歧义和压力的感情都建立在团队内部。这些被明确证实问题的工作人员的行为。他频繁外出,没有作出适当的反应时,呼吁,并没有按照指示预期。那是一场噩梦!更复杂的事实是,我们属于不同的文化。这个同事是从集体主义文化(印度) ,这推出的特殊性,在整个形势作出反应的方式,他。我必须要能够理解为什么他的反应,他的方式能够解决其根源问题。
    我觉得有缺点的在澄清组织方面,我的上司,而他所设想缺席。由于我们是在当时的情况下,很少有时间为他背书的作用,正式和我的员工我的新角色和什么期望从他们的最终定位。新成立的组织,角色模糊,然后作为一个非正式的优越,有问题的员工有被提拔的愿望使我之间的冲突。大部分从我的最终不得不进行的团队成员之间能够建立一个公平感主要是通过深入的讨论,角色,任务和期望。首先,我必须引导他们的情况,说这个设置其实只是中期,直到这样的时候,我的老板回来,再次带领我们的团队。 Rapport的建设也必须这样做,甚至自身的组织结构是不正规的,我想他们有足够的影响力,使我能够提供一套目标。接下来,我不得不调用频繁的会议,能够设定明确的目标。在开展规划过程中,我保证每个人的目标是具体的,可衡量的,可实现和现实。我也借此机会澄清,我们应该遵循3个月内,我们的任务一起工作的过程和程序。 ,我遇到的冲突,主要是由于性格不合不同的意见和想法,在一开始就已经复杂的设置。
    (三) )的关系
    第三种情况,侧重于关系是其中之一,我不得不处理与老员工有被提拔的愿望(相同的插图作为组织知识) 。当时,我被分配作为一个团队,领先3个月,这引起我们之间的冲突。除了从事实,他是年龄在年龄和任期的条款,我也注意到,我们是非常不同的个性,这更加剧了我们在处理与对方。
    冲突的首要原因是在有关各方之间的看法的情况下的差异。举例来说,我有一个INTJ (内倾与外倾思维的直觉)的个人主页上,阻止我表达我的感情和情绪。我的工作人员竟然是他们如何的情况感到非常声乐和对抗性,我觉得花了很多努力,在我结束队内的能够达到一个均衡。我的弱点之一是不是太开放的反馈和建设性的批评,这也没有帮助我的员工建立融洽。有许多事情需要在此期间,球队交付,它并没有帮助,我的工作人员并没有提供这些,因为心理和情感障碍的动机。我尽我所能,激励他们通过与人的匹配任务非常审慎考虑自己的长处和短处。我给予他们的自主权,做的事情,只是有一个咨询的角色,而不是发号施令他们应该做的一天到一天的基础上。
    当有人问我,我的老板作为团队领导这个艰难的工作人员在拖了3个月,我必须确保我给了他我的团队成员和其他有效的反馈,而不过于专横或权威。这很重要,因为提高了工作性能,并提供反馈信息的绩效管理过程中,它应该是一个日常工作的一部分。 ,应根据观察到的和/或可验证的与工作相关的行为,动作,报表,结果反馈。这种类型的反馈,被称为行为反馈。有效的反馈,帮助员工保持良好的性能,开发新的技能,并在必要时提高性能。
    我也保证我的团队的每个成员知道我从他或她的预期目标。目标或目标的陈述,意图实现具体的业务结果。我保证它们是可以衡量的,可控的,这样的结果直接相关。我意识到,在设定目标或目的,他们应该是具体和显着的,可衡量的,可实现的,以结果为导向,有时间限制的,引人入胜,并审阅。
    除了这个,我保证,我的团队应该给予持续的反馈,知道如何以及他们正在做他们的任务。反馈给目标设定也增加了效益,反馈应该向雇员提供他的进展,达到他的目标。我的反馈可以包括口头告诉我的员工,他是如何做的,墙壁上放置一个图表,或显示某些颜色的光的工作节奏时,将导致目标的实现和不同颜色的光的步伐太慢到达的目标。我还了解到,反馈提高性能最好的时候是积极的信息,而不是消极控股。
    四)情况以外的组织的角度来看:
    我作为一个家庭成员的角色,曾经有一段时间,当冲突出现了,因为缺乏角色澄清。在我们的家庭,我们有不同的角色,发挥这可能是同样重要的是:父母,儿子,父亲,等等。我们还提供,以便能够充分地执行这些角色的任务。在一个实例中,我的兄弟姐妹和我有冲突,因为它没有明确谁准备一个特殊的家庭活动。我们俩都忙于与我们各自的专业/职业,似乎没有人有足够的时间来准备这个社会活动。他们预期,我会处理所有的安排自己的活动,因为我长老,我的兄弟姐妹。我虽然不是很好的安排和管理职能在家大党。此事的关键点,在党的功能的时候,没有任何正式或非正式的安排已经为即将到来的客人,这建立在家庭中的尴尬,我是负责这种情况。在最后,我们能够解决冲突,彻底沟通活动,指定谁做什么和何时。我意识到这方面的经验,通过有效的沟通的重要性,不仅在企业领域,但即使是在个人关系领域。参与者之间的分配工作职责时间前的任何情况下,是非常重要和必要的。
