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代写essay,Postmodernism Identity Formation
发表日期:2013-10-08 08:59:07 | 来源:assignment.cc | 当前的位置:首页 > 代写essay > 正文

Abstract

This work shall look at the idea of identity formation in the post modern world. First, at definitions of postmodernism and identity formation, and then moving on to describe how identities are formed. To be discussed in particular, are Giddens’ sense of the “reflexive self” and Hall’s theory of the ‘crisis of the self’, drawing upon examples from recreational drug use and looking at how consumption and globalisation have led to multiple narrative representations of self.

Chapter 1

Introduction: Postmodernism and Identity Formation

What is post modernity? Postmodernism; a reaction to modernism; is a state (or complex set of states) that lacks a clear organizing principle which embodies complexity, contradiction, ambiguity and interconnectedness. It is, perhaps, essentially, the embodiment of a general dissatisfaction with modernity, reflecting fundamental changes in attitudes towards what has gone in the past and towards long-held beliefs.

Everyone, it seems, has a different view of what post-modernism actually is. Postmodernism has different definitions in different research areas and according to different academics within these different research arenas. Some academics even disagree about the presence of post-modernity, arguing that postmodernism does not exist.

Giddens (1991), for example, prefers to use the term ‘post-traditionalist’ to describe the state of society at the moment. Postmodernism is, to some, a world view, whereas to others, it is little more than a ‘buzz word’ (Hebdige, 2006).

Kirby (2006) builds on this sentiment of Hebdige (2006). He argues that, following the rise of pseudo-modernism, postmodernism is dead, whilst other authors argue that postmodernism was never a movement, rather only “...the rough outline of a set of self-referential ideals than a genuine cultural movement.” (Willis, 2007, p.44). Many have called postmodernism meaningless, in its most profound sense, as the movement as a whole (if, indeed, it can be called a “movement”), adds nothing to our collective knowledge base.

However this phenomenon is labelled, the idea of identity formation in this changing, ‘post modern’ atmosphere is of interest. How do individuals, in this fractured, multi-narrative society, form their identities? This is certainly a topic that continues to grow in sociological significance, as the factors and conditions pertaining to the construction of our identities have changed, diversified, spread and become more dynamic in this ‘post modern’ world.

Identity formation is the process by which a person develops a personality that is distinct from that of other people. This process serves to define an individual, not only to others, but also to the individual them self (see Levine et al., 2002). In terms of how this definition is maintained, the identity is actuated through a process of development of uniqueness, reinforced through continuity and affiliation (see Levine et al., 2002). The process of identity formation ultimately leads to the notion of personal identity, where identity is forged through individualism and an understanding of one’s own self-concept (see Levine et al., 2002).

What is identity in a post modern world? For many, identity is now a fluid concept, an open question, a construct that is built as one moves along, according to one’s environment and one’s interests and interactions, be these physical or virtual. In a post modern sense, the self is shifting, fluid, or as Berzonsky (2005) argues, identity is dynamic, multiplistic, relativistic, context-specific and fragmented (Berzonsky, 2005). Further, Berzonsky (2005) states, ego identity may serve as a way in which individuals reach out from a personal standpoint in this fractured, post-modern world.

As Kellner (1995) and Featherstone (1991) argue, identity, in the post-modern world, is closely identified with the active consumption of products that are offered to individuals by the media and leisure industries (Ott, 2003). Several academics, whilst disagreeing on the mechanism for this, agree that socio - cultural factors and forces, that structure difference and subsequently create the boundaries essential to identity, have changed dramatically in recent decades (Ott, 2003; see Kellner, 1995; Rosenau, 1992 and Van Poecke, 1996).

As Poster states, “...a post-modern society is emerging which nurtures forms of identity different from, or even opposite to, those of modernity.” (Ott, 2003, p.58). As Kellner (1995) argues, “...one is a mother, a son, a Texan, a Scot, a professor, a socialist, a Catholic, a lesbian - or rather a combination of these social roles and possibilities. Identities are thus still relatively fixed and limited, though the boundaries of possible identities, of new identities, are continually expanding.” (Ott, 2003, p.63).

As the mode of economics shifts from goods-based to service-based, from centralized mass-production to a trans-national, globalise and production, individuals are less likely to locate their identities in pre-given categories and ascribed roles, such that “...class, gender and ethnicity decline in social significance” (see Crook et al., 1992, p.84), whilst the active consumption of ideas and styles grows in importance (see Kellner, 1995).Such that, difference - and, through this - identity, is now defined and affirmed through consumer choice, and, ultimately, therefore, through consumption (see Ott, 2003).

As Ott (2003) argues, the culture industry performs two main functions in terms of identity formation: it provides consumers with explicit identity models showing them how to be, and also provides consumers with the symbolic resources with which to (re)construct their identities. Cultural media, such as television, magazines and general advertising, consequently come to shape the nature of identity, by providing identity models and the symbolic resources for the enactment of the chosen identity (Ott, 2003).

As Ott (2003) argues this purchasing of identity can lead to serious problems, such as losing sight of oneself: as Ott (2003, p. 74) states, in his analysis of The Simpson’s as an exemplifier of postmodern identity construction, “Homer eats, Homer drinks, Homer belches, but, in reality, there is nothing called ‘Homer’ beyond the eating, drinking and belching.

There is no being behind the doing. Homer is just the sum of his actions and no more….In this mode, the subject evaporates and all social and political action becomes futile and absurd.”. Similarly, in the postmodern world, where identity formation is so closely linked to consumerism, it is easy to lose sight of ones true self, in the midst of so many identities that, through the media, are thrown at one.

Although, as Berzonsky (2005) contends, ego identity may serve as a way in which individuals reach out from a personal standpoint in a fractured, postmodern world, through which an individual’s sense of self is preserved, as something that is, yes, adapted by consumerism but which is, essentially, the product of one’s own experiences and decisions regarding ‘self’, Further, ego identity can provide a personal standpoint for acting and decision-making in the fractured, fluid, postmodern world.

For Berzonsky (2005), therefore, identity is a fluid concept in the postmodern sense. There can, however, be no multiple identities for, by definition, identity is “...a singularity, fixed on some dimension that is conserved over time and place” (Berzonsky, 2005, p. 133). As Berzonsky (2005) states, then, there cannot be multiple identities, rather only multiple aspects of one’s personality, something that is exposed through consumerism, with different purchases allowing individuals to express different facets of their personalities.

In summary, identity formation in the postmodern age has arisen from, and is dependent on, consumerism as a driving force. In Berzonsky’s opinion, “…the quest to achieve a sense of identity is important because we live in a relativistic, postmodern age of continual social, political, economic and technological change, which requires continually shifting expressions of one’s self.” (Berzonsky, 2005, p.133).

Whilst postmodernism requires fluidity, this fluidity arises as different responses to ever-changing stimuli, through changing expressions in the different facets of an individual’s multi-faceted personality. Berzonsky’s (2005) view of identity formation in the postmodern world is not as pessimistic as that presented by Ott (2003), which suggests that nothing but a vacuum exists at the core of an individual, but both theoretical approaches to identity formation in postmodern times rely on the development of multiple narratives as a way of dealing with the fluidity of concepts that postmodernism presents to individuals. Subsequent sections of the work will concentrate on expanding these ideas further.

Chapter 2

Literature Review & Methodology

This section will describe how the literature review, which forms the basis of this work, was conducted, in terms of the methodology used to search for, and use, the literature that forms the basis of this work. This section explains exactly how the literature review was performed, in terms of what was done practically in order to find the literature that has been used as the basis for this work. This section essentially describes the methodology that was used to provide an analysis of the specific research question of interest in this work, i.e., “How is identity formed in this postmodern world?”

A literature review is, essentially, a classification and a thorough evaluation of the most relevant works that have previously been published on a particular subject. The literature review is usually organized depending on the particular research objective, so that it presents a systematic, comprehensive review of the work that has been previously published on that specific topic of interest.

From this basis, decisions as to what further research needs to be conducted on the specific topic of interest can be made, from the thorough understanding of the previous works on this subject. A full understanding of the existing literature provides not only a comprehensive review of the existing literature but will also enable the researcher to decide what specific sub-topics, for example, need further investigation.

In this way, therefore, a literature review can inform not only the current research plans but also map the way for future research. After due consideration to the human resources and time frame necessary to collect primary empirical evidence that would prove pertinent to this specific study, adopting a completely literature-based library approach was deemed the most efficient and pragmatic method of research.

Within the scope of this work, ‘the literature’ refers not only to literature such as textbooks, and specialist academic books, but also to the relevant research literature, via published journal articles. A review of the literature that is relevant to the research question of interest thus serves many purposes, including, as has been seen, showing how the current research programme fits in with previous research on the topic, presenting alternate views in order to allow an evaluation of how the proposed research should proceed, and, finally, showing that all of the relevant, previous, work on the current research topic has been evaluated and has been fully understood, validating the current research programme through the support of previously published work (see Hart, 1999).

A literature review is usually conducted before starting any new academic research, because, as has been seen, a thorough review of the literature provides a comprehensive overview of what research has been performed, and provides further information, such as how other researchers have analysed or solved similar problems. In this sense, a literature review is a simple review of the existing literature on a subject but is also an evaluation of this work and the relationships between the existing works (Hart, 1999).

The literature review also allows an evaluation of the relationship between the research that is being proposed and the existing research, giving the researcher food for thought, based on what has gone previously. In this sense, reviewing the literature puts the work that is being proposed in to context by asking any number of relevant questions, concerning what is already known about the topic of interest, what the relationships are between the key ideas, what ideas already exist in terms of understanding the topic, what evidence is needed to finally reach a conclusion and contribution the proposed research will make to the literature (see Hart, 1999).

This exercise, whilst it can be thought of as time-consuming, can be valuable in terms of deciding what problems to approach in the course of the research, how to approach these problems, and how to present the literature review once the relevant literature has been searched, evaluated and summarised (Krathwohl, 1988).

Reviewing previous work can, therefore, provide a practical guide as to how the research one is conducting should proceed, from before the research begins in earnest until its final completion (Madsen, 1992).

The main aim of a thorough review of the literature, as outlined in this section, is to search out and locate relevant literature, to read and to analyse the information that has been found, to evaluate the information, through finding the relevant information in the literature, in terms of positioning the previous literature within the framework of the research that is about to be undertaken (Muskal, 2000).

This requires many skills, such as knowing how to retrieve the necessary information, gathering and organizing the information, being able to critically appraise this information and developing further research questions once the information has been gathered and evaluated (Fink, 2004).

