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代写essay,Public Transport
发表日期:2013-10-10 16:09:52 | 来源:assignment.cc | 当前的位置:首页 > 代写essay > 正文
Critically analyse the future of the public sector in developing and managing tourism destinations with focus on Public Transport in the UK (in particular Birmingham's public transport problems, buses, congestion charge, railway).

Part 1: Introduction to the problem

The United Kingdom in the past century had experienced change in various aspects including social, economic, political and cultural dimensions. What were interesting in these changes were the displacements of public policies with each changing government. The early 1970s - characterized by post-industrial social norms - witnessed the restructuring of the public sector. Public departments had individual roles to serve in the society such as the leisure department which acted as the client as well as the direct service providers for tourists and communities. The premise had been to improve the quality of life, provide recreational services and increase employment level in the leisure industry (Simmonds 1994). For this purpose the central and local governments had been entrusted with the task of funding leisure operations that provided recreational and tourism services. By becoming a public sector domain, the leisure department had been limited by the provision of resources allocated by the government. This differentiated by the needs and requirements of different regions of the country. Leisure services thus had been limited to development of parks, grounds for sports activities, libraries and museums, and leisure centres. These projects had been costly and required subsidies from the central government which also asserted power pressure onto the local government. Moreover, the government also relied on personal taxation for funding these projects. Since the government planned, strategise and implemented community leisure projects, the private sector had no cause to intervene. The uncompetitive nature of the industry thus discouraged private sector participation.

However, this trend had given way to deregulation when the UK experienced economic collapsed during the late 1970s (Simmonds 1994). The collapse proliferated urban problems during the 1980s which greatly impacted the cost-incurring leisure and recreation department. The consensus had been to reduce public expenditures and adopt the free market ideology.

The free market ideology has been based on the principles underlying the neo-liberal model. During the 1980s, both, the Thatcher government in the UK and the Reagan government in the US adopted this model (Loughlin 1998). The neo-liberal view - or Thatcherism as commonly known - has been based on the concept of individualism. Thatcherism regarded the consumer as supreme force who paid for the services and goods provided by the market. Inequality among individuals or territories had been a natural phenomenon because not everyone had the resources to enjoy the benefits they wanted to consume. The government did not intervene but rather let the “invisible hand” govern the flow of goods and services. This policy helped dispel inefficiency and wastefulness that characterized the welfare ideology of the previous decades. To encourage the private sector to enter the public sector, the government introduced CCT (Compulsory Competitive Tendering) in 1989 (Simmonds 1994). The CCT introduced the contract culture in the public administrative departments. The contract culture involved a partnership between the public and the private sector whereby the private sector provided the services while the public formulated policies for governing the market. The leisure sector which had been enduring loss, delivering inferior services due to deficit funding and incurring notional cost to the local government, too adopted the contract culture (Loughlin 1998).

The free market ideology proved to be successful for a decade or so. New departments of arts, education, environment, trade and employment emerged with goals to promote leisure and tourism in the country. These policies divested power from the central and local government. The private and voluntary sectors on the other hand had been responsible for delivering best value services to the consumers despite tough competition. During the 1990s the limitations of the CCT were recognized and eliminated. Through it, the private sector set new standards and targeted continuous improvement for efficient performance. It also generated capital funding through private financial institutions for running projects (Simmonds 1994). The success of this model promoted private wealth creation. Morality deteriorated as community based activities gave way to individualism and the primacy of the consumers. The traditional sense of society disintegrated with the establishment of the private leisure and tourism industry (Loughlin 1998).

Thus free market ideology redefined the concept of leisure and tourism. According to Hall and Page (1999) free market ideology had been characterized by non-government intervention, consumerism, private sector marketing and advertising, promotion of profitable regional cultures and opportunities, and isolated concentration of profitable economic development. All of these aspects had been pursued with the view that competition would be healthy for the economy which in turn would protect the welfare of the individuals (but not the society).

Part 2: Public Sector Participation Ideology

However, the neo-liberal model has also bred economic regionalism. Birmingham is a case at hand which has been the product of economic regionalism under neo-liberalism. The passive role of the public sector during the 1980s has given rise to leading educational, leisure, retail and culture centres in the West Midlands. The city has become one of the most accessible city centres outside London. The city also hosts 70.5 million tourists (UKTS Survey 2003) apart from visiting relatives, business travellers and other commuters. As the population increased, the number of commuters has also increased with 73% using cars, 12% use train followed by 5% plane and 4% train. Despite this fact, the infrastructure of the city cannot sustain the high traffic generated by commuters (UKTS Survey 2003). Experts at the Birmingham City Council predict that if this trend persists:

a. "the roads in Birmingham will become congested;
b. commuters will experience longer travel time; 
c. environmental conditions will deteriorate; and
d. residential areas will suffer" ("A Transport Strategy for Birmingham" 2000).

