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代写essay,Behaviour Self Perception
发表日期:2013-10-06 08:47:08 | 来源:assignment.cc | 当前的位置:首页 > 代写essay > 正文
Behaviour Self Perception
Behaviour can be described as ‘conscious or unconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary’. Subsequently it is of great interest to the study of psychology. It allows psychologist to predict mood, understand and treat abnormality. Self perception is said to tie into the type of behaviour we demonstrate. According to self-perception theory (Daryl Bem's, 1967), people come to a conclusion concerning internal characteristics from their or other people’s behaviour. They combine thoughts and feelings and other people's reactions to gage opinions about themselves. It can be simply described as a change of attitude. Self-perception theory is a case of attribution primarily concerned in the ways in which people “explain (or attribute) the behavior of others, or themselves (self-attribution), with something else.” The factors that this paper will focus on are the influence of others on both the behavior we demonstrate and the influence on the perception of ourselves.
The demonstration of frowns, snubs and other more negative types of reaction reminds people in social situations that they have crossed certain boundaries of acceptable behaviour. Thus the demonstration of, smiles, praise, and other positive responses are drawn out by acceptable behaviour (Shaffer, 1982). This is the type of information a high self-monitoring person or persons that constantly review their behaviour are reported to seek (Snyder & Cantor, 1980). According to self-monitoring theory, behavioural tendencies made in social environment are established from “firstlysituational and interpersonal definitions of behavioural appropriateness, and secondlythe actor's awareness of his or her personal values, attitudes, and psychological state individuals differ (White and Gerstein, 1987).” This demographic constantly reviews and adapts their behaviour to fit these sanctions, high self-monitoring persons should, therein, be able to benefit from the appropriateness of their behaviour and the potential for ‘social profit’.
An important distinction to make when analysing the relationship between self perception and behaviour is between self esteem and self acceptance. These are two keys areas that decide how an individual views themselves. Mancinnes D.L, (2006) studied the parallel between self esteem, acceptance and the impact on psychological health. The results showed that people in poor psychological health i.e. high levels of depression, anxiety were more likely to have a low self acceptance and self esteem than those from the general population. The concept of self esteem and self acceptance would held to be similar but not ‘synonymous’ with the other. Higher levels of self esteem were seen to be closely associated with lower levels of depression. Self acceptance seemed to more associate with a general feeling of psychological well being, in particular helpful when undertaking clinical help for psychiatric problems. This seems to reinforce existing findings of Sorgaard et al . (2002).
Research carried out by (Neihart & Roeper, 2006) on Dimensions of ‘Underachievement, Difficult contexts, and Perception of Self’ highlights the difficulties that achievement has on gifted students when they associate said achievement, attitudes or behavior with certain ethnic, gender or cultural differences. The study suggest that smarter children from lower class backgrounds are perceived as weak, children in the same school class will invariably project there flaws onto the smarter child. This will enable the smarter child to feel what the weaker child feels like. It is from this the smarter child often reviews via self monitoring the behavior they demonstrate in front of weaker children often playing down academic effort and achievement. This would appear to reinforce an ultraistic method of self monitoring theory as suggested above. The impact of school on certain children, including disabled pupils, and they way they viewed their global self worth was studied by (Bear, Kortering & Braziel, 2006). It was inferred that non-completers would score lower than pupils that graduated. This, however, was not the case. No significant difference was found. This suggests that the key to school completion, is not student academic skill level, but the applicationof such skills i.e. motivation to finish homework, attend class, avoid discipline. Further research should be carried out to see how school completers/non-completers apply the skills they have learnt, whether they attend further education and what motivation and strategies are most beneficial to them.