Standard bibliographic databases can be used in order to search relevant literature (Hart, 1999). If, for example, one wishes to find out about how identity is formed in the postmodern world, one would first need to know something about identity formation and postmodernism in general and would thus enter these as search terms. One would then wait for the database to return the details of any relevant, existing, literature.

Such general search terms would normally provide millions of unspecific articles, and, if this is the case, the search terms can be narrowed by entering more specific search terms, for example, ‘identity formation and postmodernism’ or ‘Antony Giddens’. The usual procedure is to enter narrower and narrower search terms until such a point that only literature containing specific information, on the specific research topic of interest, are returned.

These would be the articles that would then be looked at in detail, or used as the basis of other searches. For example, a ‘Citation’ search can be performed, which will return other related articles that focuses on the specific topic of interest that have cited the original article as a reference. This type of searching will obviously return more recent work that has referenced the original research article in some way, either through using the article as the basis for their own research or using the results of the article to support some new findings.

The results from searching the bibliographic database(s) should then be collected together, as these will form the basis of the review of the literature in any further academic work on this topic. Bibliographic database searching is an accepted research tool, and, as such, is a well-recognised ethical research tool (Anson and Schwegler, 2000).

In terms of how the literature for this work was sought for, terms such as ‘postmodernist identity’, ‘Giddens’ and ‘identity formation’ were used as search terms, amongst many others. Web of Science was used as the bibliographic database. This database contains references to most articles published in the last century, covering the fields of psychology and philosophy, amongst others. In terms of deciding which literature to following the bibliographic database search, various criteria were used to assess whether the literature should be included or not.

The literature that was returned following the bibliographic database search was read if it was of general interest to the subject i.e., if it contained any information on identity formation and postmodernism, and if the literature was recent (i.e., published within the last fifteen years) because only recent articles would contain up-to-date information.

This literature was useful in contextualizing the research, in terms of providing a general overview of the topic. The literature that was used in this work was selected if it includedspecific information on identity formation and postmodernism. A list of the literature used in the work is given in the References section, at the end of the work.

In terms of how the work of others can be incorporated in to one’s own research, it is necessary to build upon the work of other researchers in order for knowledge, on a particular subject, to be advanced. Research proceeds in this way; by using the work of others as a starting point; so that research is not repeated and so that research moves in a positive direction, building constructively on the work of others (Krathwohl, 1988).

Using the work of others through the development of a literature-based work is, therefore, entirely ethical, on the condition that the previous work is referenced and cited correctly within the subsequent work (Madsen, 1992). On this basis, then, the bibliographic database searches and the use of literature of interest is a valid protocol for conducting research.

Chapter 3

Examples of Postmodern Identity Formation

Recreational Drug Culture

One example of the formation of identity in the postmodern world is the taking of recreational drugs. The taking of recreational drugs increased with the development of the dance and rave scene in the 1980s, increasing during the development of the ‘clubbing’ scene.

Polls indicate that up to 79% of clubbers have taken recreational drugs at some point in their lives, with ecstasy, cannabis and cocaine being the most widely-used recreational drugs. Although ketamine, heroin and GBH were also mentioned in the responses to the survey (Home Office Survey, 2003).

The same survey (Home Office, 2003) found that the majority of the individuals interviewed felt that drug-taking was an integral part of their lives, which heightened their clubbing experience. Most of the interviewees admitting using recreational drugs and drinking alcohol on the same night every time they go clubbing.

This finding is not to say that drug-taking is as widespread in the general youth population, because many youths are not ‘clubbers’ and are thus perhaps, not involved in the drug scene (see Measham et al., 2001), however, recreational drug-taking is a huge part of many young people’s lives, the way in which they express themselves and identify themselves to others. Why?

What encourages recreational drug use amongst young people? Coggans and McKellar (1994) look at drug use amongst young people, reviewing the importance of ‘peer pressure’ in the onset of illicit drug use; finding that there is little actual evidence for a causal relationship and that, as such, the role of individual choice in drug taking needs to be analysed.

As Coggans and McKellar (1994) suggest, individuals are free to choose to take recreational drugs, whether or not this is bound to social interaction with peers or not, and the choice to do so is not, therefore, necessarily a function of peer pressure.

Novacek et al. (1991) looked at the use of recreational drugs amongst adolescents, finding that there were five main explanations as to why adolescents admit to using recreational drugs: for a sense of belonging, to cope with problems they are having, for pleasure, for enhancing creativity and to cope with the aggression they feel inside themselves. The different reasons corresponding to the frequency with which drugs are used.

In addition, Novacek et al. (1991) found that there were age- and gender-specific relationships between drug use and the reasons behind the drug use, with older males, for example, more likely to admit to using drugs for pleasure, and younger girls more likely to admit to using drugs to foster a sense of belonging.

Dorn (1975) looks at the different functions and varieties of possible explanations for drug use, finding that society has to give a label to drug use (that is usually wholly negative), in order to decide upon how to prosecute drug use. This is affected through the development of policies to achieve social control, and how to treat drug users in need of help.

As Dorn (1975) argues, there are, however, many and varied reasons why individuals take to drugs, including social and economic perspectives, and personal events which lead to the individual deciding to try drugs. Each of these routes to drug use says something about the identity the individual has fostered for themselves and, as such, represents a distinct route to identity formation.

As Duff (2004) argues, recreational drug use is no more than a ‘practice of the self’, as Foucault would say, an expression of one’s self and, as such, should be dealt with using ‘ethics of moderation’ and not as an illegal blight on society. As Duff (2004) argues, referencing Foucault and his ideas of pleasure gives a different perspective on recreational drug use, helping to understand the changing nature of recreational drug use amongst young people, and thus providing new conceptual frameworks with which to attempt to derive policies for controlling drug use.

Duff (2005) continues this reasoning, looking at recreational drug use amongst what she terms ‘party people’, finding (in common with Home Office, 2003) that, amongst this group of young people, drug use has been ‘normalised’, becoming a normal part of their leisure time, as normal as having a beer, for example, or smoking a cigarette.

As Duff (2005) argues, this normalization has implications for policy development in terms of harm minimization programmes. For the youth sampled by Duff (2005), recreational drugs have passed from being something dangerous and illegal, to something that is normal and acceptable amongst their peer group, and the wider society in which they mingle.

For the young people who take recreational drugs regularly, therefore, drugs are part and parcel of their identity formation in our post-modern times.

There is no question that they should not, for various reasons, be taking these drugs: for them, it is absolutely normal behaviour, with their safety being protected and assured through buying their drugs of choice from friends (see, also, Sherlock and Conner, 1999).

This easy, secure, access to the drugs perhaps explains the ease and comfort with which respondents admit their drug taking and use their drugs: for them, it is a natural, safe, thing to be doing, a natural part of their social lives. Many of them do not question the fact that they take drugs: it is as natural to them as any other part of the lifestyle they have chosen for themselves (Duff, 2005).

Jay (1999) looks at the issue of why young people take recreational drugs, arguing from the traditional medical framework, which suggests that people take drugs because they become addicted to them and from a newer perspective, which suggests that people take drugs for pleasure (see, also, Parker et al., 1998).

The latter hypothesis seems to make sense. It is, after all, the recreational drugs that give pleasure which consequently, give fewer records of abusive behaviour associated with them. The use of recreational drugs for pleasure has even been noted in the animal kingdom (Jay, 1999; see Siegel, 1989).

As Jay (1999) further argues, embellished in this idea of pleasure being the main motivation for recreational drug use is the fact that society has, in general, become more adventurous and accommodating as a whole. This general societal climate has led to the atmosphere in which young people grow up assuming experimentation with recreational drugs is acceptable behaviour, becoming a part of their formative years when they are forming their own identity.

They, of course, realize taking recreational drugs is illegal and potentially dangerous, but, as shown by Duff (2005), they minimize the risks by ensuring supply from trusted peers and pass off the illegality issue through references to greater, unpunished, crimes going on around them and the fact that alcohol - now legal - was also illegal only a few decades ago.

As such, the issues of drug use being illegal is not really a concern for them, as their drug use is considered, by them, to be a normal part of their lives, for which, if they keep it low-profile and at a personal level, they are highly unlikely to be punished.

McCrystal et al. (2006) looks at drug use patterns amongst 11 to 12 year olds, finding that there are high levels of drug use in these ages of children, many of whom appear to be otherwise ‘good’ students. These students use drugs for many and varied reasons, many of which are centred around pleasure seeking and relieving boredom. Very few cases of peer pressure were reported.

Although there were suggestions that drug use had become a normal occurrence amongst this group of children, similar to other studies already discussed (such as Jay, 1999 and Duff, 2005). Similar findings were reported by Bahora et al. (2008), who looked at ecstasy use in the United States, concluding that the use of ecstasy amongst those surveyed was regarded as normal behaviour, as something that ‘everyone does’. Again, recreational drug use is a way of forming one’s identity; of identifying oneself with other recreational drugs users, of being accepted into that section of society.

In conclusion, recreational drugs are used widely by youth across the world, a large proportion of whom are assumed to be connected with the dance scene in some way. That said, it is also known that children as young as 11 or 12 are using cannabis on a regular basis (see McCrystalet al., 2006), the ‘drug problem’ is not just confined to clubbers. Many reasons have been put forward as motivators of drug use in this essay; peer pressure, curiosity about what effects the drugs will have on them, a sense of belonging, to cope with problems youth may be having, for pleasure, for enhancing creativity and to cope with the aggression they feel inside themselves.

The different reasons largely corresponding to the frequency with which drugs are used (see Novacek et al., 1991). It has also been seen that people have stated that they take drugs because it is considered normal to do so, is nothing out of the ordinary, that ‘everyone does it’ and so, therefore, them too (see, for example, Duff, 2005). Thus, there are many and varied reasons as to why people start taking, and continue using recreational drugs, all of which have a basis in forging identity.

Chapter 4

Consumption and Identity

Dunn (1999) argues that postmodernism has led to a shift in the bases for identity formation, something that itself, per se, marks the post-modern era. As Lyon (2000) so eloquently phrases it: “...we are recipients of entertainment, shopping for a self.” (Lyon, 2000, p.75). Developments in information technology and the ability to shop anywhere, any time, have reduced time and space, meaning that we now demand the ability to access information in an instant.