There is a great need for public sector intervention to eliminate these emerging issues in Birmingham and other urban centres in the UK. Birmingham however has been constrained by the previous neo-liberal governments.

Contrary to conventional perception capitalism in the guise of deregulation has inflicted injustices and inequalities in society. The neo-liberal ideology under the Thatcher government may have extricated the UK economy from the web of public red-tapism and bureaucracy. At the same time it has also entangled the society in conservative consumer based market without any consideration for social infrastructure and community well-being (Hutton 2002). There is a great need to change this deregulated ideology to one with new roles for the government and the public sector especially for infrastructure building. In this context, building a transport system is critical not only for communal use but also for facilitating economic progress and national communication.

According to Page (2005) there is an intrinsic link between transport and tourism. Tourism does not necessarily mean leisure activities only. It also includes activities relating to business individuals and commuters from outside the city. In a city such as Birmingham, the presence of an efficient transport system would greatly facilitate tourists and put the city on the global map. It would help the community to progress and compete at the international level. In today's age of globalism it is imperative that community planning - such as planning of a transport system - takes into account of internalization as well as its economic value (Cooper and Wahab 2001).  Hall (2000; 1996) is of the view that there is a complex relationship between ideology and tourism. Tourism is not only inherent in political or policymaking. It is also embedded in the country's political, social and cultural reality (Hall 2000; Hall 1996).

During the late 1990s, the Blair government realizing this important aspect of reforming the public sector took measures for change. Blair took some aspects of Thatcherism and incorporated some features of the welfare state to facilitate community welfare and economic progress. Notable in Blair's ideology had been the new role of the public sector (Loughlin 1999).

Under the Blair government economic regionalism continued to be the key to national strategy but the government has started to take active part in public works by relying on personal taxation to pursue social justice and equality in realizing opportunities (Loughlin 1999). Competition, the Blair government realized should be encouraged but not made compulsory as under the CCT. A government policy model thus should be based on usefulness and participation rather than alienation of the government from the mainstream social, economic and political activities (Loughlin 1999). Private sector participation should continue to be the main ingredient for driving the market but it should also be regulated by the local government. The local government would have to take initiatives and responsibility of improving the quality of the environment, planning of communities and facilitating people living in blighted areas. For Birmingham this means devising a strategy that would combat pollution, traffic congestion, deteriorating living conditions and travel time. An efficient transport system to sustain tourism and the community would be an ideal solution. Public sector policies relating to promotion of arts, education, sports complex, heritage and libraries should focus on reversing the ideology of individualism towards community participation.

Community based policies as discussed earlier not only promotes culture and values but also acceptable norms and morality. The emphasis should be to preserve the essence of community living, social cohesion and national integration rather than disintegration which would eventually breed fragmentation in the country (Elliott 1997).
Given the above paradigms and ideologies, the author presumes that the future of the public sector lies in a traditional and community development approach to public policy. Policymakers must ensure that isolation of public sector from private sector partnership does not take place again. This would enable the country to implement social oriented policies and plans effectively and efficiently.

References
Author not available, (2000) "Visions: A Transport Strategy for Birmingham", Accessed on 4-1-2006 from: www.birmingham.gov.uk
Cooper, C. and Wahab, S. (2001) Tourism in the Age of Globalisation. Routledge: London.
Elliott, J. (1997) Tourism: Politics and Public Sector Management, Routledge: London.
Hall C.M. (1996) Tourism politics, policy, power and place. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester. 
Hall, C. M. (2000) Tourism Planning, Policies, Processes and Relationships. Essex: Prentice Hall.
Hall, C.M. and Page, S. J. (1999) Geography of Tourism and Recreation, The - Environment, Place and Space. ISBN-203-19627-9
Hutton, W. (2002) The world we're in. Little, Brown.
Loughlin, J. (1999) "Autonomy is strength" from Hard Choices: Policy autonomy and priority-setting in public expenditure. CAIN Network, , Accessed on 4-1-2006 from: http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/dd/report10/report10a.htm#loughlin
Page, S. J. (2005) Transport and tourism global perspectives. Pearson Higher Education. 
Simmonds, B. (1994)   Developing Partnerships in Sport and Leisure: a practical guide. Harlow: Longman.
United Kingdom Tourism Survey (UKTS) from “UK Tourism Facts 2003” Accessed on 4-1-2006 from: http://www.staruk.org.uk//default.asp?ID=708&parentid=469