Are there specific attributions an individual holds to be effective in a social environment? In the development understanding of pro-social behaviour the impact of ‘egoism’ and ‘hedonism’ in acts of kindness i.e. helping, has been addressed in certain theoretical treatments of pro-social behaviour (White & Gerstein, 1987). The primary issue being what motivates people to help. One area to focus on is whether the cost/reward ratio influences people to help. “Evidence indicates that under most conditions the consequences for helping, whether tangible or intangible, do indeed influence the likelihood that assistance will be given” (Lemer & Meindl, 1981).185 students participated in the first section of the study carried out by White & Gerstein, 1987. They completed an hour-long survey. In the survey was Snyder's (1974) Self-Monitoring Scale. Part two of the study was conducted four weeks later Students either heard one of two lectures, these were tailored towards strong or weak social sanctions. It was concluded from the results of the survey and lecture that high self-monitoring individuals helped more when faced with extrinsic pressure and not as indicated by existing research that egoism played a significant role in motivating high self monitoring individuals to help. Further a level of significance could be placed on egoistically relevant information presented by an external actor up to a month before they were asked to participate in helping. This proves that this motive had considerable strength. Low self-monitoring persons, as previously reported, appeared to have far less interested in social rewards attached to the behaviour they demonstrated. From this it was inferred that their decision to help was not based on expected social sanctions. The potential weaknesses of this research are the accounts of people helping at significant cost to themselves with little reward. What do the role of other human emotions such as empathy, self-esteem, and responsibility have in influencing helping? Is cost and reward more ‘cognitively salient’ to high against low self-monitoring individuals or are low self-monitoring individuals choosing to ignore these ramifications.
The role of egoism is also a key factor in understanding children’s perception of social status. Sandstorm & Herlan, (2007) allowed 94 participants to take a social status score test. The difference was measure between actual and perceived scores, thus establishing an ego scale of the sample size. Also measure was the participant’s reaction to both positive and negative feedback. It was found in support of existing studies that egotism was associated with aggressive reputation in the classroom. However the development of the existing research is both timely and necessary, it showed the paradoxical view that aggressive behaviour in the classroom is not always associated egotism but associated with an over pessimistic view of self, particular in response to negative feedback from a peer. Self esteem was associated with behaviour of a retaliatory nature in response to a negative feedback condition. This suggests that perhaps the experimenters didn’t take into account for the mental well being of the participants in pre selection. Further that their results could have been compromised by participants who were generally in a state of depression or had other psychological problems. This could have been rectified by asking potential participants to take a pre-test evaluation to test suitability.
The idea of self monitoring is influenced from an early age whether consciously or subconsciously. Cassidy & Conroy, (2001) addressed the issue of external influences at maternal stage of the child/parent relationship and the impact that has on the child’s self esteem. It was hypothesized that maternal and autonomy support would increase a child’s school and sport perceived competence. In turn their perceived competence would contribute to their self esteem. It was found that the child’s perceived competence in both domains positively contributed to their self esteem. At this early stage in a child’s development their self esteem would be a contributing factor as to how they would monitor their own behavior. It could also have an impact on whether they are a high or low self monitoring individual. A key method employed by several experimenters involves the use of sport/exercise to further understanding of self esteem and emotional well being. This is due to the social outlet that sport provides as well as reducing the risk of problems such as cardiovascular disease and obesity. Research carried out by (Donaldson & Ronon, 2006) examined the relationship between sports participation and emotional well being. The results showed in particular to children who were perceived to be good at sport had far less emotional and behavioral problems, further that increased levels of sports participation had a positive impact on emotional well being and self perception. A key development in this study was that the estimation of a child’s physical ability may have some influence between physical activity and self-esteem. However based on this finding the study failed to acknowledge the importance of measuring, before the experiment was carried out, the participant’s self-perceptions of competence, ability, and fitness.
The role of sporting events, behaviour and self perception was developed further by Voyer & Kinch in the study of ‘The Home Disadvantage’. An assertion made by Baumeister and Steinhilber 1984, suggested that home crowd support may act as a disadvantage on the home team's performance in a knockout championship or tournament especially if the team members were trying to become champions for the first time. They stated that the prospect of a ‘desired identity change’ (i.e., seeing themselves as champions) would increase self-attention (Schlenker & Leary, 1982). Further that a supportive audience should increase self-presentation worries because it should help define or favour the redefinition. In contrast an explanation of the effect of arousal on performance was measured on the same circumstances.
The existing research had developed the idea that teams perform more positively away from their home venue in critical games, this involved ‘reference to redefinition of the self’. This explanation reinforced the assertion that the home disadvantage should not be prevalent when redefinition of the self is not involved, just like the cases in which a team can repeat in consecutive years as the winner of a tournament. The new research has developed this idea further; it has narrowed the home game problem to specifically the final round of a championship, using a sample of NHL Hockey teams as its main sample. It was found that is the only time when the participant’s self-redefinition is more likely to occur. Paradoxically arousal would be more advantageous in the championship round than in the non championship round for first-time winners primarily because they are closer to their goal. One major disadvantage with the sample used in this experiment is the teams in the NHL are given more home games in the playoffs and championships. This is a reward for success in the regular season. It is important to consider the implication of this on the present findings of this study.
