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代写essay,Thames Barrier Flood
发表日期:2013-09-26 13:26:33 | 来源:assignment.cc | 当前的位置:首页 > 代写essay > 正文
Thames Barrier Flood

ABSTRACT

This is a paper regarding the Thames Barrier. I am trying to present a report on Thames Barrier which is a kind of barrier on the River Thames for flood control. It was constructed between 1974 and 1984. As situated at Woolwich Reach, this barrier is considered to be a remarkable construction. After its construction it was first used defensively in 1983. After that there was no looking back. From 1983 onwards it has been used over 100 times defensively. Till March 19th, 2008 it has got no competitor in its way. Being the world's second largest movable flood barrier the Thames Barrier stands with all pride and superiority.

In this paper I am going to present some of the important things related to this great construction.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Thames Barrier located in the downstream of central London, United Kingdom. It is a magnificently well built mega-structure of the world. The purpose of this barrier is to prevent London being flooded. London in general faces seasonal high tide moving up from the sea all these exceptionally high tides are exacerbated by a storm surge. The Thames Barrier is raised for the duration of the high tide in order to prevent it from getting inside the city. As for the dealings with the low tide the Thames Barrier can be opened and as such it release water flowing down the Thames and in general circumstances backs up behind it.

The functionality of this Thames Barrier is very unique and is of great use to the people of London. It has been built across a 523 metre wide over the stretched width of the river, this barrier divides the river into four 61m and two 31m navigable spans. Along with these it also divided it into 4 smaller non-navigable channels between nine concrete piers and two abutments. Huge in structure and worth in construction, this is an amazing barrier ranking itself in the second position.

THE REPORT

INTRODUCTION

The Thames Barrier is for me a remarkable construction and with its gigantic structure it has saved London for 100 times. In this paper I am going to explore all those aspects of this barrier that has made it world’s second largest barrier. I am also trying to find out how appropriately it has been built and how worth is its construction. The roles played by the government and the engineers and the contractors are also my concern. As the paper proceeds I discover certain things that need some kind of discussion and thus the target of my paper.

The Thames Barrier took a span of ten years to get constructed. It was started in 1974 and was finished in the year 1984. Its target was to control and to limit the damages that cause by the seasonal flood of London. It is at the Woolwich Reach and from the day of its launch it has protected London from 1oos of disasters. There are of course some amounts of variations too and that is what the main objective of this paper is.

The construction is not only unique but is very innovative among its contemporaries. It is the kind of flood gates that gets across the openings in very stylish circular segments in cross section. The engineering of it is also very remarkable and the operation thus has been constructed in a very circular and rotating manner. The water gets raised by hydraulics. The raising of water causes from the horizontal sill on the riverbed and as such there is the appearance of a steel and concrete barrier to check the tidal water. This act of rising gets elongated further and the ration continues allowing underspill operations to control the upstream levels and a complete 180 degree rotation for maintenance of the water levels. The barrier makes a shield of 40mm thickness and the gates fill with water when submerged. It then let it go empty as the water emerges from the river in a huge tidal form. The construction id full proof as there are additional four central gated of 61 mtrs long and 10.5 mtrs high; along with two outer gates that are of 31.5mtrs. There are four radial gates of 31,5mtrs long by the riverbanks and are flexible enough to be lowered down. These gates are left opening for the ships and at the same time can be rotated and closed to stop water travelling towards London.

There is no doubt to the fact that this barrier is a very strong step towards the protection of the city from flood.

TECHNICAL UNCERTAINITIES AND INNOVATION

It was Charles Draper who came up with the idea of rotating gates and that is the factor that differentiated Thames Barrier from other contemporary constructions.

The trio of Rendel, Palmer and Tritton were the actual engineers behind the construction of this particular unique barrier. The selection of the site was also very important and as such it was decided that Woolwich will be the most suitable site as it is the relative straightness of the banks. It was also discovered that in this site the underlying river chalk will act as a strong support the barrier. The construction was initiated by Costain/Hollandsche Beton Maatschappij/Tarmac Construction consortium.

