联系我们
我们只做按需定制化代写服务,绝对原创!
QQ:41806229 点击这里在线咨询代写
Email:admin@assignment.cc
网  址:http://www.assignment.cc/
支持Paypal、VISA、MasterCard、Discover等银行卡支付
Paypal支付
代写留学生作业,Diversity of Religious Cultures
发表日期:2013-10-05 10:46:41 | 来源:assignment.cc | 当前的位置:首页 > 代写留学生作业 > 正文
The impact of immigration greatly affected the diversity of religious cultures and traditions in Australia

The impact of immigration greatly affected the diversity of religious cultures and traditions in Australia. It dramatically increased in some groups and causes a decline in others, because of the introduction of new denominations. Before 1945, Australia was predominantly a Christian based society, lacking diversity. The impact admidst the Second World War led to an increase in the Orthodox churches and several branches of Christianity. The abolishment of the White Australian Policy (1970's) meant that Australia was freely open to various peoples from other countries seeking migration to Australia. As a result of this more Africans, Asians and Middle Easterns were able to migrate, most of which brought new religious denominations such as Islam, Hindiusm, Buddhism etc.

Prior to 1945, Australia’s religious landscape was mostly dominated by Christians- mostly Catholics and Anglicans. Even within Christians, Anglicans dominated more in numbers as they were supported by the government and held some social authority. However, the aftermath of WW2 with the refugees seeking new lives enabled Jews to come to Australia- which contributed in increasing the number of Jewish adherents in Australia. Also, the slogan ‘populate of perish’ in the 50s- 60s enabled other Europeans to immigrate to Australia, hence increasing the number of Orthodox Christians. Although since 1945, Christianity still outnumbered other religions in Australia, the drop of the White Australian Policy in the early 70s allowed immigration from non- Christian countries such as: Asia, India, Africa and Middle East- bringing religions Buddhism, Hinduism and Islam into Australia. This not only shapes the current religious landscape of Australia having diverse religions other than Christianity, but also effected the rate of Christianity to drop to 67.9% out of the whole population of Australia.

Changing patterns of religious adherence - 20 percent of Australians are non religious - From 1996-2001 --> dramatic increase in Islam, Buddhism, Hindu and Judaism - Due to the abolishment of the white Australian policy immigration increased. - After 1976 the Methodist church seized to exist. - After 1976 the two new Christian denominations arose in Australia --> Pentecostal church & the uniting church in 1981. Christianity as the major religious tradition - Originally migration came from Irland / Britain Immigration - 14 orthodox denominations in Australia - Abolishment of white Australian policy. Denominational switching - Within protestant or Anglican denominations people are very prepared two switch denominations. - 1991 the church life survey shows that 29% of people had switched in the last 5 years. - Reasons for switching is because; New comers joining or rejoining after a number of years. Rise of new age religions: - New Age teachings became popular during the 1970's - Often use mutually exclusive definitions for some of their terms - A free-flowing spiritual movement Secularism: the belief that religion should not be involved with the ordinary social and political activities of a country. - from 1788 to the present day, regular church attendance has increased from 10% to 20%. - People who associate themselves with no-religion in the census rose from 7% in 1971 to 16% in 2001. - The ANU survey showed 42% of responses believed religion was not important.

Outline changing patterns of religious adherence from 1945 to the present using census data

  • There have been significant declines in the number of Christians regularly attending religious services.
  • This decline is most evident in the Anglican Church, the Presbyterian Church and the Uniting Church.
  • The drop in the figures for these three denominations represents both a decrease in the percentage of those who are affiliated with that denomination as well as a decline in actual numbers over the last decade.
  • The proportion of Orthodox Christians in Australia grew rapidly after the Second World War and has remained quite constant over the past decade.
  • Roman Catholics have continued to increase both numerically and as a percentage of the population, and have overtaken Anglicans as the largest denomination in Australia.
  • Pentecostal figures have demonstrated strong growth both numerically and as a percentage of the population since the 1960s.
  • In the last ten years however, this steep ascent appears to have slowed down and reached a plateau.
  • The significant drop in the numbers of people regularly attending religious services should be read in conjunction with the substantial trend in the increasing numbers of people writing "No Religion" or "Religion Not Stated" in the census.
  • The figure for religions other than Christianity, on the whole, appears to be steadily increasing from a fairly small base.
  • Buddhist figures have grown at a steady rate from 1972 onwards and is now the largest religion other than Christianity in Australia.
  • Hinduism has maintained steady growth.
  • The numbers of Muslims in Australia have also increased dramatically since 1945.
  • In 2001 the proportion of Jews was similar to that recorded in 1947.

