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代写留学生作业,Vengeance Theme Shakespeare
发表日期:2013-09-13 08:31:08 | 来源:assignment.cc | 当前的位置:首页 > 代写留学生作业 > 正文
Vengeance Theme Shakespeare

“Sweet is revenge-especially to women” (Barlett, 1980, pg 460). Vengeance is not just a theme created by authors; it is seen throughout the world everyday. Vengeance is repeated endlessly throughout human history and most people encounter vengeance at some point in their life. Vengeance is also a natural part of the human character. Furthermore, women seem to be more prone to jealousy than men, which then results in vengeance.

Therefore, vengeance is a universal theme which many authors introduce in their works. Sometimes, even when their works are translated to different languages; their theme can also be communicated to the audience or readers around the world effectively. Vengeance also makes a great change in human life. It may bring sadness or conflicts, sometimes even injury or death. For that reason, vengeance is an imperfection in the human character and it may cause serious destruction.

The theme of two tragic plays, The Crucible by Arthur Miller, and King Lear by William Shakespeare, has a strong emphasis on vengeance. Even though Arthur Miller and William Shakespeare were born in different periods of time, their works portray the theme of vengeance in a similar way. By comparing these two dramas through an examination of the causes of vengeance, the consequences of vengeance and the irony of vengeance, it becomes evident the plays share a universal theme which will transcend all time.

To begin with, the universal theme of vengeance in The Crucible and King Lear can be closely compared through a thorough examination of the causes of vengeance in both dramas. In The Crucible, many of the villagers show the ugliest part of humanity. Although the Puritans are well- known for their strict religious morality, various neighbours falsely accuse others because of long held resentments . In Act II, Miller writes, “Long-held hatred of neighbours could now be openly expressed, and vengeance taken, despite the Bible’s charitable injunctions… one could cry witch against one’s neighbour and feel perfectly justified in the bargain” (Miller, 1953, pg 7-8).

For example, Mr. and Mrs. Putnam blame Rebecca Nurse for the death of their seven babies. The Putnams are people who like to force others to suffer along with them because of their own unhappiness. Mrs. Putnam has given birth to seven babies and all of them died very soon after they were born (Miller, 1953, pg15). Mrs. Putnam and her husband feel angry because of the suffering they have endured. Therefore, they want others to suffer with them and they blame Rebecca Nurse for the death for their seven babies.

They eventually accuse Rebecca of witchcraft and she is condemned to death. Mr. Giles Corey also accuses Mr. Putnam of making accusations against his neighbours in order to steal their land (Miller, 1953, pg 96). When a person is accused of witchcraft, their land will be confiscated and auctioned off. Besides, Mr. Putnam is an embittered and greedy man. He is jealous of his neighbours because of all of their land and he wants to own it. Hence, he makes up a false accusation of witchcraft against his enemies.

Abigail Williams is the antagonist in The Crucible who brings about the main themes in the play. She is a whore who wants to destroy John and Elizabeth Proctor’s happy family. She has an affair with Proctor and she wants to take Elizabeth’s place in Proctor’s life. She tries to use “witchcraft” to get rid of Elizabeth, so she can be with Proctor (Miller, 1953, pg 19). All of the vengeful ideas that come from Abigail’s mind come about as a result of her painful childhood.

The weightiness of the extramarital relationship with Proctor and Abigail is the source of the tragedy in the play (Belk, 2002, pg 2). Abigail regards the immoral love with Proctor as the most important part of her life. She has never experienced the joy of love, even from her parents or any other family members. Her parents were killed in front of her and Reverend Parris, her uncle, does not care a lot about her (Woolway, 1998, pg 2). Proctor is the first person she truly loves. Thus, she will pay any price to strive for Proctor to be with her.