The strategically structured things related to the flood defences were made for 11 miles down river and all these equipments were properly raised and strengthened. The amount that was invested in this whole construction was around £534 million (at 2001 prices). Added to this budget was the additional £100 million investment was done specifically for the purpose of river defences. The target was for a span of 1000 years. This was undoubtedly a long term thought and investment. There was a clear understanding of land and water before these declarations are made.

All these assessments now seem very irrelevant as the estimations are failing as per the predictions. The main reasons behind these diversifications are the increasing factors of global warming and the simultaneous rise of the sea level. The barrier was made in order to cope with the projected sea level that will continuously keep on rising till 2030–2050. Not only these are the possibilities, but there are the suspicions that whether the barrier will be able to complete its promised term.

The technical aspects came into being when there was a high tides forecast in the North Sea. The threat was developed more with the declaration that the high river flows at the tidal limit at Teddington weir is the scientifically proven indicator for the measurement of the water levels that was supposed to exceed 4.87 m in central London. The re was the creation and opening of this estuary from the Teddington. At low tide it is a successful effort that can make greater flow rates. With this increase in the rate of flow the further one goes downstream. In the time of upstream flows there gets the act of creating great reservoirs protecting the flood water from rolling down to the city.

POLITICS

The political roles as has been played are very dramatic and worth all discussion. It was in 2005, that there came up a very interesting suggestion that to supersede the Thames Barrier. The target was huge and there was the application for a 16 km (10 mi) long barrier across the Thames Estuary. It was a very long extension from Sheerness in Kent to Southend in Essex was. After the completion of this the whole got exposed to the public for wider speculations and popularity. The political agreements came into being after the disastrous flood of February 1953, when the sea level was raised by 2 metres at Southend.

The disastrous flood covered an area of 64,750 hectares 24,000 houses, and a major set back came into being with 200 major industrial premises, along with a number of 320 kilo-metres of railway. The affects were tremendous over twelve gasworks and two electric power stations that resulted in a heavy loss to the state as a whole. Depressingly enough there were almost 300 people drowned as well as much livestock. The estimations were done about the higher water levels that were supposed to reach 1 in 50 in a year. All these disastrous aspects and the upcoming threats made the governor get more concerned about the consequences. There came up a much stronger political pressure over the government. As such it appointed a departmental committee, the Waverley Committee, to examine the upcoming threats and the relevant solutions to them. As per the report submitted by the committee in 1954, the implementation of a barrier needs to be examined and has to be applied. Initially various sites were suggested, but finally it was Woolwich Reach. As the construction proceeded there came up a serious concern from the Port of London Authority. According to this concern there will be a single unobstructed opening of not less than 1,400 feet in the barrier that was supposed to be constructed. This was a very turning point towards the added complications of the designing strategies. However in 1965, there came up another high surge tide and this time the Waverley Committee recommendation had got nowhere and the whole importance lied on the construction of the barrier as soon as possible.

COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT

There were heavy sufferances towards the outbreak of these seasonal floods. The more precautions are taken, the quicker the water runs into the sewers and then the rivers, and the faster they rise. The area most affected last summer was Severn Trent. It has been estimated that up to ‘4% of the land in its region is converted to hard surfaces each year’. The floodwater runs off land faster than ever with fewer places to go. There are these assessments made about the queries that whether this critical infrastructure sites have adequate defences. There are many questions coming up towards the success of this particular Thames Barrier. The floods in England are devastating and how far is it possible to make the Thames Barrier secured for the purpose is still a question.

According to the inspections made by the BBC, the flood alerts as has been applied in England and Netherlands are not much effective and fears of storm-driven tidal surges have not materialised. According t the latest assessments and findings these alerts however are saving much life than 1953. It was in that year about 2,000 people in the two countries faced the devastating affects of the flood. In 1953, in a span of a night thousands of people were evacuated in England and surge barriers closed at the Dutch port of Rotterdam. The rush was heavy and the losses were severe. There were great losses faced by England. In Germany and Denmark, several oil platforms were closed off the Norwegian coast and gales are forecast.