People are on demand “24/7”, leading to reconfigurations of how we view ourselves and our place in the world. We are in a world which we feel we know much better, a world which is virtually available at the touch of a button (or the swish of a mouse), on demand. Information on anything anyone is interested in can be found instantly. Through this open, instantaneous, process, we feel we are part of a much larger culture than our long-established, local selves.

For Lyon (2000), in his book Jesus in Disneyland; Religion in Post-Modern Times,it is a complex social situation in which some of the dynamics inherited from modernism are inherited and in which some are distorted beyond recognition. For Lyon (2000) postmodernism has been defined by the development of information technology and social networking and the rise of consumerism. Information technology has made the world smaller, has made identities more fragmented and consumerism has allowed us to express ourselves like never before.

This process, whilst connecting individuals with more people, information and places than ever before, can mean that people become less connected with real - physical, intimate, face-to-face, relationships, leading to social isolation. McPherson et al. (2001) showed, for example, that Americans have significantly less friends than they did two decades ago, with social isolation increasing as a result of this.

However, McPherson and Smith-Lovin’s (1987) hypothesis of homophily - that friends are similar in character and identity - still holds for ‘virtual’ friends. Members of online forums, for example, who become close over cyberspace: similar people will always band together, with people’s personal networks being homogeneous with regards to many socio-demographic factors and interpersonal characteristics (see McPherson et al., 2001).

“The times they are a-changing” sang Bob Dylan, and nowhere is that truer than now, where children plug themselves in to their iPods, downloading music as they wish, accessing information on the internet as and when they desire. It is possible to now parcel the world into discrete pockets, according to your own desires.

Technology has allowed individuals the choice of how, and when, they want to communicate, closing off from other commuters with an iPod, sharing common musical tastes with cyber-friends, again through the iPod, joining in online forums if that is what they want to do. Choice is everywhere, choice is expected, as a fundamental right of this generation.

Through choice, through the freedom of expression that is around, through blogs, for example, and through online forums that are available for almost any specialist interest, from internet sites like You Tube and My Space, individuals can choose who they want to interact with and when they want to interact with them.

For many young persons, this ‘artificial’, cyber life, is their life. It may not be a life that would be recognizable to their grandparents, nor even understood by their parents, but that is their reality. They choose to live like that, maintaining multiple narratives with individuals they have actively chosen to communicate with.

Social isolation is not a concern for these individuals: they drive their own pathway through their lives, interacting with whom they want to interact, when they want to interact, shunning physical relationships in favour of what they consider to be more meaningful virtual relationships.

Individuals are opting out of physical interactions with people they don’t want to interact with (neighbours, commuters etc) in favour of their own world, through their headphones, for example, connected to their iPod, whilst out and about. At home they immerse themselves in online communities, such as SecondLife or any of the number of specialist online forums dedicated to their interests.

Technology has enabled people to have the choice of how and when to interact with others, empowering individuals to dictate how their life flows, at the pace they want it to flow. Many people argue that devices such as iPods and online forums are social minimisers, but postmodernism would, perhaps, label them enablers: enablers of multiple narratives, for example.

As users of SecondLife would argue, social interaction does occur in SecondLife, just ‘not as we know it’, i.e., in a different, pixilated, format. Perhaps SecondLife is the perfect post-modern environment: a ‘meta-verse’, a universe allowing simultaneous, multiple, narratives.

Identity, as a concept, can be defined by consumerism (Dunn, 1999), with the displacement of social relations by commodities having two consequences. Firstly, consumer culture is the primary means through which self is constructed and secondly, the collective identities of class, gender, race, sexuality and ethnicity, along with conventional, institutionalised, social roles are weakened or replaced by more individualised, fluid, ‘lifestyle’ identities, that are constructed in relation to consumer goods, mass media images and fictional media characters (Dunn, 1999, p.67). In this postmodern scenario, relationships are weakened and the definition of ‘self’ comes to rely on an appropriation of the attributes of commodities (Dunn, 1999, p.67).

The modern view of the self, as an integrated social concept, has thus become replaced by a loose aggregate of personality traits that have been assembled through the process of consuming goods and images.

The breakdown of identity formation from social roles to a packaged world of mass culture is viewed as a breakdown in the socialisation process which, in turn, leads to the situation in which media systems undermine the authority of the traditional socialisation agents, leaving the individual adrift in a world of commercialised distractions (Dunn, 1999, p.67).

As Croghan et al. (2006) suggest, consumption is central to the construction of adolescent identities, with consumption, style and identity being linked and style being a crucial means of sustaining and defining both individual identity and also group boundaries. Failure to adhere to such style boundaries leads to style failure, with dire consequences for the social life of adolescents, through social exclusion and status loss (Croghan et al., 2006).

Bovone (2006) looks at the issue of postmodern identity and the transformation of fashion, arguing that the relationship between clothes and identity is part of the larger postmodern set of ideals. As Bovone (2006) argues, precise clothing distinctions, that were traditionally anchored to social class and socio-economic status, are becoming a thing of the past: the fragmented post-modern ideal, and the lack of shared models is leading to the use of clothing as away in which to communicate to others one’s non-exclusive identity.

As Bovone’s work (2006) shows, the production and consumption of culture is changing, no longer the homogenising force it once was, with cultural fragmentation and dispersal becoming dominant, leading to individuals expressing their own identities in subversive ways (Dunn, 1999). Postmodernism ushered in a period in which the perpetually changing marketplace of goods and images offers personal freedom, of expression, and the choice to position oneself within a range of possible ‘selves’.

As Dunn (1999) argues, the postmodern has replaced the idea of ‘self-realisation’, which pre-supposed some sort of lifetime destiny, with ‘experimental self-creation’ in the Nietzschean sense. Within this, however, individuals are expected to produce new self-images all the time, in response to the ever-changing landscapes surrounding them.

Consumerism allows changeable expression of one’s fluid self, through the purchasing of objects that allow one’s self to be expressed. Consumerism provides an arena of conscious experimentation and choice in the construction and elaboration of identity (see Dunn, 1999, p.68).

This has been made possible through the rise of the consumerist society, and the commercial co-optation of new cultural attitudes and values, leading to this postmodern era being labelled ‘hedonistic’ and ‘the era of self-fulfilment’ (Dunn, 1999). Consumerism has pluralized style, providing multiple possibilities for the demonstration of personal style, either in the form of individually constructed lifestyle-based identities or as part of lifestyle identification with different collective groups and categories (Dunn, 1999).

Consumer culture allows novel identities to be constructed: either mass-marketed identities or individualised constructions of style, through the segmentation of markets and the use of sales strategies that target customers with specialised tastes (Dunn, 1999).

The commodity has thus become a vehicle for developing more fully one’s sense of self, with commodities being used, not as instruments of manipulation that distort one’s sense of self but as outward identifiers of self-formation and self-realisation. This is, however, all within the context of ‘mass culture’ being run by a few massive companies, who control the media channels and provide a corporate-led basis to postmodern society. Thus, consumer-based individualism is not pure individualism but rather a pale imitation of authentic individualism, based not on the values of achievement and self-worth but the appropriation of commodities as ways in which to express one’s self within a corporate framework.

A back-lash to this corporate framework is the development of the so-called handmade movement, as witnessed by the popularity of Etsy (www.etsy.com), a place in which artists and crafts people can sell their handmade items. However, postmodern mass culture is still very much based on mass media run by corporations. A great deal of people’s sense of identities, for example, relies on the television, which reinforces the idea of consumer culture (through advertising using this media) and which democratises taste and social relations (Dunn, 1999).

Television, whilst dependent on stereotyping and ritualisation to get its message across, is the site of intersection of multiple social and cultural determinations, a site of multiple messages with intersecting genres, images, styles and experiences. There is, therefore, heterogeneity of television culture, which can provide fuel for the parameters of self experience and identity formation. Indeed, television was the first mass media format to reach a wide range of people, globally, and to encourage people to explore ideas of self and identity.

Gauntlett (2002) discusses the influence of television on identity, from the viewpoint of Giddens’ that we are in a period of late modernity, not yet at a fully post-modern stage, in which the role of tradition is declining and where identities are fluid. As Gauntlett (2002) argues, there are now choices presented to individuals, daily, regarding ‘ways of living’. This is translated into the fact that individuals have to face up to these decisions daily, are forced to assess the ways in which they are living daily, with every new onslaught on their sense of self.

As Gauntlett (2002) argues, the rise of ‘Girl Power’ with the Spice Girls, delineated, through labelling, with ‘Posh’, ‘Baby’, ‘Scary’ was ultimately postmodern and challenged people to define their own identities. In the postmodern world, however, individuals are not passive consumers of technology and marketing. Individuals use the props they gain from television, magazines and popular culture in general, as resources which individuals use as reference points, to think through their own sense of self and possible modes of expression of this sense of self (Gauntlett, 2002, p.256).

As Giddens argues, in the post-traditional order (he does not admit we are in a post-modern era, rather late modernism), self-identity is a reflexive project, and endeavour on which we are continually working and continually reflecting upon (Giddens, 1990; Gauntlett, 2002).

In this scenario, argues Giddens (1990), individuals are continually creating, maintaining and revising a set of narratives to describe our own lives and our position in the world. Self-identity, under this scenario, is thus not a set of traits or characteristics that could be observed but, rather, a person’s own reflexive understanding of their own biography (Giddens, 1991, p.53). As Giddens (1991, p.54) states, “A person’s identity is not to be found in behaviour not in the reactions of others but in the capacity to keep a narrative going.

The individual’s biography, if she is to maintain regular interaction with others in the day-to-day world, cannot be wholly fictive; ...it must continually integrate events which occur in the external world and sort them in to an on-going story about the self” (see Gauntlett, 2002). As Giddens (1991) argues, in this post-traditional society, our role is not defined for us, individuals have to define it for themselves, “What to do? How to act? Who to be? These are focal questions for everyone living in circumstances of late modernity - and ones which, on some level, all of us answer, either discursively or through day-to-day social behaviour.” (Giddens, 1991, p.70).

Thus, consumerism is a fact. We live in a consumerist society, which offers us the chance for multiple narratives to be developed, maintained and changed at will, as circumstances require. This fluidity in the concept of self and in the process of identity formation is a very postmodern phenomenon, with such multiple narratives being upheld through consumerism, of commodities such as consumer wares, or of mass media, either through television, magazines or other popular culture formats.

This atmosphere presents individuals with a variety of lifestyle formats and choices. Lifestyles acting like genre, to provide a background for one’s own particular brand of consumerism, leading to one’s own particular brand of identity through the construction, in the Giddenian sense of the reflexive self, of our own narratives, telling the story of who we are and how we got here.