In Shakespeare’s King Lear, people also use vengeance for gaining power and position. Edmund is the unlawful son of Gloucester. Throughout his life, he is treated unfairly because of his status as a bastard. He feels he does not have the same quality of life as his father and brother. As a result, he plans to take revenge and take back what he thinks should belong to him (I, ii, 16). He thinks he should not abase himself as a bastard and should not suffer because of the guilt of his father.

In a soliloquy in Act I, Scene 2, Edmund is lamenting his status as a bastard when he shouts out, “Now, gods, stand up for bastards” (I, ii, 20)! This quotation shows his determination to take revenge on his father and brother. However, in reality, Edmund really cares and feels shame in the bottom of his heart about being a bastard. Usually the one who says he does not care will be the one who cares the most. The shame and sense of inferiority bring up the idea of vengeance in Edmund’s mind.

Regan and Goneril are Lear’s daughters; however Lear favours his youngest daughter, Cordelia the most. Regan and Goneril are very greedy and desire power, money and land. The love from the family is not that important for them. For this reason, these two princesses seek revenge against their father and sister. At the same time, Lear banishes Cordelia from his kingdom because he thinks she does not love him as much as the other daughters do (Gluilfoyle,1990,pg.9).

Hence, it gives the gluttonous sisters a good chance to take up retaliation upon the muddled Lear and innocent Cordelia. At the beginning, Regan and Goneril both help each other, yet they are at odds with each other in their hearts because there is conflict caused by a desire for power and nothing is more important than power and land for them. As they are closely cooperating, they both know each other well and their distrust towards each other causes the vengeance and odds between the two sisters. Also, both sisters compete with each other for Edmund’s love.

Furthermore, the theme of vengeance can be compared in these two classic dramas by looking at the consequences of vengeance. Even if it is an unreasonable settlement in the end of The Crucible; the innocent people are still willing to sacrifice themselves for the truth. Rebecca Nurse is a respectful Christian in Salem and she still keeps her virtuous Christian beliefs and personality when she is falsely accused and put to death. Although a false confession could rescue her life, she will not forsake the word of God. Proctor also has his goodness back in his soul at the end of the play and he knows that he can not surrender to Abigail and her vengeance toward his wife (Miller, 1953, pg 145). For innocent people to sacrifice for the revenge of Abigail it is a tragedy.

Even though the judges know that Proctor is innocent of witchcraft, they still have to hang him if he refuses to give a false confession. On the other hand, the result at the end is incredibly different than what Abigail planned and she has to vanish at the end. Abigail expects Elizabeth will be hanged and she can be with Proctor (Miller, 1953, pg 19). However, the outcome crosses the purpose of the revengeful girl. Not only is she not with Proctor, she has to vanish from her home town to an unfamiliar place to start her new life. After she vanishes, she has to live incognito to keep away from the trial. She is also an indirect murderer of her lover, John Proctor. She has to carry the guilt of killing her lover and the other innocent people throughout her entire lifetime. All of these seem to be retributions for her vengeance.

There are similarities between the consequences of vengeance in The Crucible and King Lear. The kind and innocent people in King Lear also die because of the theme of vengeance. Cordelia does not carry any vengeance and wants to rescue her father. However, she is captured with Lear and both of them die in prison (Guilfoyle, 1990, pg 8). Cordelia is the one who truly loves Lear the most. She presents her true love to her father by defying the power of her sisters and comes back to rescue Lear. At the end she also sacrifices for the love of her father and the vengeance originated by her two sisters.

Moreover, Gloucester is a loyal nobleman who also plans to rescue Lear. However, his plan fails and he is wickedly blinded by Regan and Cornwall and is turned out to wander the countryside (III, vii, 4-5). He suffers because of his loyalty to Lear. Regan not only resists his action, she cruelly blinds him and leaves him alones to suffer out in the countryside. His fate is tragic and one he does not deserve. Vengeance is the main cause that the kind, innocent and loyal people die for. Both of the plays also bring out a message that people who carry vengeance will come out with a bad ending. Regan and Goneril both die for the relationship with Edmund and the desire for power. For sure, their plan fails at the same time. Edmund wants to take revenge on Gloucester and Edgar, his brother, but he is killed by Edgar. The reality is totally opposite from what Edmund expects.