These types of scenarios were like lifelong threats to the people of Britain. As a solution to this there was no other option than the application and dependence over the Thames Barrier. The role as has been played by the government way very vital. The only solution that the government could initiate with is the barrier. It was regarded as the' modern solution'. It was a joint assessment as has been made by the government and the Greater London Council. A barrier was closed without any possibility of failure which was again much supported by public in general. However the acceptability was not granted by the Hydraulic Research Station assessment. As for them it is very complicate business and will not succeed. Against all the opposition the Thames Barrier still stands very firm and is protecting London with all its efforts.

There came up this Barrier Act that holds the responsibility for the barrier within the government. It was thus was readily accepted by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF). As it was more concerned about the flooding upon the farming section the approval was due. As consequence to this there was a government grant of 75 per cent that was obtained under MAFF. Added to this was the contribution made by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, the alternative possibility, would have had difficulty in allocating a grant for anything over 40 per cent of the project budget.

If the flood in London gets neglected than there are the possibility of thousands of homes, shops, factories, businesses and buildings would be affected. The monetary and financial set backs are sure to happen. If all these get activated than there could be such instances that will make London take moths in functioning again. The financial cost of a major flood could be enormous, possibly topping £30,000m without counting the cost in human suffering and potential loss of life.

SCHEDULE DURATION AND URGENCY

After 1953, there were regular assessment being made in order to check the timing and the particular season for the tidal affects. In accordance to the declarations made there were proper evacuations and proper resettlements of the community. The role as played by Thames Barrier here is that it is the protecting shield for the same and there is no such way to make London safer. This barrier needs regular maintenance and that has been well bestowed.

Global warming is the main cause behind all these disasters. Even the Thames Barrier which was supposed to stand or 1000 years is hardly going to meet the deadline. The drastic change in the climate has made things tougher. People are more concerned about the threats and their property than anything else. These are many agencies and corporations who are working for the same. According to the assessment as forwarded by the UK Environment Agency; there supposed to have "extreme danger to life and property" if the Thames Barrier is not maintained well enough.

FINANCIAL, LEGAL AND CONTRACTUAL MATTERS

The financial cost of a major flood has got the topping of an estimated amount of£30,000m without counting the cost in human suffering. This also excludes the potential losses that had happened. The solution was towards the construction of the Thames Barrier. It was a huge construction and as such was very keenly associated with the works of highly sophisticated engineering. As per the estimations the final cost of the flood defences within the Environment Agency's Thames Region was approximately £535 million. From the contributions of the taxpayers the expenditure was met by 75% of the approved costs and ratepayers were responsible for the remainder.

As undertaken by GLC Department of Public Health Engineering the programme got multifaceted exposure and support from all squares of the population. There were these trio of consultant engineers Rendel,Palmer and Tritton who were in charge of the whole responsibility. All expenditure on which grant aid was claimed was subject to a further detailed check by the engineers and accountants of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. As a condition of grant aid, all variations over £50,000 had to have prior approval by the ministry.

There was an estimation that states that over 80 staff operate and maintain the Barrier and the associated flood defences. The declarations for any threat could be made before 36 hours in advance and as such the evacuation can happen. However the risks are less due to the Thames Barrier and as such there was hardly any matter to get the threat.

The tidal flood risk to London must be seen in the context of the whole estuary or else the Thames Barrier will be a result of heavier investment losses. The tidal Thames seems to be higher than the Thames Barrier and as such the re needs to be some assumptions made over the sustainability of the Barrier. As when it comes to the planning for the future there comes up the negotiation between the Environment Agency, government, local authorities, environmental organisations and others. The objective that all these organisational units hold is to provide long term-answers on flood risk management in the greater Thames Estuary.

A severe flood in London most of the time affects the central part of the London. The causes are devastating and the damages were made by the river. The attention should also be given to the fresh water and sewer systems and needs to mend them for the disrupt power, gas, telephone and vital data services. This results n heavy financial losses and as such there are many things that needs to be given extra attentions.