Previous research has shown that failure to thrive at infancy has a significant impact on how children view one self, more specifically body image, emotional development and appetite. (Drewett, Corbett & Wright, 2006) suggest that children who failed to thrive at infancy are significantly shorter and has less of an appetite in comparison to their best friend. In the development of the relationship between the child and their parents, some researchers have stated that children are ‘passive recipients’ (Ainsworth & Wittig, 1969; Bowlby, 1969). Other research has discovered that some children were more biologically prone than their counterparts in developing secure attachments this can lead to clinical conditions such as depression. Bostik & Everall, (2007) developed this idea and looked at adolescents views of suicide and attachment relationships. The onus was put on the important of attachment relationships and the influence these had on the adolescent’s view of their self perception, the world and the stem of suicidal feelings with in them. Cristina & De Minizi, (2006) addressed the parallel between Loneliness and Depression in Middle and Late Childhood and Relationship to attachment and Parental Styles. It was found that parent’s acceptance would create an emotional stability in the child’s subconscious therein positively affecting the view of self. Further that lack of interest by the father would negatively affect this view. Differences’ were found in the influences and perceptions of both mothers and fathers. This was said to follow ‘cultural patterns of gender attribution.’ The role of caregivers, who respond favourably to children’s demands, is said to increase the children’s understanding of social relations and subsequently a desire to learn and adjust with the normality of their social world (Ainsworth, Bell, & Stayton, 1974; Kochanska, 1993). With this in mind caregivers nurture the development of social competence. This is essential for the development of self-control and cognitive development. Other similar models, which are provided by people who are significant to the children through their type of relationship, may influence pro-social behaviour. The significance of this study is minimal, already relying heavily on existing knowledge on the parent/child relationship this study only seeks to reinforce the general idea of what is considered an effective or ineffective parent, further the impact that has on the child.
References
How does the influence of others impact our self perception and behaviour. White, M., & Gerstein, L. (1987, March). Helping: The influence of anticipated social sanctions and self monitoring. Journal of Personailty, 55(1), 41-54.
The effects of sports participation on young adolescents’ emotional wee-being. Donaldson, J & Ronan K. R. (2006, June). Adolesence, Vol. 41, No.62. Libra Publishers Inc. pg 61-74.
Loneliness and Depression in Middle and Late Childhood: The Relationship to Attachment and Parental Styles.  de Minzi, María Cristina Richaud; Journal of Genetic Psychology, Vol 167(2), Jun 2006. pp. 189-210. [Journal Article]
Helping: The influence of anticipated social sanctions and self-monitoring.  White, Michael J.; Gerstein, Lawrence H.; Journal of Personality, Vol 55(1), Mar 1987. pp. 41-54. [Journal Article]
Children's self-esteem related to school- and sport-specific perceptions of self and others.  Cassidy, Camille M.; Conroy, David E.; Journal of Sport Behavior, Vol 29(1), Mar 2006. pp. 3-26. [Journal Article]
Dimensions of Underachievement, Difficult Contexts, and Perceptions of Self: Achievement/Affiliation Conflicts in Gifted Adolescents.  Neihart, Maureen; Roeper Review, Vol 28(4), Sum 2006. pp. 196-202. [Journal Article]
The Home Disadvantage: Examination of the Self-image Redefinition Hypothesis.  Voyer, Daniel; Kinch, Stephen; Wright, Edward F.; Journal of Sport Behavior, Vol 29(3), Sep 2006. pp. 270-279. [Journal Article]
Threatened egotism or confirmed inadequacy? How children's perceptions of social status influence aggressive behavior toward peers.  Sandstrom, Marlene J.; Herlan, Rebecca D.; Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, Vol 26(2), Feb 2007. pp. 240-267. [Journal Article]
Physical and emotional development, appetite and body image in adolescents who failed to thrive as infants.  Drewett, R. F.; Corbett, S. S.; Wright, C. M.; Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Vol 47(5), May 2006. pp. 524-531. [Journal Article]
Healing from suicide: Adolescent perceptions of attachment relationships.  Bostik, Katherine E.; Everall, Robin D.; British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, Vol 35(1), Feb 2007. pp. 79-96. [Journal Article]
Self-esteem and self-acceptance: An examination into their relationship and their effect on psychological health.  MacInnes, D. L.; Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, Vol 13(5), Oct 2006. pp. 483-489. [Journal Article]
School Completers and Noncompleters With Learning Disabilities: Similarities in Academic Achievement and Perceptions of Self and Teachers.  Bear, George G.; Kortering, Larry J; Braziel, Patricia; Remedial and Special Education, Vol 27(5), Sep-Oct 2006. pp. 293-300. [Journal Article]
2. When writing the introduction, start off with a research question (e.g., cognitive abilities of infants), progressively narrow it (category formation in infants), and finally state the specific lines of research you will be discussing (eight recent articles on infant discrimination of basic-level categories for concrete objects). You want to establish a brisk but even pace when moving from a broad topic to a specific topic, avoiding sudden jumps that will lose your reader.