Christianity as the major religious tradition

  • The significant decline in the number of Christians regularly attending religious services, especially in the Anglican, Uniting Church and Presbyterian denominations, can be attributed to the aging population, the lack of migrant intake and the general dissatisfaction impacting on other mainstream Christian groups.
  • Roman Catholics are continuing to increase numerically, though not at the rate of the population because of its younger membership and substantial migrant intake.
  • The significant increases in the Pentecostal figures can be attributed to factors such as the lively nature of its worship, its emphasis on contemporary music, the strong sense of community and spiritual support it provides, the charismatic leaders which lead the congregation and the clear cut answers it provides for times of uncertainty.
  • Pentecostalism is an evangelical (fundamentalist and focused on conversion) and charismatic (a strong emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit) strand of the Christian religion.
  • The slow down in the increase of Pentecostal figures in the last 10 years can be attributed to the 'revolving door syndrome' which recognises that large numbers of Pentecostals remain with the Church for a relatively short period of time and because many Pentecostals were encouraged by their leaders to write "Australian Christian Church" rather than "Pentecostal" on the 2001 census.

Immigration

  • Changed Australia from being mono-cultural, mono-faith to multi-cultural, multi-faith.
  • Since World War 2 and the lifting of the White Australia policy there has been much more diversity in migration and an accompanying increase in the diversity of religious groupings.
  • Migration after World War 2 led to increased number of Catholics from countries such as Italy, Malta etc.
  • This also increased numbers of Orthodox Christians from Greece and Eastern Europe.
  • After the ending of the White Australian policy in 1972 migration developed from a larger range of countries bringing a wider range of religions.
  • Migration has led to significant increases in the numbers of people who are Buddhist, Muslims, Hindus and Jews.
  • Buddhists came from Indo-Chinese countries - Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia - and in more recent times Malaysia, Hong Kong and China.
  • Muslims came from countries such as Indonesia, Lebanon, Iran and Iraq, Bosnia.
  • Increases have also occurred in Christian denominations where there is a large non-Anglo population - Orthodox (Eastern Europe) and Catholic churches (from predominantly Irish to include Mediterranean, Eastern European, Asian, South American, African members).
  • Increased presence of a variety of religious groups has also led to a greater appreciation of this diversity.

Denominational switching

  • The vast majority of people affiliated with religious groups in Australia were born into that religion.
  • The phenomena of swapping between denominations or groups of the same religious tradition is known as denominational switching.
  • Denominational switching is more common in Protestant Churches than in the Catholic Church.
  • The majority of Pentecostals have moved from another Protestant denomination to join the Pentecostal group.
  • Pentecostal is the term used to describe Christian denominations which have a strong emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit (speaking in tongues, healing, prophecy etc).
  • They are often relatively small groups which provides for more personal interaction, they also have lively worship.
  • Pentecostalism is the fastest growing Christian group.
  • Most Pentecostals have switched to the group from another Christian denomination. Many leave again after about 2 years - this is known as the 'revolving door syndrome'.

Rise of New Age religions

  • Census figures show a considerable level of dissatisfaction with traditional religious groups.
  • Alongside this dissatisfaction is an indication of a strong and growing longing for a spiritual dimension to life.
  • "New Age" is an umbrella term which refers to a range of alternative and/or pseudo-religious groups that people are attracted to.
  • New Age religions are characterised by their adoption of elements of Eastern religions and their subsequent rejection of traditional Western views, and the fact that it favours creation centred spirituality.
  • Some examples of new age religions are feng shui, yoga, tai chi, astrology, tarot cards, numerology etc.
  • Many people uphold traditional religious beliefs and practices but supplement them with new age elements.