Chapter 5

Globalisation and Identity

Globalisation is an umbrella term that is used to describe increasing global connectivity and integration and also interdependence in economic, social, technological, cultural and political spheres. Singer’s 2002 book One World: The Effects of Globalisationshows the ethical consequences, and the consequences for notions of self, of national borders and state-centrism blurring, meaning that individuals increasingly come to share one, the same, world. Singer (2002) argues that this decentralization of the world’s markets and drivers, and the construction of this new, wholly global society, makes them interdependent, constituting the basis for an entirely new ethic.

This new ethic, according to Singer (2002), accommodates the interests of everyone living on the planet, not just those select few who happen to be lucky enough to live in the ‘developed’ world, and to have access to everything they need. Singer (2002) argues that this new ethic is beginning to manifest itself in society, and that, at no previous point in history has such a truly global ethic been developed.

This ethic is manifested in the ways in which certain individuals choose to speak out against global issues, such as free trade and global warming, as a way in which to define their self. Their sense of identity, their reflexive narrative understanding of their own self is as part of this global movement.

Singer (2002) argues that a new moral philosophy needs to be developed that is no longer dependent on borders but which is dependent on this idea of ‘one world’. We can, through technology, connect to anyone and anywhere we wish, and so, in some sense, the narratives of self that are maintained are maintained in the knowledge of our global position, our global responsibility.

Singer (2002) thus argues for a change in how we view our moral responsibilities across borders, due to the process of globalisation, arguing that morality itself has become globalised, and that, as such, we need to consider all citizens of the planet in our decisions, not simply just those in our immediate surroundings. This is, of course, a consequence of our sense of selves being extended from our local environment to a more global context.

Globalisation is generally agreed to result in an increasing overall homogeneity, and an increase in standardisation, in broad terms, across the world, due to the swapping of local business and media by multinationals.

As Hall (1997) and Giddens (199) argue, this homogenising tendency leads to ‘crises of the self’ (Hall, 1997) and to re-definitions of self, on the basis of reflexive narratives (Giddens, 1990). As Hall (1997) argues, in the newly globalising world, individuals are both producers and consumers of culture at the same time, leading to the situation in which identity is in crisis.

Old identities, which stabilised the social world, are in decline and new, fragmented, identities are becoming prominent, leading to the ‘crisis of the individual’, which Hall (1997) sees as part of a wider process of change that is dislocating the central structures and processes of society, consequently undermining the frameworks that gave individuals stable anchorage in the social world.

Giddens (1990) contends that as different areas of the globe are drawn in to interconnection with one another, waves of social transformation crash across the whole earth’s surface, changing the nature of modern institutions. These institutions then take on new forms and are organised on quite different principles, disembodying the social space, lifting relations out from the local contexts of interaction and restructuring them across indefinite time-space dimensions (Giddens, 1990), leading to discontinuities.

“...the transformations involved in modernity are more profound than most sorts of change characteristic of prior periods. On the extensional plane, we have served to establish forms of social interconnection which span the globe; in intentional terms they have come to alter some of our most intimate and personal features of our day-to-day existence.” (Giddens, 1990, p.21).

As Ernst et al. (2006) argue, culture has, through the process of globalisation and through the enabling force of technology, made the world smaller and more accessible, leading to cultures merging and traditions being swept away and ultimately, to the ‘bastardisation’ of cultures. As Ernst et al. (2006) show in their cultural survey, this ‘bastardisation’ does not lead to a blanket homogenisation of culture, but rather to different individual responses to the consequences of globalisation.

They argue that the rise of the handmade culture is a response to globalisation, that individuals are expressing themselves through their creativity, something that is enabled, as never before, in this technological world in which one can buy a laptop with enough editing software to be able to produce video, music, high quality photographs and all manner of other programmes to enable creativity and connectedness.

Ernst et al. (2006) thus argue that, in spite of globalisation appearing to lead to homogenisation, a process of crises in identity (Hall, 1997) and an evaluation of an individual’s reflexive narratives (Giddens, 1990), leads to an outpouring of creativity and to the active production of ‘self’ through this creativity. For Ernst et al. (2006), therefore, globalisation in the postmodern world, allows multiple narratives to be creatively developed, tested and upheld as and when desired. Globalisation is actually, therefore, actively leading to the creation of individuality (Ernst et al., 2006).

Ruediger (2006) takes this argument further, stipulating that; “Globalization is not the problem as such...The real problem is that cultures lack the strength to cultivate and enforce values outside of economic norms and widen their transnational scope successfully. Globalization enhances a cultural crisis. “Culture” is not referred to here as a mere cultural branch, which offers an array of entertainment from pure spectacle to modern free time pleasures.

Simply put, culture is a society-dependent, tradition-based, cognitive and value-building ritual and reflection canon. It creates a commitment (in attitude and behaviour), to values...in regards to ethics and morals...In individuals, it also creates the cognitive ability in dealing with complexity, which is essential to the existential and personal search for identity and freedom...” (Ruediger, 2006, p.157).

Thus, globalisation, in this sense, is a force that inspires an enabling of the multiple narrative development of a sense of self, through searching, creatively, for a sense of one’s own identity. The choice of clothes one wears, the choice of friends, the choice of books/blogs/magazines one reads, all of these can be freely made, from a global pool, in order to construct a narrative for one’s sense of self that is workable for that individual.

The globalisation of ideas, of information, has thus been a great enabler of the post-modern development of self identity, in terms of opening up the number of possible narratives and providing evidence that alternative narratives are not only possible, but also desirable.

Therefore; “One does not simply become an integral part of a given culture, but rather trends and fads decide on the validity of a person and give proof that one is capable of becoming integrated as an individual..In fact, we are recipients, members of consumer target groups, who perform quasi-religious acts of substitution in the name of cultural self-conception.” (Ruediger, 2006, p.154).

The globalised world enables such self-directed participation, as active creators of one’s own identity, where an individual will ‘fit in’ somewhere, due to the re-defining of social space as a variety of niches, all of which are open for new members who have defined their reflexive self on the basis of that particular narrative.

Chapter 6

Conclusion

This chapter will provide a review of the main conclusions of each previous chapter and will then present a summary of conclusions regarding the issue of identity formation in the postmodern world.

In Chapter 1, postmodernity was discussed, and it was seen that postmodernism, can be defined as a reaction to modernism, as a state (or complex set of states) that lacks a clear organizing principle which embodies complexity, contradiction, ambiguity and interconnectedness.

It was seen that some academics question the presence of postmodernity, arguing that postmodernism does not exist. Giddens (1991), for example, prefers to use the term ‘post-traditionalist’ to describe the state of society at the moment. Postmodernism is, to some, a world view, whereas to others, it is little more than a ‘buzz word’ (Hebdige, 2006).

As was seen, Kirby (2006) argues that, following the rise of pseudo-modernism, postmodernism is dead, with other authors arguing that postmodernism was never a movement, rather only “...the rough outline of a set of self-referential ideals than a genuine cultural movement.” (Willis, 2007, p.44).

Chapter 1 then moved on to ask ‘what is identity in a postmodern world?’ finding that, for many, identity is now a fluid concept, an open question, a construct that is built as one moves along, according to one’s environment and one’s interests and interactions: be these physical or virtual. In a postmodern sense, the self is shifting, fluid, or as Berzonsky (2005) argues, identity is dynamic, multiplistic, relativistic, context-specific and fragmented (Berzonsky, 2005). As Berzonsky (2005) argues, ego identity may serve as a way in which individuals reach out from a personal standpoint in a fractured, postmodern world.

Chapter 2 is the literature review and methodology. The literature review was done using both the internet searching for the relevant bibliographic databases and the sources of authority. A list of the literature used is detailed in the References section of this work.

This study was conducted, using a library/literature based approach method. No primary research was conducted to gather empirical data. This was due to several factors including, insufficient human resources and time restraints. Furthermore, factors such as the highly theoretical standpoints, and at times sensitive nature of some of the topics (recreational drug consumption) explored in this study, lent considerable support to the proposed appropriateness of choosing this particular research method in this instance.

Chapter 3 looked at recreational drug taking and the culture that surrounds this fact. In conclusion, recreational drugs are used widely by youth, across the world, especially those connected with the dance scene in some way, although it is known that children as young as 11 or 12 are using cannabis on a regular basis (see McCrystal et al., 2006), and so the ‘drug problem’ is not just confined to clubbers.

Chapter 4 looked at the issue of consumption and identity, arguing that postmodernism has led to a shift in the bases for identity formation, something that itself, per se, marks the postmodern era. As Lyon (2000) puts it, we are recipients of entertainment, shopping for a self.

It is concluded that we live in a consumerist society, which offers us the chance for multiple narratives to be developed, maintained and changed at will, as circumstances dictate.

Chapter 5 looked at Globalisation and Identity. The globalised world enables self-directed participation as active creators of ones own identity.

Individuals are freer than ever before to enter in to a reflexive narrative process regarding how they have created themselves and how they want to develop themselves in future. We can watch this reflexive narrative process (Giddens, 1991) almost daily, as individuals constantly create new ‘selves’ in the reality TV programmes that bring us stories of would-be singers, celebrities, Entrepreneurs, dancers, and so on (“Pop Idol”, “The Hills”, “The Apprentice” and “Dancing with the Stars,” for example).

In many such programmes, we are shown amateurish individuals, who are then taken through a process of development, leading to them becoming what they have always wanted to be (a singer, or a dancer or a chef, and so on, depending on the particular programme). The whole of Giddens' (1991) reflexive narrative theory is laid bare for viewers.

These shows tell us that we can reinvent ourselves, we can hold multiple narratives regarding our sense of ‘self’: it is there, for us to see, with our own eyes! Perhaps this is postmodernism in action, the creation of manufactured selves through the choosing of a pathway through multiple possible narratives.

The world has never been so open and information has never flowed so freely: it is natural that identity would be fluid in times such as these, where the possibilities are open for anyone to form any narrative they wish, in an environment where any narrative can find a place, physical or virtual.

In summary; self identity and postmodernism is a complex issue, constantly being (re)shaped by many factors, such as globalisation and the subsequent loss of traditions that this process entails.