    更广泛的学习和新的叙事:
    技术的发展。我已经意识到,权力和权威的来源之一是,一个有水平的技术知识。为了能够较强的商业意识,成就导向,技术能力以及发展,我想与大师有师徒关系,或至少比我高的人谁是谁的作品在我感兴趣的领域追求的目标。我想学习技术和软竞争力,通过这种师徒关系。这也将出席研讨会或工作坊,是我的弱点,因为这些业务的敏锐性和战略重点。在追求类,可能会提高我的人际关系技巧,我也有兴趣,所以,我可以利用我的社交网络,从长远的观点看东西。
    我需要发展的领域。最终,这种情况,我在上面已经讨论了在技术,组织的知识和关系一直非常有帮助,使我意识到发生了什么,我需要提高自己。我意识到,首先,我必须能够了解自己能够更好地与他人有关。事实上,因为我在我的工作中得到的经验,我已经主动采取MBTI只是为了提供更好的了解我的个性是如何影响我的方式与他人。基于我个人的评估和他人的反馈,我作为一个领导者(至少在的时候,我把我的老板后)的优势包括:以身作则,成为战略思想家。不过,我有几个需要改进的地方,我可能进一步发展,包括更富有想象力和创造性;成熟,制定一个明确和令人信服的对未来的憧憬;创建一个不良的组织和团队,我是一个团队球员,提取值社会网络;追求的目标长远,正面框架的事件和人物;吸收不确定性的机会认识来自世界各地学习,看到和维护整个企业在长期的前瞻性。我也很善于探测证明了我作为一个研究者的高分。然而,一个弱点可能不是太开放了反馈和建设性的批评。此外,我的MBTI结果表明,我是一个INTJ 。这表明我有见地,对概念和创意,理性,独立和客观的关键很可能有一个明确的目标,未来的可能性;容易享受复杂的挑战,很可能价值的知识和能力,高标准来要求自己和他人,独立,相信自己的判断和超过其他人的看法;通常看到别人私人保留,很难知道。虽然我可能能够更有效地与那些谁都有相同的外形,我必须能够适应那些人有不同的偏好。要做到这一点,我应该能够行使情境领导 - 也就是能够评估我的工作人员的需求和情况,能够更有效地管理,或导致他。很多需要发展的领域,我不一定是技术问题,而是有很多工作要做,最后,与人遇到这种情况后,我有一个更坚定的愿望,在即将到来的几年中发展自己的领导潜力。
    作为一个领导者,我将做什么或说的一切将会大于以前的重要性超越一切的原因。旨在制定和实现目标的面向我要成功。我有足够的动机,发挥我最好的努力实现我的能力,并能够使用他们在利用我的技能。旨在成为一个领导者,需要很多的努力,我应该用我的行动负责,同情与他人。我应该是准备与激进行为改变和对管理的事务和问题成为一个重要的思想家。所有的人都有自己的领导能力,但不是所有的都给予机会带领,所以,有机会带领我一定会抓住机会证明我的能力,领先的人,未来的差异。经过这方面的经验,我相信,有效的领导者不是天生的人才知道如何带领已经加强。在一定程度上,他们吸收知识,积累经验,他们听和看周围的世界,超出了他们的组织。他们也有能力提供所需的特定条件下的领导素质。有各类有效的领导人,他们是变革的领导者,务实的领导者和有魅力的领袖,然而这些独特的气质完全可以混合在一个人在不同的时间和方式。我了解到,领导人才能真正成为转型时,他们提高认识,什么是好的,正确的,美丽的和重要的,当它们促进提高的追随者的需求,自我实现和成就时,他们培养高尚的道德到期追随者的追随者,当他们推他们的组织,社会或群体的利益去进一步比一己私利。拥抱变革型领导理论,并具有自己的领导能力开发的目标,我想看到自己有朝一日能够重建和组织,而无需执行个性,而是呼吁人们,影响他们,并能够作为一个变革的领导者,获得他们的尊重和信任,我想作为一个领导者,发展自己的能力,描绘了一个清晰的视野,看到对于球队的行动,并实现统一的目标努力实现的目标。我想是有人将信任的人,他们将提供他们所需要的资源和人谁鼓励他们前进。我知道我可以领导,因为每个人都可以学习如何领导,实现每个人的能力,以响应领导的号召,并能够有所作为。有学习,任何人都可以采取领导到另一个层次的挑战,因为可以在生活的各个方面实行领导,它是一个资质,我可以学习开阔了我的看法,设定目标,并有一个全面的了解人类的行为和行为的全部力量,能够去我想。