3. Describe each article (or each line of research, depending on what makes sense), then compare them. Comparisons are essential; descriptions alone are not illuminating. What do you compare? The possibilities include: research assumptions, research theories tested, hypotheses stated, research designs used, variables selected (independent and dependent), equipment used, instructions given, results obtained, interpretation of results, researcher speculations about future studies. Your job is to determine which factors are relevant. All studies have strengths and weaknesses. Finding them will help you make meaningful comparisons.
 
行为可以被描述为“有意识或无意识的,公开或隐蔽的,自愿或不自愿” 。随后,它是心理学研究的极大兴趣。它允许心理学家预测情绪,认识和对待异常。自我知觉说,以配合我们证明的行为类型。根据自我知觉理论(达里尔·贝姆1967年) ,人们得出的结论就从他们或其他人的行为的内部特征。他们结合起来的想法和感受,和其他人的反应量具自己的意见。它可以简单地描述为态度的转变。自我知觉理论方法,使人们“解释(或属性)他人的行为,或者自己(自我归因)主要关注的是一个归属的情况下,用别的东西。 ”的因素,本文将重点放在有我们的行为证明自己的感知和影响别人的影响。
皱眉,怠慢和其他的更多的负面反应类型的示范,提醒人们在社交场合中,他们已经越过了一定的可接受的行为边界。因此,示范,微笑,赞美,和其他积极响应都画出来了可接受的行为(谢弗,1982) 。这是一个高自我监控的人或数人,经常检讨自己的行为报告,以寻求(斯奈德康托,1980)的信息类型。根据自我监测理论,建立了社会环境的行为倾向“ firstlysituational和人际关系定义的行为是否恰当,并演员secondlythe的他或她个人的价值观,态度和心理状态的个体意识的不同( 1987白色和格斯坦) “这种人口不断检讨和调整自己的行为以适应这些制裁,高自我监控者,其中,能够从中受益,从他们的行为和潜在的'社会效益'的恰当性。
自我认知和行为之间的关系进行分析时,一个重要的区别是自尊和自我接纳。这两个关键领域,决定一个人如何看待自己。 Mancinnes DL ,(2006)研究了自尊,接受和心理健康的影响之间的平行。结果表明,人们在心理健康不佳,即高层次的抑郁症,焦虑更可能有比那些从普通人群低自我接纳和自尊。自尊和自我接纳的概念,认为是相似但不与其他“的代名词。更高的自尊水平密切相关的抑郁程度较低。自我接纳似乎更多的联营公司与一般的感觉的心理福祉,特别是有帮助时,进行临床精神问题的帮助。这似乎,加强现有的结果Sorgaard等。 (2002年) 。