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这项工作应在后现代世界中的身份形成的想法。首先,在后现代主义的定义和身份的形成,然后移动来形容身份是如何形成的。尤其是来讨论的,是吉登斯的“反身性的自我”和霍尔的'危机的自我'理论'的感觉,从娱乐性药物的使用例子时绘制和寻找如何消费和全球化已导致多个自我的叙述陈述。
第1章
简介:后现代主义与身份形成
什么是后现代?后现代主义,现代主义的反应;是一个国家(或一套复杂的状态) ,缺乏一个明确的组织原则,它体现的复杂性,矛盾,模糊和相互。 ,也许,这是本质上来说,与现代普遍不满的体现,反映了根本改变态度对已经在过去,对长期持有的信念。
每个人,似乎有不同的看法,后现代主义实际上是什么。后现代主义有不同的定义,在不同的研究领域,并根据不同的学者在研究这些不同的赛场。有些学者甚至反对后现代的存在,后现代主义认为不存在。
吉登斯(1991 ) ,例如,喜欢使用术语“后传统”来形容此刻的社会状态。后现代主义,对一些人来说,世界观,而给别人,这是一个'时髦词语' ( Hebdige ,2006年)多一点。
柯比这种情绪的Hebdige (2006) (2006年)的基础上。他认为,伪现代主义的兴起之后,后现代主义是死的,而其他作者认为,后现代主义从来就不是一个运动,而只有“粗线条了一套自我指涉的理想不是一个真正的文化运动。 “ (威利斯, 2007年,第44页) 。许多人称为后现代主义没有意义的,在其最深刻的感觉,运动作为一个整体,事实上,如果它可以被称为“运动” ,也无助于我们的集体知识基础。
然而,这种现象被标记,在这个不断变化的身份形成的想法, '后现代'的气氛是利益。个人如何,在此断裂,多叙事社会,形成自己的身份吗?这当然是一个继续增长的社会学意义的主题,为建设我们的身份有关的因素和条件已经改变,多元化,传播和在这个“后现代的世界变得更有活力。
认同的形成是一个人的发展的过程,是不同于其他人的个性。此方法的作用定义个人,不仅给他人,而且他们个人自我( Levine等人,2002) 。在如何保持这个定义而言,身份是通过一个独特的发展过程驱动,增强通过连续性和从属( Levine等,2002) 。认同形成的过程中,最终导致个人身份的概念,通过个人主义和了解一个人的自我概念(见Levine等,2002) ,身份是伪造的。
在一个后现代的世界是什么身份?对于许多人来说,现在的身份是一个流动的概念,一个开放的问题,是一个结构,是建立作为一个移动沿,根据自己的环境和自己的利益和互动,这些物理的或虚拟的。在后现代意义上的自我转移,流体,或Berzonsky (2005)认为,身份是动态的, multiplistic ,相对论,上下文特定的和零散的( Berzonsky , 2005年) 。此外, Berzonsky (2005) ,自我认同可能成为个人达到从个人的角度来看,在此断裂,后现代世界的一种方式。
凯尔纳(1995)和费瑟斯通(1991 )认为,身份,在后现代的世界,是密切确定的产品是提供给媒体和个人休闲产业( 2003)奥特,主动消费。一些学者,同时不同意这个机制,同意社会 - 文化因素和力量,即结构差异,并随后创建身份必不可少的界限,已经发生了巨大的变化在最近十年( 2003年奥特,见凯尔纳, 1995 ;罗西瑙1992年和范,1996 Poecke ) 。
作为海报的状态, “ ......后现代社会是新兴孕育形式的身份不同,甚至相反的,那些现代性。 ” (OTT , 2003年,第58页) 。凯尔纳(1995 )认为, “......一个是母亲,一个儿子,德州人,苏格兰人,教授,社会主义,天主教,一个女同志 - 或者更确切地说,这些社会角色的组合和可能性。因此,身份仍相对固定和有限的,虽然界限可能的身份,新的身份,不断扩大“。 (OTT , 2003年,第63页) 。
随着商品经济模式转变为基础,以服务为基础,从集中大规模生产的一个跨国家,全球化与生产,个人不太可能找到他们的身份在预先给定的类别和所赋予的角色,如“阶级,性别和种族下降的社会意义“ (见克鲁克等, 1992年,第84页) ,而思想和风格的主动消费增长的重要性(见凯尔纳, 1995年) 。这样,差异 - 通过这 - 身份,现在是定义和肯定,通过消费者的选择,并且,最终,因此,通过消费(见奥特, 2003年) 。
奥特( 2003)认为,文化产业进行的身份形成的两个主要功能:它为消费者提供了他们如何成为明确的身份识别模型,同时也为消费者提供了与符号资源(重新)建构自身身份。文化的媒体,如电视,杂志和一般的广告,从而来塑造的身份的性质,通过提供的身份识别模型和符号资源,通过所选择的身份(奥特,2003年) 。
,由于奥特(2003)认为这种采购的身份可以导致严重的问题,如失去了自己的视线:作为奥特( 2003 ,第74页)的状态,在他的辛普森的的exemplifier后现代身份建设的分析, “荷马吃,荷马的饮料,荷马嗝,但在现实中,有没有什么所谓的“荷马史诗”超越了吃,喝,嗳气。
有没有背后做。荷马是只是他的行动的总和,并没有更多的......在这种模式下,受蒸发和所有社会和政治行动变得徒劳的和荒谬的。“同样,在后现代的世界里,认同的形成是如此紧密相连的消费,它是容易忽视的真实的自我,在这么多的身份,通过媒体,抛出一个中间。
虽然,正如Berzonsky (2005)主张,自我认同可能服务作为其中个人达到了从个人的角度来看在一个破碎的,后现代的世界的方式,通过个人的自我感保留下来,为的东西,是,是,适应消费,但实质上是,自己的经历和决定有关产品的'自我' ,此外,自我身份裂隙,流体,后现代世界中的行动和决策提供个人角度。
Berzonsky (2005年) ,因此,在后现代意义上的身份是一个流动的概念。可以,但是,没有多重身份,定义,身份是“一个奇点,随着时间的推移和地点” ( Berzonsky , 2005年,第133页) ,保守的一些维度固定。 Berzonsky ( 2005 )指出,不能是多重身份,多个方面,而只有一个人的个性,通过消费暴露的东西是允许个人表达他们的个性的不同方面,不同的采购。
总之,在后现代时代的身份形成已产生,依赖,消费作为驱动力。 Berzonsky认为, “追求实现认同感是重要的,因为我们生活在一个相对论,后现代的年龄不断的社会,政治,经济和技术的变化,这需要一个人的自我的不断变化的表情。 ” ( 2005 , Berzonsky ,第133页) 。
虽然后现代主义要求的流动性,这种流动性对瞬息万变的刺激产生不同的反应,通过改变一个人的多面的性格的不同方面表达。 Berzonsky (2005)观点的身份形成在后现代世界中是不奥特(2003年) ,这表明,没有什么,但一个真空存在于一个人的核心提出的那样悲观,但在后现代时代的身份形成的两种理论方法多重叙事的发展依靠的流动性后现代主义的概念,呈现给个人的方式处理。后续章节的工作将集中在进一步扩大这些想法。
第2章
文献回顾与方法
本节将描述如何进行文献回顾,这项工作的基础,形成在用于搜索的方法,使用,这项工作的基础上形成的文献。本节解释究竟是如何进行文献回顾,实际上做了什么,以便找到文献已被用来作为这项工作的基础。本节主要描述的方法被用来提供一个具体的研究分析,在这项工作中,即利息的问题, “在这个后现代的世界是如何形成的身份吗?”
从本质上讲,是一个文献综述的分类和全面评估先前已被刊登在一个特定的主题最相关的作品。文献综述通常取决于特定的研究目标,因此,它提出了一个系统的,全面的审查工作,先前已发表在该特定话题感兴趣组织。
从这个基础上,需要进一步研究的具体感兴趣的话题进行决策可以,从以往的作品对这个问题的深入理解。一,充分认识现有的文献不仅提供了一个全面检讨现有的文学,但也将让研究员决定哪些具体的子课题,例如,需要进一步调查。
因此,通过这种方式,可以告知一个文献综述不仅是当前的研究计划,但也映射为今后的研究方式。后由于考虑到人力资源和必要收集主要经验证据,证明这个特定的研究相关的时间框架,采用完全基于文学库的方法被视为最有效和务实的研究方法。
这项工作的范围内, '文学'不仅指教科书和专业学术书籍,如文学,但也给相关的研究文献,通过出版的期刊文章。因此,相关利益问题的研究文献回顾有多种用途,包括,因为已经看到,目前的研究方案是如何适用于与先前的研究主题上,呈现交替的景色,为了让评估建议研究应如何进行,并且,最后,表示目前的研究课题相关的,以前的工作进行了评估,并已充分理解,验证通过目前的研究计划的支持,以前发表的著作(见哈特,1999年) 。
通常开始之前,任何新的学术研究进行文献回顾,因为,因为已经看到,彻底的文献综述提供什么样的研究已经进行了全面的概述,并提供了进一步的信息,比如如何分析或其他研究人员已经解决类似的问题。在这个意义上,文学评论是现有文献对被摄物体,但一个简单的回顾,也是这项工作的评价和现有的作品之间的关系(哈特,1999年) 。
文献综述还允许的评价之间的关系的研究,现正提出和现有的研究,提供研究者食粮,基于先前已经。从这个意义上说,回顾文献把工作正在提议在上下文要求任何数量的有关问题,关于什么是已知的对感兴趣的话题,什么之间的关系是关键的想法,什么想法已经存在了解的话题,需要什么证据,最终达到拟议的研究文献进行(见哈特, 1999)的结论和贡献。
本练习中,虽然它可以被看作是耗时的,可以是有价值的决定方法的研究过程中,如何处理这些问题,以及如何呈现一次文献回顾相关文献有什么问题被搜查,评估和总结(与教学,1988) 。
回顾以前的工作,因此,可以提供一个实用指南,研究如何进行应该进行,从之前的研究正式开始,直到最终完成(马德森,1992) 。
的文献,如本节中所述,彻底检讨的主要目的是搜索和查找相关文献,阅读和已经发现的信息进行分析,评估信息,通过查找相关信息文献中,在以往的文献定位的框架内进行( Muskal ,2000)的研究。