    因为我曾经历过严重的时间限制,我意识到,我应该努力去生活的时间管理的原则,由斯蒂芬·科维教授认真地发展自己的领导潜力。根据第三个习惯,管理者必须能够“第一次就把事情第一” 。在我的工作,我要学习如何感的紧迫性和重要性的基础上优先任务。很多时候,在此期间,有这么多东西,容易分心,我的任务,我手边的人和事。我观察到这方面的工作人员,我负责。电话铃声,电子邮件,不必要的休息,等等。我努力使有效地利用我的时间的减少,如果不能完全避免活动都是不急,而不是重要的。这些是属于斯蒂芬·科维的第四象限的活动。我也想强调这是重要但不紧急的任务。能够不断地优先考虑这些任务,我不会有所有的时间填满或在一阵。有时候,这些活动开始了,不急,但因为一拖再拖,他们最终将是迫切的。这门学科的经常性工作(而不是临时抱佛脚)有效的时间管理是很重要的。我也应该能够以配发足够的时间,我的生活的其他方面,包括社会,精神和情感方面的,这是同样重要的,因为我的工作或职业生活
    组织结构的发展
    我已经意识到,组织结构的变化和发展的需要不断得到有效管理,以确保团队应能够提供预期的结果。我觉得这是非常重要的,一个成功的领导者知道如何激励自己的员工。为什么是我的领导下过渡到困难?实际上的困难在于无形的因素,特别是拼写出我们团队的文化。我现在学习,既是一种有形和无形的组织。前者侧重于容易观察到的组件的组织,包括工具,流程,角色,和其他组件的形式参数组。下面这些有形资产,从而弥补了我们的文化,即较有影响力的方面,我们的客户,价值观,信仰,禁忌,定型,传统,语言和行为。实际上,当过渡到这个新成立的领导,我必须了解所有这些无形资产。如果不这样做,那么领导的变化将有表面上没有已被移动,因为只有正式结构的变化,但不是,这实际上是更重要的。
    我已经看到我的员工如何设定目标和团队可以影响通过影响这些目标的工作行为。我鼓励我的员工之间的参与目标设定增加的承诺和接受新设置。我也意识到,比群体的目标设定个人目标是更有效的,因为它是影响目标的意图,是很重要的。不过,我也一定要明白参与目标设定,虽然可能会提高满意度,它并不总是会导致更高的性能。尽可能的,我会努力,我的员工参与影响他们的决策,并确保他们的目标是具有挑战性的,足以让他们的动机。
    由于事实上,有问题的雇员有不同的文化,我也了解到,被解释的方式,社会环境的感知者的文化背景的强烈影响。这意味着被视为典型特征或领导人的属性可能在不同的文化也强烈变化。我不得不审慎考虑文化的工作人员施加影响力和运动的领导。最后,激励员工的特殊性,从跨文化的知识是至关重要的,如果我是拥护一个多元文化的工作环境,我会激励人们在未来保持一个深深的看着他们的需求,例如有些人得到激励,如果他们工资上涨,有些人喜欢自己的工作职责增加。我想以我的能力,创建一个强有力的公平感在我的员工或员工在未来进一步发展。
    通过这些经验,我意识到,人们选择的行为,他们认为这将最大限度地提高他们的回报。它说,人们看各种行动和选择一个他们认为是最有可能导致他们最想要的回报。我了解到,预期的回报也是很重要的感知之间的应急组织所期望的行为,我也学到所需的奖励,因为不同的人的愿望不同的奖励,我必须优越,尝试匹配与我的工作人员是什么奖励想要的。在我结束作为一项临时优越,重要的是,我有一个知识,呼吁他们的回报,所以我可能匹配这些与他们实现的目标,并在未来的应酬之中,我的员工,我会尽量更我更好地了解他们的需要和要求。
    参考文献
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    霍夫斯泰德, G. (1983) 。在50个国家和3个地区民族文化的尺寸。在Deregowski , J.B., Dziurawiec , S , Annis ,R.C. (合编) 。王希恩,在跨文化心理学。荷兰Lisse :坚持Swets和前景很好很稳定。
    房子, R. J. (1995) 。在21世纪的领导:投机查询。在霍华德,答:( 1 )工作性质的变化。旧金山的乔西低音。
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    Yukl , G.,&范佛里特, D. D. (1992) 。在组织领导上的理论和研究。在Dunette , M.&霍夫, LM ( 1997 ) ,工业和组织心理学手册(第147-197 ) 。 (第2版,第3卷) 。加州帕洛阿尔托:咨询。