( Neihart Roeper ,2006年)开展的研究尺寸高不成低不就,困难的情况下,感知自我'亮点成就的困难,对有天赋的学生,当他们关联说成就,态度或行为具有一定的种族,性别或文化不同之处。研究表明,聪明的孩子从低下阶层背景被视为弱,孩子在同一所学校类不约而同地投射到聪明的孩子有缺陷。这将让聪明的孩子感受到了什么较弱的孩子感觉像。正是从这个聪明的孩子往往通过自我监测行为,他们表现出较弱的孩子面前经常打下来的学术努力和成就的评论。这会出现,以加强自我监测理论方法ultraistic ,上述建议。某些儿童,包括残疾学生,学校和他们的方式,他们看待自己的全球自我价值的影响进行了研究(熊, Kortering布拉齐耶尔,2006年) 。据推断,非完成学业,毕业的学生相比,得分较低。然而,这并非如此。无显着差异。这表明完成学业的关键,是不是学生的技能水平,但中的应用等技能,即动机,以完成家庭作业,上课,避免纪律。应进一步研究开展学校完成学业/非完成学业如何应用他们学到的技能,他们是否参加继续教育,什么样的动机和策略是对他们最有利。
是否有特定归因个人持有的社会环境中是有效的吗?在发展认识的亲社会行为的影响“利己主义”和“享乐主义”的仁慈,即帮助的行为,已经解决的亲社会行为(白格斯坦,1987)在一定的理论治疗。首要的问题是什么促使人们帮助。专注于一个领域的成本/收益比是否会影响人们的帮助。 “有证据表明,在大多数情况下的帮助,不论是有形或无形的,确实影响将给予协助的可能性” ( Lemer MEINDL的,1981) .185名学生参加在首节的研究进行了白的后果格斯坦,1987。他们完成了长达一个小时的调查。在本次调查中,斯奈德(1974)的自我监控量表。第二部分的研究主要是四个星期后进行的学生听到两个讲座之一,这些都是对强或弱的社会制裁量身定做。有人总结高自我监控个人的调查结果和讲座,帮助更多面临的外在压力,而不是现有的研究表明,利己主义发挥了重大的作用,激励高自我监控个人帮助。此外,一个显着性水平可以被放置在任性的相关信息通过外部的演员长达一个月之前,他们被要求参与帮助。这证明了这个动机有相当的实力。低自我监控者,如先前报道,似乎有不感兴趣,他们所表现出来的行为的社会回报。从这一点推断,他们的决定,以帮助不是基于预期的社会制裁。这项研究的潜在弱点的账目帮助显著成本的人给自己小小的奖励。什么其他人的情绪的作用,如换位思考,自尊,和责任的影响帮助吗?是成本和回报更多的认知显着'高对低自我监控个人或低自我监控个人选择忽略这些后果。
利己主义的作用也是一个关键因素,了解儿童的社会地位的看法。沙尘暴HERLAN (2007)允许94人参加,采取社会地位得分试验。实际的和感受到的分数之间的差异有措施,从而建立一个自我的样本大小规模。另外措施是参与者的反应正面和负面的反馈。它被发现在现有研究的支持,积极在课堂上的声誉是与利己主义。然而,现有的研究发展是及时和必要的,它表现出的似是而非的观点在课堂上的积极的行为并不总是相关的利己主义,但伴有自我过度悲观的看法,特别是在从同行负反馈。自尊的报复性质的行为,是与一个负反馈条件。这表明,也许实验者没有顾及精神福祉的参与者在前期选择。此外,他们的结果可能已经失密与会者普遍的抑郁状态或有其他心理问题。这本来是要求潜在参与者采取了预测试评估测试的适用性纠正。
自我监控的想法是从早期的年龄,无论是自觉或下意识的影响。卡西迪康罗伊(2001)解决外部影响产妇阶段的父/子关系的影响,对孩子的自尊问题。据推测,孕产妇和自主性的支持,会增加孩子的学校,运动知觉能力。反过来,他们的感知能力,将有助于他们的自尊。据发现,孩子的认知能力在这两个领域,积极促成了他们的自尊。在这个早期阶段孩子的发展,他们的自尊,他们将如何监控自己的行为是一个促进因素。它也可以影响他们是否是高或低的自我监控个人。一个关键的几个实验者采用的方法包括使用体育/运动,以进一步了解自尊和情感福祉。这是由于社会运动提供出口减少的问题,如心血管疾病和肥胖的风险。 (唐纳森Ronon ,2006年)研究体育的参与和情感福祉之间的关系进行了研究。结果表明,被认为是善于运动少得多的情绪和行为问题的儿童,特别是进一步指出,参与体育活动水平的提高产生了积极影响的情感幸福和自我感知。在这项研究中的一个关键的发展是一个孩子的体能估计可能有一些体力活动和自尊之间的影响。然而,根据这一发现该研究未能确认测量的重要性,在实验前进行,参与者的能力,自我认知能力和健身。