CONCLUSION

Sir Hermann Bondi, an eminent mathematician, astronomer and government scientist made a revision over the flood threat in 1966. According to the assessment as forwarded by Professor Bondi, there will be a serious flood in London. He further added that this flood would be

'A disaster of [a] singular and immense kind' and that it must not be allowed, particularly since the ability to prevent it existed’.

His idea was for the application of a containerisation that was supposed to be reduced the traffic to the Port of London dramatically. This idea was however not accepted and there came up this mega-structure for the proper and specific measures for the protection of flood. The political awareness led the UK Environment Agency to make the futuristic assessments towards the upcoming threats of the flood in London. According to their assessments, there is sure to be an encounter with an "extreme danger to life and property". The areas that it specifies are the parts of Norfolk, Suffolk, Kent and Essex. Not only that the UK Environment Agency had issued eight severe flood alerts for the precautionary measures to happen. Added to these alerts there were the declarations made by the Met Office. It announced there is this tremendous gust of up to 145km/h (90mph) that covered the areas of Orkney and Shetland Islands in Scotland.

As a result there was a sufferance of around 500 people. All these people were compelled to spend the night at refuge centres set up at local schools and on the upper floors of their houses. The government was having great concern towards it and the sufferance had no other solution than the Thames Barrier.

REFERENCES

Environment Agency, n.d., http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/regions/thames/323150/335688/341764/341785/?version=1&lang=_e [retrieved on 17.06.08]

Reliability of the Thames Barrier, n.d., http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=0AU5Ics8LL8C&pg=PA208&dq=bondi+h+1967+thames+barrier&ei=sfs4SLGGIpyUywTI_5XqDw&sig=2eF6CA7we7I5swksvsQVWuPxJUU#PPA199,M1 [retrieved on 17.06.08]

Thames Barrier, n.d., http://www.jasa.net.au/london/thames.htm [retrieved on 17.06.08]

The penalties of ignoring the risks, n.d., http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/regions/thames/323150/335688/341764/341770/?lang=_e[retrieved on 17.06.08]

RECOMMENDATIONS

London By Sarah Johnstone, Tom Masters, Published 2006, Lonely Planet,London (England),ISBN:1740598318

 