Finally, the irony of vengeance can also be contrasted in these two plays. In The Crucible, the innocent and moral people die for vengeance and the play ends in catastrophe (Hayes, 1953, pg 498). Even when Reverend Hale tries to save the lives of the innocent people, the public pressure makes his rescue attempt fail. Although the judges are respectful and powerful in the town, they are also helpless in front of the public. As the hysteria grows out of control, the judges cannot admit that they have made a mistake (Miller, 1953, pg 127). This is the biggest irony in the theme of the play.

Some of the condemned people sacrifice themselves to tell the truth while others falsely confess to save their lives. Some of the victims do not know the truth even until the last minutes. They are buried with false accusations and their virtuous spirits. Also, Abigail indirectly murdering her lover is an impressive irony in the play. It is so sad that a girl who would give up anything for her lover, murders her lover circuitously. Everything she does is to gain Proctor’s love. She thinks she will be successful and will be with Proctor forever. However her dream will never come true. Nevertheless, this is a wretched irony to her and this wicked, selfish, mad woman gains a bit of sympathy from the audience.

In addition, the lies used to cover up the vengeance in King Lear are also ironic and serve to foreshadow the coming tragedy. Lear must bear part of the responsibility for Cordelia’s death when he asks his daughters to say how much they love him. This request provides a good chance for his other two daughters to take revenge on him and Cordelia. Moreover, the more he favours Cordelia, the more Regan and Goneril hate him and Cordelia. This leads Cordelia to be the target of the greedy sisters’ criticism. On the other hand, it is surprising that Lear believes Regan and Goneril love him more than Cordelia does (IV, iv, 27-28).

Also, the fraud of Regan and Goneril is a great irony in the play. They do not love their father that much, yet they hate him as he just favours their younger sister. Mistrusting the people who carry vengeance is also an effective irony portrayed to the audience. Gloucester trusts his illegitimate, deceitful son, Edmund, believing that Edgar does not love him and is planning to kill him. Nonetheless, the truth is Edmund wants to take revenge on him and the innocent Edgar.

This fraud by Edmund is part of his plot. It is unexpected that Gloucester is as muddled as Lear and is blind to the truth. He also has to take part of the responsibility for the cause of Edmund’s vengeance (Guilfoyle, 1990, pg 3). What's more, both Lear and Gloucester are blind to the truth and make a gross mistake when they trust their disloyal children over their kind and loving children.

Through contrasting the causes, consequences and irony of vengeance, the similarities and differences of the way that Miller and Shakespeare express the theme of vengeance is clearly shown. Both writers portray vengeance as an immense destruction in human life. Vengeance is never positive to humans.

Vengeance in both The Crucible and King Lear cause death and sadness. Most of the protagonists have to carry a regretful heart and suffer this pain for the rest of their lives. People should hold their virtuous beliefs and always remember God’s words in their mind in order to overcome the temptations and the trials in their daily lives. People should fight for what they want in a just and honourable way. Then their conscience will be clear when they enjoy success. Vengeance for sure never results in a happy ending and it is the world’s most destructive weapon. Even though everyone knows the disadvantages of vengeance, why do they still look for vengeance?

References

1. Miller, A.(1953). The Crucible. New York: Viking Penguin Group

2. Shakespeare, W.(1990). King Lear. Toronto: Harcourt Canada

3. Woolway, J.(1998). Drama for Students. New York: Gale

4. Guilfoyle,C.(1990). Shakespeare’s Play within Play. Michigan: Western Michigan University Medieval Institude Publications

5. Hayes, R.(1953 February). Commonwealth 57: Hysteria and Ideology in The Crucible.498

6. Barlett, J.(1980). Barlett’s Familiar Quotations. Boston: Little, Brown and Company

 