 

批判性地分析公共部门在未来的开发和管理在英国公共交通(尤其是伯明翰的公共交通问题,公交车,交通拥堵费,铁路) ,重点旅游目的地。
第1部分:问题简介
英国在过去的一个世纪中所经历的各个方面,包括社会,经济,政治和文化方面的变化。在这些变化中有什么有趣的是每个转变政府公共政策的位移。 20世纪70年代初 - 后工业社会规范 - 见证了公共部门的重组。公共部门有个别角色如休闲部门,担任客户端以及直接服务供应商,为游客和社区服务社会。前提已经提高生活质量,提供娱乐服务,并增加休闲产业的就业水平( 1994年西蒙兹) 。为了这个目的,中央和地方政府已委托资金消闲业务,提供休闲度假旅游服务的任务。成为公共部门领域,休闲部门提供由政府分配的资源受到限制。区分不同地区的国家的需要和要求。因此,休闲服务已不限于公园,文体活动,图书馆和博物馆的理由,休闲中心的发展。这些项目已经昂贵和需要还断言功率压力转嫁给地方政府从中央政府的补贴。此外,政府也依赖于个人税收,为这些项目提供资金。由于政府规划,制定战略和实施社区休闲项目,私营部门没有理由干预。缺乏竞争力的行业性质,从而鼓励私营部门参与。
不过,这一趋势已让位放松管制时,英国经历了经济在20世纪70年代末( 1994年西蒙兹)倒塌。在20世纪80年代,这极大地影响了产生费用的休闲和娱乐部门的崩溃激增的城市问题。一直共识,减少公共开支,并采取自由市场意识形态。
自由市场意识形态,一直立足于新自由主义模式的基本原则。在20世纪80年代,无论是在英国和美国里根政府,撒切尔政府通过这个模型( Loughlin 1998 ) 。新自由主义的观点 - 撒切尔主义俗称 - 一直是基于个人主义的概念。撒切尔主义把消费者作为至高无上的力量,由市场提供的服务和商品的支付。个人或地区之间的不平等是一种自然现象,因为不是每个人都拥有足够的资源,享受的好处,他们想消费。政府没有干预,而是让“看不见的手”支配的商品和服务的流动。这一政策有助于消除低效率和浪费的特点是前几十年的福利思想。为了鼓励私人部门进入公共部门,政府出台CCT(强制性竞标)于1989年( 1994年西蒙兹) 。 CCT介绍了合同行政部门在公共文化。该合同涉及的文化私营部门提供的服务,而公众制定政策,监管市场的公共和私营部门之间的伙伴关系。休闲业一直经久不衰的损失,由于赤字融资提供劣质服务,并承担成本的名义向当地政府,也通过合同养殖( Loughlin 1998 ) 。
自由市场的意识形态被证明是成功的十年左右。艺术,教育,环境,贸易和就业出现了新部门的目标,推动休闲和旅游业在国家。这些权力从中央和地方的政府政策剥离。另一方面,私人部门和志愿机构一直负责向消费者提供最超值的服务,尽管激烈的竞争。在20世纪90年代的局限性,持续关连交易进行确认和消除。通过它,私营部门树立了新的标准,高效的性能和有针对性的持续改进。它也产生了通过私人金融机构的资金运行项目( 1994年西蒙兹) 。这种模式的成功促进私人财富的创造。以社区为基础的活动恶化的道德让位个人主义和消费者的首要地位。传统意义上的社会解体建立私人休闲和旅游行业( Loughlin 1998 ) 。
因此,自由市场的意识形态重新定义休闲和旅游的概念。据霍尔及(1999)自由市场的意识形态已具有非政府的干预,消费,私人部门的市场营销和广告,推广有利可图的区域文化和机会,有利可图的经济发展和孤立的浓度。所有这些方面都被认为竞争是健康的经济,这反过来会保护个人的福利(但不包括社会)追求。
第2部分:公共部门的参与意识
然而,新自由主义模式也孕育经济区域。伯明翰是一个手一直把产品在新自由主义的经济区域。公共部门在20世纪80年代的被动角色,已经引起了领导教育,休闲,零售和文化中心,在西米德兰。该市已成为伦敦之外最方便的城市中心之一。该市还举办接待游客7050万( UKTS调查2003 )除了探亲,商务旅客和其他乘客。随着人口的增加,乘客的数量也增加了73%的汽车, 12 %的人使用火车随后飞机5 %和4%的火车。尽管这一事实,在城市基础设施不能承受的通勤者(调查2003 UKTS )所产生的高流量。在伯明翰市议会的专家预测,如果这一趋势持续:
了。 “在伯明翰的道路将变得拥挤;
二。乘客将经历更长的旅行时间;
三。环境条件恶化;
四。居民区将遭受“( ”伯明翰“2000年运输策略) 。