摘要
这是一篇关于泰晤士河水闸。我想提出一份报告,在泰晤士水闸这是一种泰晤士河上的防洪屏障。它是在1974年和1984年之间建造的。坐落在Woolwich官方,这一障碍被认为是一个了不起的建筑。施工后,这是第一次在1983年用来防守的。之后,有没有回头。从1983年起,它已被用于超过100次防守。截止到2008年3月19日,它已经在它的途中有没有竞争对手。作为世界第二大的移动防洪屏障泰晤士河水闸代表所有的骄傲和优越感。
在本文中,我将介绍一些重要的事情涉及到这个伟大的建筑。
内容提要
泰晤士水闸下游位于伦敦市中心,英国。这是一个辉煌精心打造的大型的世界结构。这道屏障的目的是为了防止伦敦被淹没。伦敦普遍面临季节性的高潮,所有这些异常高的潮汐都加剧了风暴潮从海上移动。泰晤士水闸引发高潮的持续时间,以防止它进入城市里面。至于买卖低潮泰晤士河水闸被打开,因此,它释放流下来的水,泰晤士,在一般情况下,它背后备份。
泰晤士水闸的功能,这是非常独特的,是伟大的伦敦人。已建成跨越523米,宽在拉伸宽度的河流,这道屏障的河流分割成四个61米两个31米的通航孔。除了这些,它也把它分成较小的非九个混凝土桥墩和两个桥墩之间的航道。巨大的建筑结构和价值,这是一个令人惊异的阻挡顺序在第二位置。
报告
简介
泰晤士河水闸对我来说是一个了不起的建筑,其巨大的结构,它已保存伦敦的100倍。在本文中,我将探讨所有这些方面取得了世界第二大的障碍,这个障碍。我也试图找出如何适当地已建成,它的建设是多么值得。由政府和工程师和承包商的角色也是我所关注的。作为纸张进行,我发现某些事情需要讨论和某种因此我的论文的目标。
的泰晤士河水闸了跨度为十年来取得建造。它始建于1974年,并于1984年完成。它的目标是控制和限制的损害导致的季节性洪水伦敦。是伍尔维奇河段和其推出之日起保护伦敦从1oos灾害。当然也有一些量的变化,也就是本文的主要目的是什么。
建设不仅是独特的,但在其同时代的非常新颖。它是一种闸门越过段的横截面非常时尚的圆形开口。它的工程也是非常显着的,已建成的操作,从而在一个非常圆和旋转的方式。水得到提高液压系统。养水导致的水平窗台河床上,这样的事,钢铁和混凝土屏障的外观检查潮水。这种上升行为得到进一步拉长和配给继续允许underspill操作维护水位控制上游的水平和一个完整的180度旋转。屏障使得40mm厚盾的大门时装满水淹没。它然后让它去空水从河里出现在一个巨大的潮汐形式。建设ID充分证明有额外的四个中央门长61中期审查和10.5中期审查高; ,随着两个外门, 31.5mtrs 。长31,5中期审查,河岸有四个弧形闸门,并有足够的弹性降低。这些门是开放的船舶和在同一时间离开,可旋转关闭,停止水前往伦敦。
这是毫无疑问的事实,这个障碍是一个非常强大的保障全市防洪一步。
技术不确定性预期与创新
它是查尔斯·德雷珀谁想出了旋转门的想法,那就是差异化的因素同时代的其他结构的泰晤士河水闸。
三重奏,林德宪,帕尔默和Tritton在这个特殊的唯一屏障建设背后的实际工程师。网站的选择也是非常重要的,因此它决定伍尔维奇将是最合适的网站,因为它是相对平直的银行。我们还发现,这个网站根本河的粉笔将作为阻隔了强有力的支持。科斯坦/ Hollandsche的贝特Maatschappij /柏油路建设财团发起的建设。
有关洪水防御的战略结构的东西下来河11英里,所有这些设备,适当提高和加强。在这整个建设投资的金额约为5.34亿英镑(按2001年价格计算) 。添加到这个预算额外投资1亿英镑,专门为河流防御的目的。目标是1000年的一个跨度。这无疑是一个长期的思想和投资。这些声明之前,有一个清晰的认识,土地和水的。
现在,所有这些评估似乎很不相干,估计每预测失败。这些多样化背后的主要原因是全球变暖和海平面同步上升的因素增多。以应付预计海平面将继续保持在2030至2050年上升至屏障。不仅这些可能性,但也有怀疑是否屏障将能够完成其承诺的任期。