这需要许多技能,比如知道如何获取必要的信息,收集和组织信息,能够批判性地评价这一信息进一步研究的问题和发展,一旦信息收集和评估(芬克,2004) 。
为了寻找相关文献,标准文献数据库,可用于(哈特,1999年) 。 ,例如,如果一个人希望找出身份是如何在后现代世界的形成,首先需要知道一些关于身份的形成和后现代主义一般,因此,进入这些作为搜索条件。然后,人们会等待数据库返回任何相关的,现有的,文学的细节。
这样的通用搜索方面通常会提供数以百万计的非特异性的文章,如果是这样的话,可以进入更具体的搜索条件缩小搜索条件,例如,“身份的形成和后现代主义'或'安东尼吉登斯。通常的程序是窄,进入到这样的地步,只有文学包含的具体信息,具体的研究感兴趣的话题,返回的搜索字词。
这些文章,然后看了看细节,或使用其他搜索为基础。例如,一个“引”搜索可以被执行,将返回的其他相关文章,专注于特定的感兴趣的话题,引用了原来的文章作为参考。这种类型的搜索,显然会返回最近的工作,在某种程度上已经引用了原创性研究文章,或者通过使用的文章作为自己的研究的基础或使用结果的文章,以支持一些新的发现。
然后搜索书目数据库( )的结果应该被收集在一起,因为这些将形成任何进一步的学术文献中关于这一主题的工作审查的基础。书目数据库检索是一个公认的研究工具,因此,是一个公认的伦理研究工具( Anson和施韦格勒,2000) 。
文学如何对这项工作的寻求方面,如“后现代主义者的身份” , “吉登斯和”认同的形成“的条款被用来作为搜索条件,其中包括许多其他国家。作为科学的书目数据库。这个数据库包含大多数文章发表在上世纪,涵盖了心理学和哲学的领域,其中包括。在决定哪些文献书目数据库搜索,不同的标准被用来评估文献是否应包括或不。
文献书目数据库搜索返回阅读,如果它是普遍关心的主题,即如果它包含身份的形成和后现代主义的任何信息,如果文学是最近(即,在过去十五年出版)因为只有最近的文章会包含最新信息。
文学有用的语境研究,提供的一般概述的话题。在这项工作中所使用的文学选择,如果它包括身份的形成和后现代主义的具体信息。在工作中使用的文献列表中给出的参考部分,在年底的工作。
在别人的工作如何可以纳入到自己的研究方面,有必要建立在其他研究人员的工作,为了让知识,就某一特定主题,是先进的。研究募集资金,以这种方式使用他人的作品,作为一个起点;使研究不重复,因此,研究移动积极的方向发展,建立建设性的别人的工作(与教学,1988) 。
因此,使用他人的作品,通过文学的发展为基础的工作,完全合乎道德的,以前的工作参考和引用(马德森,1992),在随后的工作中正确的条件。然后,在此基础上,利益文献书目数据库检索和利用是一个有效的协议进行研究。
第3章
后现代认同形成的例子
药品娱乐文化
身份的形成在后现代世界的一个例子是服用软性毒品。服用软性毒品增加了舞蹈和狂欢的场面在20世纪80年代的发展,增加发展过程中的“泡吧”场景。
民意调查显示,高达79%的舞客嗑药在一些点在他们的生活中,最广泛使用的软性毒品,摇头丸,大麻和可卡因。虽然氯胺酮,海洛因和GBH调查(民政厅调查,2003年)的答复中也提到。
同一调查(家庭办公室,2003)发现,大多数的人士接受本报记者采访时认为,吸毒是他们生活的一个组成部分,这加剧了他们的泡吧经验。大部分的受访者承认在同一天晚上,每次他们去泡吧的使用嗑药饮酒。
这一发现是不是说,吸毒是广泛存在于一般的青年人口,因为许多年轻人不“舞客” ,因此,也许,不涉及药物的场景(见Measham等,2001) ,但是,康乐吸毒是许多年轻人的生活的很大一部分,他们的方式,表达自己,找出自己和别人。为什么呢?
鼓励年青人的娱乐性药物的使用? Coggans麦凯勒(1994)看看年青人的药物使用,审查发现存在的因果关系,几乎没有实际证据,因为这样的作用,在起病使用非法药物的“同侪压力”的重要性;个人选择药物服用的需求进行分析。
由于Coggans麦凯勒(1994)认为,个人自由选择嗑药,这是否绑定与同行或社会互动,并选择这样做是没有,因此,一定同侪压力的函数。
诺瓦切克等。 (1991 )看了看,发现有五个主要的解释为什么青少年承认使用嗑药:归属感,他们有乐趣,配合问题,增强创造力之间的青少年使用软性毒品和应付的侵略,他们自己内心的感受。药物使用的频率相对应的不同的原因。
此外,诺瓦切克等。 (1991)发现,有年龄和性别的药物使用之间的特定关系,药物使用背后的原因,老年男性,例如,更可能承认使用药物的快感,和年轻的女孩更倾向于承认自己使用药物促进归属感。
多恩(1975 )着眼于不同的功能和品种的药物的使用可能的解释,发现社会给一个标签,使用药物(通常是全负),以决定如何起诉毒品使用。这是通过发展政策,实现社会控制的影响,以及如何对待需要帮助的吸毒者。
多恩( 1975)认为,有,但是,许多不同的原因,个人采取药物,包括社会和经济的角度来看,和个人活动,导致个人决定尝试毒品。以上航线使用毒品说个人的身份已经为自己树立的东西,因为这样身份的形成,代表了一种截然不同的路线。
,由于达夫(2004)认为,娱乐性药物的使用不超过“实践自我' ,如福柯说,一个人的自我的表达,因此,应该将处理与使用'中庸'的道德,而不是作为非法为害社会。达夫( 2004)认为,引用福柯和他的思想的愉悦,不同的角度对娱乐性药物的使用,有助于理解年轻人之间的娱乐性药物的使用性质的变化,从而提供新的概念框架,以尝试获得政策控制药物使用。
达夫(2005)继续这一推理,看着她“党的人” ,找到(在常见的家庭办公室, 2003年) ,这一群年轻人当中,药物的使用一直是“归” ,成为娱乐性药物的使用,其中包括他们的休闲时间的正常组成部分,正常,例如,有一个啤酒抽着烟。
由于达夫(2005)认为,这种正常化政策制定方面的伤害最小化方案的影响。嗑药对于青年采样达夫(2005) ,已通过危险和非法的东西,东西是正常的,可以接受的同龄人之中,和更广泛的社会中,他们打成一片。
对于年轻的人谁采取定期嗑药,因此,药物是不可或缺的一部分,他们的身份形成的后现代。
毫无疑问,由于种种原因,他们不应该服用这些药物对他们来说,这绝对是正常的行为,保护他们的安全,并保证从朋友通过购买他们的首选药物(另见,夏洛克和康纳,1999)。
这项方便,安全,进入对药物也许解释了与受访者承认自己吸毒,并使用他们的药物的易用性和舒适性对他们来说,这是一个自然的,安全的,可以做的东西,他们的社会生活中很自然的一部分。他们中的许多人不服用药物的事实,他们提出质疑:它是自然的生活方式,他们选择了自己(达夫,2005年)的任何其他部分。
周杰伦(1999)着眼于年轻人为什么采取软性毒品的问题,主张从传统的医疗框架,这表明,人们服用药物,因为他们成为沉溺其中,从一个新的角度来看,这表明人们服用药物的乐趣(另见Parker等人,1998) 。
后者的假设似乎是有道理的。是的,毕竟给嗑药的乐趣,因而,给虐待行为与它们相关联的记录较少。为了消遣消遣药物使用,甚至被指出在动物王国(周杰伦, 1999年,1989年,见西格尔) 。
周杰伦(1999)进一步指出,点缀在这个想法的快感,娱乐性药物的使用的主要动机是社会有一个事实,即在一般情况下,变得更爱冒险和包容作为一个整体。这是一般的社会环境导致的氛围,使青少年成长假设实验嗑药是可以接受的行为,成为他们的成长期的一部分,当他们形成自己的身份。
他们,当然,实现服用软性毒品是非法的和潜在的危险,但是,达夫(2005年) ,他们的风险降到最低确保供应信任的同侪,并通过违法问题通过引用越大,逍遥法外,犯罪会在他们周围的事实,酒精 - 现在的法律 - 也是非法的,只有几十年前。
因此,药物的使用是非法的问题是没有一个真正的关心他们,因为他们吸毒,他们被认为是一个正常生活的一部分,如果他们保持低调,并在个人层面上,他们是不大可能受到惩罚。
麦克里斯特尔等。 (2006)着眼于药物使用模式之间的11至12岁的年轻人,发现有高水平的药物使用在这些年龄段的孩子,他们中的许多人出现,否则'好'学生。这些学生使用的药物多种多样的原因,其中有许多是围绕贪图享乐和缓解无聊。极少数情况下,同侪压力的报道。
虽然有药物的使用建议,已经成为正常现象,这一群孩子当中,类似的其他研究已经讨论过(如周杰伦, 1999年, 2005年和达夫) 。由Bahora等人报告了类似的结果。 (2008年) ,谁看了在忘我使用在美国,得出的结论之间的受访者,迷魂药的使用被视为正常的行为,因为,“每个人都做的东西。再次,娱乐性药物的使用是形成一个人的身份的一种方式;确定自己与其他软性毒品使用者,进入社会的那一段被接受。
总之,嗑药被广泛用于世界各地的青年,其中相当大的比例被认为是在某种程度上与舞蹈场景。这就是说,它也被称为为11或12岁的儿童使用大麻定期(见麦克里斯特尔等人,2006) , “毒品问题”并不仅仅局限于舞客。作为药物使用的动机提出许多理由,在这篇文章中,同侪压力,药物将有什么样的影响他们的好奇心,归属感,以应对可能遇到的问题青年,提升创造力和乐趣,应对侵略他们自己内心的感受。
不同的原因主要是相应的药物使用的频率(见诺瓦切克等人,1991) 。也已经看到,人们都表示,他们服用药物,因为它被认为是正常的这样做,无非是与众不同的, “每个人都做它的左右,因此,他们太(见,例如,达夫, 2005年)。因此,有许多不同的原因,为什么人们开始服用,并继续使用软性毒品,其中有一个伪造身份的基础。
第4章
消费和身份
邓恩(1999)认为,后现代主义,导致基地的转变身份的形成,它本身的东西,本身,标志着后现代时期。作为里昂(2000)如此雄辩的短语: “......我们是受助人的娱乐,购物为自我。 ” (里昂, 2000年,第75页) 。发展信息技术和能力店任何地方,任何时间,减少时间和空间,这意味着我们现在要求在瞬间获取信息的能力。