莎士比亚复仇主题
“甜蜜的复仇,尤其是对妇女” ( Barlett , 1980年,第460页) 。复仇不只是一个主题,作者,它被认为是整个世界上每天。复仇是整个人类历史上不断重复的,大多数人在一些点在他们的生活中遇到复仇。复仇也是自然的一部分,人的性格特点。此外,女性似乎更容易嫉妒比男性多,从而导致报复。
因此,复仇是一个普遍的主题,许多作家在他们的作品介绍。 ,甚至有时当自己的作品被翻译成不同的语言,他们的主题,也可以有效地在世界各地的观众或读者传达。复仇也使人类生活的巨大变化。它可能带来悲伤或冲突,有时甚至会受伤或死亡。出于这个原因,复仇是一个人的性格特点和缺陷,它可能会造成严重的破坏。
两个悲惨的戏剧,坩埚由阿瑟·米勒和“李尔王”的威廉·莎士比亚的主题具有很强的复仇强调。尽管阿瑟·米勒和威廉·莎士比亚出生在不同的时期,他们的作品以类似的方式描绘复仇的主题。通过比较这两个剧通过考试的原因复仇,报复和复仇的讽刺的后果,它变得明显戏剧分享一个普遍的主题,这将超越所有的时间。
首先,复仇的坩埚和“李尔王”普遍的主题,可以密切复仇的原因在这两个剧比较,通过彻底的检查。在坩埚中,许多村民展示人性最丑陋的部分。虽然清教徒是众所周知的,其严格的宗教道德,各种邻居诬告他人因为长期持有怨恨。在第二幕中,米勒写道, “长期持有仇恨的邻居可能现在可以公开表示,和采取的报复,尽管圣经的慈善禁令, ......人能对自己的邻居哭女巫,感觉完全有理由在讨价还价” (米勒, 1953年, 7-8页) 。
例如,普特南先生和夫人丽贝卡护士怪他们的七个婴儿的死亡。的Putnams是人谁喜欢强迫别人跟着遭殃,因为自己的不快。普特南夫人先后生下7个婴儿,和所有的人很快就去世了,在他们出生后(米勒, 1953年, PG15 ) 。普特南夫人和她的丈夫感到愤怒,因为他们忍受的痛苦。因此,他们希望别人遭受与他们和他们的七个孩子的死亡,他们指责丽贝卡护士。
他们最终的巫术指责丽贝卡,她被判处死刑。 Giles先生科瑞还指责普特南先生指责他的邻居以窃取他们的土地(米勒, 1953年,第96页) 。当一个人被指控巫术,他们的土地将被没收并拍卖掉。此外,普特南先生是老张贪婪的人。他是嫉妒他的邻居,因为他们的土地,他想拥有它。因此,他诬告巫术对付他的敌人。
阿比盖尔·威廉姆斯是谁带来了在剧中的主题在坩埚的拮抗剂。她是一个妓女,谁愿意摧毁约翰和伊丽莎白·普罗克特的幸福家庭。她有外遇与宝洁她要伊丽莎白Proctor的生活的地方。她尝试使用“巫术”摆脱伊丽莎白,让她可以与宝洁(米勒, 1953年,第19页) 。所有的报复性的想法来自阿比盖尔的头脑来由于她痛苦的童年。
普罗克特和阿比盖尔的婚外关系的权重(贝尔克, 2002年,第2页)在剧中的悲剧之源。阿比盖尔关于宝洁不道德的爱情,她的生活作为最重要的部分。她从来没有经历过爱情的喜悦,甚至从她的父母或其他家庭成员。她的父母被杀害了她和牧师帕里斯,她的叔叔面前,不很在意她( Woolway , 1998年,第2页) 。 Proctor是她真正爱的第一人。因此,她会不惜一切代价争取宝洁与她。