应运而生的技术方面,当时有一个高潮,预计在北海。威胁的声明,特丁顿堰潮汐限制在河流流量,高水位应该超过4.87米的伦敦市中心的测量指标是科学证明的。重新特丁顿创建和打开这个河口。退潮时,它是一个成功的努力,可以做出更大的流速。随着流速的增加,进一步进入下游。在上游流动的时间,得到的行为造成了极大的保护水库洪水滚下城市。
政治
已发挥政治作用是非常戏剧性的,值得所有讨论。它是在2005年,出现了一个非常有趣的建议,以取代泰晤士河水闸。目标是巨大的,并有16公里(10英里)长的屏障横跨泰晤士河河口申请。这是一个很长的延伸,在肯特郡希尔内斯到埃塞克斯的绍森德。这整个完成后暴露了公众的广泛猜测和普及。政治协定生效后的灾难性洪水的1953年2月,当海平面上升2米绍森德。
灾难性的洪水覆盖面积64750公顷24,000间房屋,一大集走进200个主要工业楼宇,随着一批320公斤米的铁路。的影响是巨大的超过12煤气厂和两个国家作为一个整体的一个重大损失,导致发电站。足够令人沮丧的是,有近300人,还有许多牲畜被淹死。估计约水位较高,应该在一年内将达到1 50 。所有这些灾难性的问题和即将到来的威胁,州长更关心的后果。有想出了一个更强大的对政府的政治压力。因此,它任命了一个韦弗利委员会,部门委员会审查即将到来的威胁及相关的解决方案给他们。根据委员会所提交的报告,在1954年,实施的障碍需要进行审查,并已被应用。最初各种网站建议,但最后是伍尔维奇到达。随着施工的进行,从伦敦港务局想出了一个严重的问题。根据这方面的关注将有不低于1400英尺的屏障,本来是要构建一个单一的通畅开幕。这是一个转折点,对并发症的设计策略。然而,在1965年,出现了另一个高浪涌潮,这时候韦弗利委员会建议已经得到无处整个的重要性在于尽快屏障建设上。
社区参与
有大sufferances ,对这些季节性洪水爆发。采取更多的预防措施,更快运行的水倒入下水道,然后河流,他们上升的速度更快。受影响最严重的区域,去年夏天是Severn Trent的。据估计, '4 %在其区域内的土地每年'转换到坚硬的表面。洪水逃跑土地比以往任何时候都更快,更少的地方去。有这些评估有关的查询这个关键基础设施的网站是否有足够的防御。有很多问题,这个特殊的泰晤士河水闸迈向成功。英国的洪水是毁灭性的,是多远,有可能使泰晤士河水闸抵押为宗旨仍然是一个问题。
根据由英国广播公司所做的检查,洪水警报已经应用在英格兰和荷兰都没有太大的生效和风暴驱动涌潮的担忧并没有实现。按吨然而,这些警示都节省了大量的生活比1953年的最新评估和结论。正是在这一年,在这两个国家的约2000人面临洪水的破坏性影响。 1953年,在短短的一个晚上数千人被疏散在英格兰和浪涌障碍收于荷兰鹿特丹港。拉什是沉重的,损失是严重的。英格兰所面临的巨大的损失。在德国和丹麦,几个石油平台被关闭了挪威海岸,大风预报。
这些类型的场景,像英国人民的终身威胁。作为解决这个,有没有其他办法比在泰晤士水闸的应用和依赖。的作用已经发挥政府的方式非常重要的。唯一的解决办法,政府可以启动的障碍。它被视为“现代化的解决方案” 。这是一个共同评估已经取得了由政府和大伦敦议会。被关闭的栅栏再次支持普罗大众没有任何失败的可能性。然而,不授予的液压研究站评估的可接受。对他们来说是非常复杂的业务,并不会得逞的。对所有反对派的泰晤士河水闸依然矗立非常坚定,保护伦敦的所有努力。
想出这个屏障法“持有屏障内的政府责任。因此欣然接受了由卫生部,农业,渔业和食品部(MAFF ) 。由于这是更关心养殖水浸后部分批准。作为后果是农林水产省下得到75%的政府补贴。添加到这是由房屋及地方政府部作出的贡献,替代的可能性,将已经授出任何超过40 %的项目预算分配的难度。
如果在伦敦被忽视的洪水比有成千上万的家庭,商店,工厂,企业及楼宇的可能性会受到影响。货币和金融的挫折是一定要发生的。如果所有这些得到激活比有可能是这样的情况下,这将使伦敦再次飞蛾运作。发生大洪水的财务成本可能是巨大的,可能摘心£ 30,000 m,无计数的成本人类苦难和潜在的生命损失。
时间表停留时间和紧迫感
1953年后,有定期评估,以检查的时间和特定的季节潮汐影响。根据声明有适当的疏散和妥善安置社会。泰晤士河水闸播放的作用是,它是相同的保护屏蔽,不存在这样的方法,使伦敦更安全。这个障碍,需要定期保养,已赋予。