人们按需“ 24/7” ,我们如何看待自己和我们的地方在世界的重新配置。我们是在一个世界,我们觉得我们知道要好得多,这是一个世界几乎可在触摸一个按钮(或挥动鼠标) ,按需。兴趣的可以瞬间找到任何任何信息。通过这个开放的,瞬间的过程,我们觉得我们是一个更大的文化比我们的历史悠久,当地的自我的一部分。
里昂(2000年) ,在他的书中耶稣在迪斯尼乐园,在后现代时代的宗教,它是一个复杂的社会环境中,一些从现代继承的动态继承,并在其中一些面目全非。里昂(2000年)后现代主义已确立了信息技术和社交网络的发展和消费的崛起。信息技术已经使世界变小,身份较为零散,消费已经允许我们表达自己从未有过。
这个过程中,而连接个人与更多的人,信息和地方比以往任何时候都可以意味着人们越来越少 - 身体的,亲密的,面对面的脸,关系连接,导致社会隔离。 McPherson等。 (2001年)显示,例如,美国人有明显减少的朋友比他们二十年以前,随着这一结果与社会隔离。
然而,同质McPherson和史密斯心爱的假设(1987) - 的朋友有相似的性格和身份 - 仍持有的“虚拟”的朋友。网上论坛的成员,例如,谁成为亲密过网络空间:相似的人总是会联合起来,人们的个人网络同质化的问候许多社会人口因素和人际交往的特点(见McPherson等,2001) 。
“的时候,他们是一个不断变化的”鲍勃·迪伦唱,更真实的地方是比现在,那里的儿童将自己插入到他们的iPod ,下载音乐,因为他们希望,访问互联网上的信息,当他们的愿望。这是可能的,到现在成离散的口袋包裹的世界,根据你自己的欲望。
技术已经允许个人选择如何时,他们要沟通,封山从其他乘客的iPod与网络朋友,分享共同的音乐品味,再通过iPod ,加入网上论坛,如果这是他们想要的东西做。选择无处不在,选择预期,这一代人的一项基本权利。
通过选择,通过言论自由左右,通过博客,例如,可用于几乎所有专科权益,你管我的空间等互联网网站,通过网上论坛,个人可以选择谁,他们希望与当他们想与他们进行互动。
对于许多年轻的人,这种“人工” ,网络生活,是他们的生活。它可能不是一种生活,这将是他们的祖父母识别,甚至也不理解他们的父母,但是,这是他们的现实。他们选择这样的生活方式,保持多个叙事与个人沟通,他们积极选择。
社会隔离是不关注这些人:他们驾驶自己的途径,通过他们的生活,他们要交互互动,当他们要互动,避开物理关系,赞成什么,他们认为更有意义的虚拟关系。
个人选择的人,他们不希望在有利于自己的世界进行互动(邻居,乘客等)的物理相互作用,通过他们的耳机,例如,连接到他们的iPod ,而左右。在家时,他们沉浸在自己的网上社区,如SecondLife的或任何数量的专家在线论坛致力于他们的利益。
技术使人们有选择何时以及如何与他人互动,赋予个人来支配他们的生活流的步伐,他们希望它流。许多人认为设备如iPod和网上论坛是社会minimisers的,但是,也许,后现代主义将他们标记推动者:多重叙述的推动者,例如。
SecondLife的用户会认为,社会交往发生在SecondLife ,只是'不是我们所知道的“ ,即在一个不同的,搞怪的,格式。也许SecondLife的是一个完美的后现代的环境:一个“元诗” ,允许同时进行多个,叙述宇宙。
身份,作为一个概念,可以定义由消费(邓恩,1999) ,同排量的社会关系,商品有两个后果。首先,消费文化的主要手段是通过自我构建,其次,集体身份,阶级,性别,种族,性倾向和种族,以及与常规化,制度化,社会角色被削弱或更换更加个性化,流体,生活方式'身份,建造有关消费品,大众媒体的图像和虚构的媒体字符(邓恩, 1999年,第67页) 。在这个后现代的场景,关系被削弱和“自我”的定义来依靠商品的属性分配(邓恩, 1999年,第67页) 。
自我的现代观点,作为一个综合性的社会观念,进而成为人格特质已组装通过消费品和图像的过程中的一个松散的合共所取代。
从社会角色的包装世界的大众文化认同的形成击穿被视为社会化进程,反过来,导致媒体系统的破坏情况,即传统的社会权威代理的崩溃,留下个别漂泊在世界商品化分心(邓恩, 1999年,第67页) 。
作为克罗根等。 (2006)建议,消费是中心建设青少年身份,被链接的消耗,风格和身份和风格的关键手段维持和确定个人身份和组边界。如果坚持这种风格的界限,导致风格故障,与青少年的社会生活带来可怕的后果,通过社会排斥和状态的损耗(克罗根等人,2006) 。
BOVONE ( 2006)着眼于后现代的身份和时尚的改造问题,认为衣服和身份之间的关系是较大的后现代一套理想的一部分。正如BOVONE ( 2006)认为,精确的服装的区别,在传统上被挂靠的社会阶层和社会经济地位,成为过去的事情:零散的后现代主义的理想,和共享模型的缺乏是导致使用远在服装传达给别人一个非独家的身份。
随着BOVONE的工作(2006年)显示,在生产和消费文化的改变,不再是它曾经是,与碎片和疏散文化成为主导,导致个人表达自己的身份颠覆方式(邓恩, 1999年) ,均质力。后现代主义迎来了一个时期,不断变化着的市场的商品和图像提供个人自由,表达和选择定位自己的范围内可能的“自我” 。
邓恩( 1999)认为,后现代主义已经取代了“自我实现”的想法,其中前应该某种一生的命运,与'实验'尼采意义上的自我创造。然而,在此范围内个人预计将产生新的自我形象,所有的时间,在响应他们周围千变万化的风景。
消费允许多变的流体自我表达,通过采购的对象,使一个人的自我来表达。消费提供了一个舞台上有意识的试验和选择的建设和拟定的身份(见邓恩, 1999年,第68页) 。
这已成为消费社会的兴起,以及商业增选新的文化态度和价值观,导致这个后现代时期被打成“享乐主义”和“自我实现”的时代( 1999年邓恩,可能通过) 。消费多元化的风格,个人风格的示范,无论是单独构建基于生活方式的身份或作为生活方式的认同,不同的集体和类别(邓恩,1999)的一部分的形式提供的多种可能性。
消费文化允许将建造新型的身份:要么大众市场的身份或个性化的建筑风格,通过细分市场和销售策略,目标客户有专门的口味(邓恩,1999年) 。
的商品也因此成为汽车更充分的发展,一个人的自我意识,与正在使用的商品,而不是操纵的工具,扭曲的自我意识,但作为对外的自我形成和自我实现的标识符。这一点,然而,所有范围内的'大众文化'正在运行的几个大规模的公司,谁控制的媒体渠道,并提供了一个企业为主导的现代社会的基础。因此,以消费者为基础的个人主义是不是纯粹的个人主义,而是一个苍白的模仿正宗的个人主义,不是基于成就的价值和自我价值,但商品的分配方式,以企业的框架内表达一个人的自我。
背睫毛,这个企业的框架,是发展所谓的手工制作的运动,目睹由Etsy的( www.etsy.com ) ,艺术家和手工艺人在哪个地方可以卖自己手工制作的物品的普及。然而,后现代的大众文化仍然是非常基础上,由企业运行的大众媒体。例如,依靠大量的人们的身份感,在电视上,这强化了消费文化的想法(通过使用这个媒体的广告) ,民主的味道和社会关系(邓恩,1999年) 。
电视,而依赖于成见和ritualisation的得到它的消息,整个网站的交点多个社会和文化决定,一个网站的多个消息相交流派,图像,样式和经验。因此,电视文化的异质性的,它可以提供燃料的参数的自我经验和认同形成。事实上,电视是第一次大规模的媒体格式,达到了广泛的人,在全球范围,并鼓励人们去探索自我和身份的想法。
冈特利特( 2002)讨论了电视的影响身份,吉登斯,我们正处在一个时期晚期现代的观点,尚未完全后现代阶段,在这种传统的作用下降,在身份液。冈特利特( 2002)认为,现在有个人,每天的选择,对于'生活'的方式。这是翻译成事实,即个人必须面对这些决定,每天被强制评估的方法,使他们的生活,每天在他们的自我意识,每一个新的猛攻。
冈特利特( 2002)认为, “女孩力量”的崛起与辣妹,划定,通过标签, '辣妹' , '宝贝' , '可怕的'最终是后现代和挑战的人来定义自己的身份。然而,在后现代的世界里,个人的技术和营销不是被动的消费者。个人用他们获得的道具在一般情况下,从电视,杂志和流行文化资源,个人使用作为参考点,想通过自己的意识,这种自我意识(冈特利特,2002年,表达自我和可能的模式。 256)。
吉登斯认为,在后传统秩序(他不承认,我们是在一个后现代的时代,而后期现代主义) ,自我认同是一个自反项目,和努力,我们不断努力,不断反映后(吉登斯, 1990;冈特利特, 2002年) 。
认为在这种情况下,吉登斯(1990年) ,个人不断创造,维护和修改的一套叙事来形容自己的生活在世界上,我们的立场。在这种情形下,自我认同,因此可以观察到的一组特性或特点,而是自己一个人的自反了解自己的传记(吉登斯, 1991年,第53页) 。正如吉登斯( 1991年,第54页)状态, “一个人的身份是不是在别人的反应,但在保持一种叙事能力的行为不被发现。
个人的传记,如果她保持经常性的一天到一天的世界中与他人的互动,不能是完全虚构的; ......它必须不断地整合在外部世界发生的事件,并持续对它们进行排序自我“ (见冈特利特,2002年)的故事。 ,正如吉登斯(1991)认为,在这后传统社会中,我们的角色是不是为我们定义,个人都要为自己定义, “做什么?如何采取行动?是谁?这些都是晚期现代性的情况下,每个人的生活中的焦点问题 - 的,这在一定程度上,我们所有的人回答,话语或通过一天的日常社会行为。 “ (吉登斯, 1991年,第70页) 。
因此,消费是一个事实。我们生活在一个消费社会,这为我们提供了多个叙述,将视情况需要,开发,维护和改变的机会。这种自我概念和认同的形成过程中的流动性是一个非常后现代的现象,坚持通过消费等多个叙述,等大宗商品的消费用品,还是大众媒体,通过电视,杂志或其他流行文化格式。