在莎士比亚的“李尔王” ,人们也可以使用复仇获得权力和地位。埃德蒙是非法的儿子告士打道。纵观他的一生,他被视为不公平,因为他的身份,作为一个私生子。他觉得他没有相同质量的生活,他的父亲和哥哥。因此,他计划要报仇,夺回他认为应该属于他(I,II ,16) 。他认为他不应该降卑自己作为一个私生子,应该不会受到影响,因为他的父亲有罪。
在自言自语中法I,场景2 ,埃德蒙感叹他的状态作为一个私生子时,他呼喊, “现在,神,站起来混蛋” (一,二,20) !此报价显示他决心报复他的父亲和哥哥。然而,在现实生活中,埃德蒙真正关心和感到羞耻,在他的心脏底部约是一个混蛋。通常情况下,一个人说,他不关心谁最关心的将是一个。羞愧和自卑带来的复仇在埃德蒙的头脑中的想法。
里根和Goneril的是李尔王的女儿,但李尔有利于他的小女儿,郝之最。非常贪婪和欲望的权力,金钱和土地里根和Goneril的。是不是重要的,他们的爱从家庭。出于这个原因,这两位公主寻求报复他们的父亲和姐姐。与此同时,李尔撵跑,郝从他的王国,因为他认为她不爱他尽可能多的女儿做( Gluilfoyle , 1990年, pg.9的) 。
因此,它给人的饕餮姐妹一个很好的机会,采取报复后,糊涂的李尔王和无辜胜。在开始的时候,里根和Goneril双方互相帮助,但他们是在与对方在他们心中的赔率,因为有冲突造成了对权力的欲望,没有什么是更重要的不是权力和土地。他们正在密切合作,他们都知道对方以及他们对彼此的不信任,导致两姐妹之间的复仇和赔率。此外,姐妹俩争夺与埃德蒙的爱对方。
此外,复仇的主题,可以在这两个经典的电视剧相比,看着复仇的后果。即使是不合理的结算到底坩埚;无辜的人还是愿意牺牲自己的真相。丽贝卡护士是一个尊重基督教在塞勒姆,她依然保持着她的贤惠的基督教信仰和个性,当她被诬告,并置于死地。虽然作虚伪供述,可以挽救她的生命,她不会离弃神的话语。普罗克特也有他的善良早在他的灵魂在剧终,他知道他不能投降阿比盖尔向他的妻子和她的复仇(米勒, 1953年,第145页) 。对于无辜的人牺牲对阿比盖尔的报复,它是一个悲剧。
即使法官知道宝洁是无辜的巫术,他们仍然把他绞死,如果他拒绝给出一个虚假供述。另一方面,在最后的结果是比什么阿比盖尔计划,她已经消失在年底难以置信的差异。阿比盖尔预计伊丽莎白将被绞死,她可以与宝洁(米勒, 1953年,第19页) 。然而,其结果穿过的报复女孩的目的。她不仅是宝洁,她从她的家乡消失,到一个陌生的地方,开始她的新生活。她消失后,她已经,隐姓埋名远离试用。她的情人,她也是一个间接的凶手约翰·普罗克特。她进行杀害她的情人的罪恶感和其他无辜的人,在她的整个一生。所有这些似乎是为她复仇的报应。
在坩埚和“李尔王”的复仇的后果之间有相似之处。 “李尔王”中的善良和无辜的人也死了,因为复仇的主题。郝不进行任何报复,要挽救她的父亲。然而,她拍摄的李尔,他们都死在监狱(吉尔福伊尔, 1990年,第8页) 。郝是谁真正爱李尔最。她提出了她的真爱,她的父亲通过藐视的力量,她的姐妹们,回来救李尔。最后她也牺牲的爱,她的父亲和她的两个姐妹的复仇起源。
此外,告士打道是一个忠诚的贵族,他还计划在抢救李尔。然而,他的计划失败,他作恶Regan和康沃尔蒙蔽,横空出世,徜徉在农村(三,七, 4-5 ) 。因为他患有学习他的忠诚。里根不仅阻止他的行动,她残酷的百叶窗他,离开他alones在农村遭遇淘汰。他的命运是悲惨的,一个他不值得。复仇的主要原因是善良,无辜的和忠诚的人死于。两个戏也带出了一个消息,谁进行报复的人会出来一个坏的结局。里根和Goneril都死于与埃德蒙和对权力的欲望的关系。可以肯定,他们的计划失败,在相同的时间。埃德蒙想报复告士打道和埃德加,他的弟弟,但,由Edgar他被杀害。现实的情况是完全相反的,从埃德蒙预计什么。