全球变暖的主要原因是,所有这些灾害的背后。即使这是应该的泰晤士河水闸站立或1000年很难赶上最后期限的。气候的急剧变化使事情更强硬。人们更关心的威胁和他们的财产比什么都重要。这是许多机构和企业,为同一。根据评估由英国环境局转发;应该有“极端危险的生命和财产的泰晤士河水闸”如果不能保持足够好。
金融,法律和合同事宜
财务成本的一大洪水已经得到了一流的£ 3万米的估计金额,不计算在人类苦难的成本。这不包括已经发生的潜在损失。解决的办法是对泰晤士水闸的建设。这是一个巨大的建设等非常敏锐相关的高度复杂的工程作品。估计每环保局的泰晤士地区内的洪水防御的最终成本是约5.35亿英镑的。从纳税人的贡献会见了由经批准的成本和差饷缴纳人负责其余的75%的支出。
正如由GLC部公共卫生工程进行程序得到了多方面的风险,并支持所有的广场人口。这些三人顾问工程师林德宪,帕尔默和特里顿谁是负责整个责任。所有声称无偿援助开支是农业,渔业和食品部的工程师和会计师的进一步详细检查。 50,000英镑以上所有变化无偿援助的条件,必须有事先批准,由财政部。
有估计指出,超过80名员工的操作和维护的障碍和相关的洪水防御。可以作出的任何威胁的声明之前提前36小时, ,疏散可能发生。然而,风险是由于泰晤士河水闸,这样,几乎没有任何事情威胁。
否则的背景下,整个河口潮汐洪水风险必须被视为伦敦的泰晤士河水闸将因投资损失较重。潮泰晤士似乎是高于泰晤士河水闸和重新需要的可持续性作出了一些假设的障碍。当谈到对未来的规划,环保局,政府,地方当局,环保组织和他人之间的谈判。所有这些组织单位持有的目的是提供更大的泰晤士河河口洪水风险管理的长期答案。
一场严重的洪水在伦敦的大部分时间影响伦敦的中央部分。原因是毁灭性的损害,由河。的关注也应给予新鲜的水和下水道系统和需要改正的人破坏电力,煤气,电话和重要的数据服务。这样的结果Ñ沉重的经济损失,有很多东西需要给予额外的关注。
结论
一位杰出的数学家,天文学家,政府科学家赫尔曼·邦迪,爵士作出了修订,在1966年的洪水威胁。根据邦迪教授所转发的评估,将是一个严重的洪水在伦敦。他进一步补充说,这次水灾将
“灾难的影响[A ]一种奇异和巨大的,它不能被允许的,尤其是因为存在的能力,以防止它” 。
他的想法是,本来是要减少交通伦敦大幅港口应用的集装箱。然而,这个想法是不被接受,就有了这个大型结构的适当和具体的防洪保护措施。政治意识引领英国环境局在未来的评估,对即将到来的伦敦洪水威胁。根据他们的评估,肯定会遭遇与“极端危险的生命和财产” 。指定的区域,它是诺福克,萨福克郡和埃塞克斯郡的部分。不仅如此,英国环境局发布了8个严重洪水警报发生的预防措施。添加到这些警报由气象局(Met Office)的声明。它宣布,这是巨大的阵风可达145公里每小时( 90英里每小时) ,覆盖在苏格兰的奥克尼和设得兰群岛地区。
因此,有一个吞声500人左右。这些人都是被迫在当地学校设立的庇护中心,并在他们的房子的楼上过夜。政府向它的极大关注和吞声比泰晤士河水闸有没有其他解决办法。
参考
环境局, ND, http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/regions/thames/323150/335688/341764/341785/?version=1&lang=_e [检索于08年6月17日]
可靠性泰晤士河水闸,日期不详, [检索到08年6月17日]
泰晤士河水闸, ND,于08年6月17日检索http://www.jasa.net.au/london/thames.htm [ ]
处罚忽略了风险,第二, http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/regions/thames/323150/335688/341764/341770/?lang=_e [ 08年6月17日检索]
建议
伦敦大师汤姆,萨拉·约翰斯通发布2006年孤独星球,伦敦(英国) , ISBN : 1740598318