金赤在“首页劣势”的研究Voyer体育赛事,行为和自我感知的作用得到进一步发展。建议断言由鲍迈斯特和Steinhilber 1984 ,家乡父老的支持可作为淘汰赛冠军或比赛主队的表现的缺点,尤其是当队员们试图第一次成为冠军。他们指出, “所需的身份转变”(即把自己看作冠军)的前景会增加自我关注(施伦克尔和猜疑,1982) 。此外,支持的观众应该增加自我介绍后顾之忧,因为它应该帮助定义或有利于重新定义。与此相反,对性能的效果的觉醒解释是相同的情况下测量。
现有的研究开发团队执行更积极远离他们的主场,在关键的比赛中,这涉及'自我'的重新定义参考的想法。这种解释增强断言家劣势不应该是普遍的不涉及重新定义自我,就像一个团队在何种情况下可以重复连续多年作为一场比赛的赢家。这项新的研究进一步发展了这一思想,它已经缩小了主场比赛的问题,特别是最后一轮的冠军作为其主要样本,采用的样本NHL曲棍球队。据发现,这是唯一的参与者的自我重新定义时更可能发生。奇怪的是觉醒在冠军轮比在非总决赛首次获奖主要会更有利,因为他们更接近自己的目标。在这个实验中使用的样本的一个主要缺点是在NHL的球队被赋予了更多的主场比赛,在季后赛和总冠军。这是一个在常规赛取得成功的奖励。目前这项研究的结果,重要的是要考虑的含义。
以前的研究已经表明,在婴儿期未能茁壮成长有重大影响儿童如何查看一个自我,更具体的身体形象,情感的发展和食欲。 (德拉维特,科贝特赖特,2006 )表明,在婴儿茁壮成长的孩子谁没有明显短,他们最好的朋友比较有食欲少。在孩子和他们的父母之间的关系的发展,一些研究人员指出,儿童是'被动接受者' (安斯沃思维蒂希, 1969年,鲍比, 1969 ) 。其他研究已经发现,有些孩子更多的生物容易在开发安全的附件,这可能会导致如抑郁症的临床条件比他们的同行。波士胶& Everall的(2007)发展了这一思想,并看着青少年自杀和依恋关系的看法。被提上重要的依恋关系和影响,这些对青少年的观点,他们的自我认知,自杀在他们的感情世界和干的举证责任。克里斯蒂娜(2006)德Minizi ,解决中晚期儿童和关系依恋和家长样式的孤独感和抑郁症之间的平行。结果发现,父母的接受将创建一个稳定的情绪在孩子的潜意识,其中积极影响的观点,自我。此外,缺乏兴趣的父亲会产生负面影响这一观点。差异“被发现在母亲和父亲的影响和看法。这是说,遵循“文化模式的性别归属。 ”照顾者,谁回应从优儿童的需求方面所起的作用,是说增加孩子们的理解,社会关系和随后一个愿望,以学习和调整他们的社会世界的常态(安斯沃思贝尔,斯泰顿, 1974年Kochanska ,1993 )。有了这个心态照顾者培养社交能力的发展。这是必不可少的自我控制的发展和认知发展。其他同类车型,这是人谁是孩子们通过他们的关系类型具有重要意义,可能会影响亲社会行为。这项研究的意义是最小的,本研究旨在加强的总体思路,被认为是一种有效或无效的父母,对孩子的影响有进一步的父/子关系,已经在很大程度上依靠现有的知识。
参考文献
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2。当写介绍,启动一个研究问题(如婴幼儿的认知能力) ,逐步缩小(类别形成的婴幼儿) ,终于说出具体的研究路线,大家将要讨论(八最近的文章对婴幼儿歧视基层具体对象类别) 。你想建立一个活跃,但步伐甚至从一个广泛的话题时,一个特定的主题,避免突然的跳跃,将失去你的读者。
3。描述每个文章(或每行研究,取决于情理之中的事情) ,然后将它们进行比较。比较是必不可少的;单独的说明还没有亮。你怎么比较?可能性包括:研究假设,研究的理论测试,假设指出,采用的研究设计,变量选择(独立和依赖的) ,使用的设备,指示,得到的结果,对结果的解释,研究者猜测未来的研究。你的工作是确定哪些因素有关。所有的研究都具有的长处和短处。找到他们,将有助于你作出有意义的比较。