公共部门的干预,以消除这些新出现的问题,在英国的伯明翰和其他城市中心有一个很大的需要。伯明翰然而已经由先前的新自由主义政府的制约。
相反,资本主义在放松管制的幌子的传统观念造成的不公正和社会不平等。撒切尔政府的新自由主义的意识形态下,可能已经摆脱了英国经济从网络公共的红色tapism和官僚。与此同时,它也纠缠社会基于保守的消费者市场,没有任何代价的社会基础设施和社会福祉(赫顿2002) 。有一个很大的需要改变这种开放的思想,尤其是基础设施建设,为政府和公共部门的新角色之一。在这方面,建立的运输系统是至关重要的,不仅使用的公共也便于经济进步和国家通信。
据页(2005年)是运输和旅游业之间的内在联系。并不一定意味着旅游休闲活动。它还包括有关业务的个人和乘客从城外的活动。在一个城市如伯明翰,一个高效率的运输系统的存在,将大大方便游客,在世界地图上,把城市。这将有助于社会进步和在国际层面竞争。在今天的全球化时代的社区规划 - 如交通运输系统规划 - 当务之急是需要考虑内部以及其经济价值( Cooper和2001年瓦哈卜) 。霍尔(2000年, 1996年)是的思想和旅游业之间的关系是一个复杂的。旅游不仅是固有的政治或决策。它也嵌入在国家的政治,社会和文化现实( 2000年霍尔厅1996 ) 。
在20世纪90年代末实现这个重要的公共部门改革方面,布莱尔政府采取措施改变。布莱尔花了撒切尔主义的某些方面,并纳入了福利国家的一些功能,以促进社会福利和经济进步。值得注意的布莱尔的思想已经公共部门( Loughlin 1999 )的新角色。
根据布莱尔政府的经济区域继续为国家战略的关键,但政府已经开始积极参与在公共工程中依靠个人税收来追求社会正义和实现机会平等的( Loughlin 1999 ) 。比赛中,布莱尔政府意识到应该鼓励但不强制下CCT 。因此,政府的政策模型应根据实用性和参与,而不是政府的异化从主流的社会,经济和政治活动( Loughlin 1999 ) 。应该继续成为推动市场的主要成份为私营部门的参与,但也应该由当地政府监管。当地政府将不得不采取的举措和改善环境质量的责任,社区规划和促进秕地区居民。伯明翰,这意味着制定战略,防治污染,交通拥堵,居住条件恶化和旅行时间。效率的运输系统,以维持旅游和社区将是一个理想的解决方案。推广艺术,教育,体育场馆,文物和图书馆有关的公共部门的政策应着眼于扭转个人主义的意识形态对社区参与。
以社区为基础的政策正如前面讨论的不仅促进文化和价值观,但也是可以接受的规范和道德。应该强调的是维护社区生活,社会凝聚力和民族融合,而不是解体的本质,最终会滋生分裂的国家( 1997年埃利奥特) 。
鉴于上述范式和意识形态,作者假定的未来在于公共部门的一个公共政策的传统和社区发展方法。决策者必须确保公共部门,私营部门伙伴关系的隔离不会再次发生。这使该国能够有效和高效地实现面向社会的政策和计划。
参考文献
作者不可用, (2000年) “愿景:伯明翰运输策略”,从2006年4月1日访问: www.birmingham.gov.uk
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艾略特, J. (1997)旅游:政治与公共部门管理,Routledge出版社:伦敦。
霍尔C.M. (1996)旅游的政治,政策,电力和地点。约翰·威利父子,奇切斯特。
霍尔, CM (2000)旅游规划,政策,过程和关系。埃塞克斯: Prentice Hall出版社。
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赫顿, W. (2002年)的世界,我们英寸小布朗。
Loughlin , J. (1999) “自治就是力量”,从艰难的选择:公共开支政策的自主权和优先权设定。该隐网络,访问于2006年4月1日: http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/dd/report10/report10a.htm # loughlin
SJ (2005)页,运输和旅游业的全球视野。皮尔逊高等教育。
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