最后,具有讽刺意味的​​复仇也可以对比这两部戏。在坩埚,无辜和道德的人死于报复和灾难结束播放(海斯, 1953年,第498页) 。即使硬朗牧师试图拯救生命的无辜人民,在公众的压力使得他的救援尝试失败。虽然法官尊重和强大的小镇,他们在公众面前也很无奈。歇斯底里增长失控,法官可以不承认自己犯了一个错误(米勒, 1953年,第127页) 。主题的发挥,这是最大的讽刺。
一些谴责的人牺牲自己,而别人错误地承认挽救他们的生命,说实话。一些受害者甚至不知道事情的真相,直到最后一分钟。它们是埋藏诬告和他们的良性精神。此外,阿比盖尔间接谋杀她的情人,在剧中是一个令人印象深刻的讽刺。它是如此的伤心,一个女孩,谁会放弃任何她的情人,谋杀她的情人迂回。她做的一切获得宝洁的爱。她认为,她一定会成功,将永远是宝洁。然而,她的梦想永远不会成真。然而,这是一个猥琐的讽刺,她和这个邪恶的,自私的,疯狂的女人从观众中获得一点点同情。
此外,在于用来掩盖“李尔王”中的复仇还讽刺和服务,预示未来的悲剧。李尔郝的死亡承担部分的责任,当他问他的女儿说多少,他们爱他。这一要求提供了一个很好的机会,他的另外两个女儿在他身上报仇和Cordelia 。此外,他更有利,更多的Regan和Goneril的郝恨他和Cordelia 。这导致郝贪婪的姐妹批评的目标。另一方面,令人惊奇的是李尔认为里根和Goneril的爱他胜过郝( IV ,IV, 27-28) 。
此外,欺诈Regan和Goneril的,在剧中是一个莫大的讽刺。他们不爱自己的父亲,说多了,但他们恨他,因为他只是有利于他们的妹妹。不信任的人进行报复的人,也是一种有效的具有讽刺意味的​​描绘给观众。告士打道相信他是非法的,骗人的儿子,埃德蒙,相信埃德加不爱他,并计划要杀死他。然而,事实是埃德蒙要采取报复他和无辜的埃德加。
这种欺诈埃德蒙是他的阴谋的一部分。告士打道糊涂李尔,是无视事实,这是意想不到的。他也有采取的原因埃德蒙的复仇(吉尔福伊尔, 1990年,第3页)的责任的一部分。更重要的是,李尔王和告士打道是无视事实,使总的错误,他们的善良和爱心的孩子,当他们相信自己的不忠诚以上的儿童。
通过对比的原因,后果和具有讽刺意味的​​复仇,米勒和莎士比亚快递复仇的主题清楚地显示的方式的异同。两位作家描绘复仇在人类生活中的一个巨大的破坏。复仇从来都不是积极的人类。
在坩埚和“李尔王”造成的死亡和悲伤的复仇。大部分的主角都携带一颗遗憾的心,并为他们的生活休息遭受这种痛苦。人们应该保持其良性的信念,始终记住神的话在他们的头脑中,为了克服在日常生活中的诱惑和试验。人们应该争取他们想要的东西在一个公正和体面的方式。然后将明确自己的良心,当他们享受成功。复仇肯定从来没有在一个幸福的结局,它是世界上最具破坏性的武器。尽管大家都知道复仇的缺点,为什么他们仍然期待复仇?
参考文献
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