此气氛呈现个人生活方式的各种格式和选择。生活方式行事像流派,提供自己特定品牌的消费,通过建设一个人的自己特定品牌的身份,在Giddenian自反的自我意识,我们自己的叙事背景,告诉我们是谁的故事以及我们如何来到这里。
第5章
全球化与身份
全球化是一个总称,它是用来形容日益增加的全球连通性和集成,并在经济,社会,科技,文化和政治领域的相互依存。歌手2002年的著作同一个世界的的伦理后果Globalisationshows ,和自我观念的后果,国家的边界和国家中心主义的模糊,这意味着越来越多的个人来分享,同样,世界的影响。歌手(2002)认为,这种权力下放的世界市场和驱动程序,和这个新的,全全球社会的建设,使它们相互依存,构成了一个全新的伦理基础。
这种新的理念,根据歌手(2002年) ,可容纳每个人都生活在这个星球上的利益,而不仅仅是那些选择一些谁碰巧是足够幸运,住在“发达”的世界,并有机会获得他们所需要的一切。歌手(2002)认为,这种新的伦理开始体现自己在社会,并没有以前的历史时刻,有这样一个真正的全球伦理被开发。
某些人选择以何种方式讲出来反对自由贸易和全球变暖等全球性问题,表现在这样的伦理规范,在其中定义自我的一种方式。他们的认同感,他们的自反叙述自己的自我认识这一全球运动的一部分。
歌手(2002)认为,需要开发新的道德哲学,不再依赖于边界,但它是依赖于'同一个世界'这个想法。技术,我们可以通过连接到任何人,我们希望的任何地方,所以,在某种意义上说,保持自我的叙述都保持在我们的全球地位的知识,我们的全球责任。
歌手(2002年) ,从而认为跨越国界,由于全球化的过程中,我们如何看待我们的道德责任的变化,认为道德本身已经成为全球化,因此,我们需要考虑到所有公民的星球我们的决定,不只是那些在我们周围的环境。这是,当然,我们从我们当地的环境扩展到一个更大的全球范围的自我意识的结果。
全球化的一般同意导致在越来越同质化整体,增加标准化,从广义上讲,在世界各地,由于跨国公司的当地企业和媒体交换。
由于霍尔(1997)和吉登斯(199)认为,这种均质化倾向导致'自我' (霍尔,1997)的危机,重新定义自我,自反叙事的基础上(吉登斯,1990) 。 ,正如霍尔(1997)认为,在新的全球化的世界中,个人是文化的生产者和消费者都在相同的时间,导致的身份是危机的情况。
旧身份,稳定的社会世界,都在下降,新的,零散的,身份越来越突出,导致个人的,霍尔(1997)认为,作为一个更广泛的变化过程脱臼的一部分“危机中央社会的结构和流程,从而破坏给个人锚地稳定的社会世界的框架。
吉登斯(1990 )主张,不同领域的全球互连绘制与另一个波坠毁社会转型跨越整个地球的表面,改变现代制度的性质。然后这些机构采取新的形式和组织上完全不同的原则, disembodying社会空间,提升当地环境的相互作用和重组他们的关系跨越无限的时间空间尺寸(吉登斯,1990) ,导致的不连续性。
“......参与现代的转换比大多数种类的变化特征前期更深刻。伸展平面上,我们已建立了遍布全球的社会互连形式;在故意条款,他们已经来改变一些我们最亲密和个人的特点,我们的一天到一天的存在。“ (吉登斯,1990年,第21页) 。
作为Ernst等。 (2006)认为,文化,通过全球化的过程中,通过技术的推动力量,使世界变小,更方便,导致文化融合和传统被一扫而空,最终,的文化“ bastardisation 。作为Ernst等。 (2006)在他们的文化调查显示,这个' bastardisation “不会导致毯子文化均质化,而​​不同的个体反应全球化的后果。
他们争辩说,手工文化的崛起是一个应对全球化,个人表达自己,通过自己的创意,已启用的东西,是前所未有的,在这个科技世界,其中一个可以购买一台笔记本电脑有足够的编辑软件能够制作视频,音乐,高品质的照片和其他方案,以使各种形式的创意和连通性。
安永会计师事务所等。 (2006)因而认为,尽管全球化的出现导致均质,身份危机的过程(霍尔, 1997 )和个人的自反性的叙述(吉登斯, 1990 )的评价,导致创造力的流露和积极生产的'自我' ,通过这种创造性。对于Ernst等。 (2006年) ,因此,在后现代世界全球化,允许,多重叙事创造性地开发,测试和维护,并在需要时。实际上是全球化的,因此,积极的创作个性( Ernst等,2006) 。
的Ruediger (2006年) ,这种说法需要进一步规定,“全球化是不是这样的问题,真正的问题是,文化缺乏力量培育和执行经济指标以外的值,并成功地扩大其跨国范围。全球化增强了文化危机。 “文化”是不是这里所指的仅仅是一个文化分支,它提供了一系列从单纯的娱乐奇观现代的空闲时间乐趣。
简单地说,文化是一个社会的依赖,基于传统的认知和价值建设的仪式和反射佳能。它创建了一个承诺,态度和行为,值...在伦理道德......个人方面,它也创造认知能力处理复杂性,这是必不可少的生存和个人寻求认同和自由......“(的Ruediger , 2006年,第157页) 。
因此,在这个意义上,全球化,是一种力量,通过搜索自己的身份感,创造性,激发多重叙事的自我意识发展的一个有利的。一个穿衣服的选择,选择朋友,选择书籍/博客/杂志,一曰,所有这些可以自由地提出,从全球池,为了构建一个人的意识的自我是可行的一种叙事那个人。
思想的全球化,信息,也因此受到了极大的自我认同后现代发展的推动者,在开放了一些可能的叙事和替代叙事不仅是可能的,但还需要提供证据。
因此, “一不简直成了一个特定的文化的一个组成部分,但趋势和潮流而决定一个人的有效性,并给予证明,一个是能够成为集成作为一个个体。其实,我们是受助人,成员的目标群体消费,替代行为的执行准宗教文化自我概念的名称。 “ (的Ruediger , 2006年,第154页) 。
全球化的世界使这种自我导向的参与,作为一个人的自己的身份,在那里一个人将“适合”某处的积极创造者,因了重新的定义,社会空间为各种龛,所有这一切都是开放的新谁定义的反思性自我的基础上,特别是叙事的成员。
第6章
结论
本章将提供每个前面的章节审查的主要结论,然后将概要介绍有关身份的问题,在后现代世界的形成的结论。
在第1章中进行了讨论,后现代,它被视为后现代主义,可以定义为现代主义的反应,作为一个国家(或一套复杂的状态) ,缺乏一个明确的组织原则,它体现的复杂性,矛盾,模糊和相互。
它被认为有学者质疑后现代的存在,认为后现代主义不存在。吉登斯(1991 ) ,例如,喜欢使用术语“后传统”来形容此刻的社会状态。后现代主义,对一些人来说,世界观,而给别人,这是一个'时髦词语' ( Hebdige ,2006年)多一点。
中已经可以看出,柯比(2006)则认为,伪现代主义的兴起之后,后现代主义是死的,与其他作者认为后现代主义从来就不是一个运动,而只有“粗线条一套自我指涉比真正的文化运动的理想。 “ (威利斯, 2007年,第44页) 。
第1章移动到问“在后现代世界中的身份是什么? ”发现的是,对许多人来说,身份是现在一个流体的概念,是一个悬而未决的问题,是1沿移动建成一个结构,根据一个人的环境和一个人的利益和相互作用:这些物理的或虚拟的。在后现代意义上的自我转移,流体,或Berzonsky (2005)认为,身份是动态的, multiplistic ,相对论,上下文特定的和零散的( Berzonsky , 2005年) 。 Berzonsky ( 2005)认为,自我认同,可以作为个人达到一种方式,从个人的角度来看,在一个破碎的,后现代的世界。
第2章是文献综述和方法。通过互联网搜索相关的书目数据库和权威的来源文献回顾。使用文献的列表详细说明这项工作在参考部分。
进行这项研究,使用库/基于文献的方法的方法。没有主进行研究,收集经验数据。这是由于几个因素,包括人力资源不足和时间限制。此外,如具有很强的理论立场的因素,有时敏感性质的一些在这项研究中探讨的主题(休闲毒品消费) ,出借相当大的支持,建议在这种情况下,选择这个特殊的研究方法是否恰当。
第3章看着康乐的吸毒和文化围绕这个事实。总之,嗑药青年广泛应用于世界各地,尤其是那些与舞蹈场面在某种程度上,虽然它是已知的为11或12岁的儿童使用大麻定期(麦克里斯特尔等人,2006) , “毒品问题”是不是仅仅局限于舞客。
第4章看着消费和身份的问题时,认为导致后现代主义的转变身份形成,基地本身,本身,标志着后现代时代的东西。正如里昂(2000)所说的那样,我们是受助人的娱乐,购物为自我。
它的结论是,我们生活在一个消费社会,这为我们提供了多个叙述会,在必要情况下要发展,维护和改变的机会。
第5章看着全球化与身份。在全球化的世界中实现自我导向的参与积极创作者自己的身份。
个人自由比以往任何时候都进入到自反的叙事过程中,关于他们如何自己创建的,他们希望如何发展自己在未来。我们可以看这个自反叙事过程(吉登斯,1991) ,几乎每天都有,作为个人,不断创造新的“自我” ,带给我们想成为歌星,名人,企业家,舞蹈家,等等的故事在现实中的电视节目( “流行偶像“ , ”山“, ”学徒“和”与星共舞“为例) 。
在许多这样的计划,我们是业余的个人,然后通过一个发展的过程,导致他们成为他们一直想成为(一个歌手,一个舞者或厨师等,根据不同的特定的程序) 。吉登斯(1991)反身整个叙事理论为观众被戳穿。
这些告诉我们,我们可以重塑自我,我们可以容纳多个叙述对我们的“自我”意识:它的存在,给我们看,我们自己的眼睛!也许,这就是后现代主义在行动上,通过合理地选择制造自己创造的途径,通过多种可能的叙述。
世界上从来没有如此开放和信息从未如此自由地流入:身份将流体如这些的时候,其中的可能性是开放,任何人都可以形成任何他们希望的叙述,这是很自然的环境下,任何叙述可以找个地方,物理或虚拟。
综上所述;自我认同和后现代主义是一个复杂的问题,不断被重新塑造的因素很多,诸如全球化和随后的损失,这个过程需要的传统。
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