Secularism

  • Secularism is the belief that religion should not interfere with or be integrated into the public affairs of a society.
  • There are multiple factors which have contributed to the decline of religion's relevance for the integration and legitimation of modern life.
  • The increasing pluralism and materialism of society alongside society's increasing individualism and dissatisfaction with traditional religions are major reasons for secularisation.
  • This trend is most evident in the significant increase in the number of people responding "No religion" in the census alongside an overall decline in the Christian figures recorded in the census.
  • 移民的影响,大大影响了在澳大利亚的宗教文化和传统的多样性
    移民的影响,极大地影响了在澳大利亚的文化和宗教传统的多样性。它极大地增加了一些团体,并导致他人下降,因为引入新的教派。澳大利亚在1945年之前,主要是基于基督教社会,缺乏多样性。第二次世界大战的影响admidst基督教东正教教堂和几个分支的增加。废除白澳政策(1970 ) ,这意味着澳大利亚是自由开放给各族人民从其他国家寻求迁移到澳大利亚。作为一个结果,这更多的非洲人,亚洲人和中东东方能够迁移,其中大部分是带来了新的宗教教派,如伊斯兰教,佛教等Hindiusm
    1945年以前,澳大利亚的宗教景观,大多是占主导地位的基督徒大多是天主教和圣公会。即使在基督徒占主导地位,英国圣公会更因为他们是由政府支持,并举办一些社会权威的数字。然而,二战之后,难民寻求新的生活让犹太人来澳大利亚的贡献在增加数量的犹太信徒在澳大利亚。此外,口号启用灭亡“在50年代, 60年代的”填充其他欧洲人移民到澳大利亚,因此东正教基督徒的数量增加。虽然自1945年以来,基督教仍然比其他宗教在澳大利亚,允许在70年代初下降白澳政策移民来自非基督教国家,如:亚洲,印度,非洲和中东地区带来宗教佛教,印度教和伊斯兰教进入澳大利亚。这不仅塑造了当前澳大利亚有其他不同的宗教比基督教的宗教景观,但也影响了基督教率下降至67.9% ,整个澳大利亚人口。
    改变宗教坚持的模式 - 20 %的澳大利亚人非宗教 - 从1996年至2001年 - >急剧增加,伊斯兰教,佛教,印度教和犹太教 - 由于废除白澳政策移民增加。 - 1976年后的循道卫理教会抓住存在。 - 1976年后出现了两个新的基督教教派在澳大利亚 - >五旬节派教会在1981年教会的团结。基督教为主要宗教传统 - 本来移民来到从埃兰/英国移民 - 14正统教派在澳大利亚 - 废白澳大利亚政策。宗派切换 - 在新教圣公会教派的人都非常准备两个开关面额。 - 1991年,教会生活的调查显示, 29 %的人在过去的5年中切换。 - 切换的原因是因为新来者加入或重新加入了数年后。崛起的新时代的宗教: - 新时代的教义在1970年成为流行 - 通常使用互斥的定义为他们的一些条款 - à自由流动的精神运动世俗主义:信仰,宗教应该没有被涉及与普通的社会和政治活动一个国家。 - 从1788年到今天,已由原来的10 %提高到20 %定期参加教堂活动。 - 人们联想到自己在普查中没有宗教的人从1971年的7%上升到2001年的16 % 。 - 澳大利亚国立大学的调查显示, 42 %的答复认为宗教是并不重要。
    外形改变宗教坚持的模式,从1945年至今使用人口普查数据
    已经有基督徒定期参加宗教服务的数量显着下降。
    这种下降是最明显的是英国圣公会,长老教会和团结的教会。
    这三种面额数字下降,代表那些谁是下属与面额的百分比减少以及实际数字在过去十年中下降。
    第二次世界大战后迅速增长东正教基督徒在澳大利亚的比例,并在过去的十年中一直保持相当稳定。
    罗马天主教徒继续以数字和人口的百分比增加,已超越英国圣公会在澳大利亚最大面额。
    五旬节的数字已表现出强劲的增长都以数字和20世纪60年代以来的人口的百分比。
    然而,在过去的十年中,这种陡峭的上升似乎已经放缓,并达成了高原。
    人定期参加宗教服务的数量显着下降,应一并阅读的主要趋势,越来越多的人写的“无宗教”或“宗教不说”在普查。
    数字基督教以外的宗教,就整体而言,似乎是从一个相当小的基地稳步增加。
    佛教的数字从1972年开始以稳定的速度成长,是目前最大的基督教以外的宗教,在澳大利亚。
    印度教一直保持稳定增长。
    在澳大利亚的穆斯林人数也急剧增加,自1945年以来。
    2001年,犹太人的比例是在1947年录得相似。
    基督教为主要宗教传统
    定期参加宗教服务,尤其是在英国圣公会,团结教会和长老面额,基督徒的人数显着下降可以归因于人口老龄化,缺乏农民的摄入量和影响其他主流基督教团体的普遍不满。
    罗马天主教徒继续增加数值,虽然不是因为它的年轻成员和摄入大量农民人口率。
    五旬节数字的显着增加,可以归结为因素,如崇拜活泼的天性,其重点放在当代音乐,强烈的责任感的社区和精神上的支持,它提供的,有魅力的领导人,带领众和明确的答案它提供了时间的不确定性。
    五旬节是基督教福音派(原教旨主义和集中转换)和魅力(圣灵的礼物非常重视)链。
    五旬的数字在过去的10年中增加的放缓,可以归结为“旋转门综合症”认识大量的五旬节派教会保持一个相对短的时间内和他们的鼓励,因为许多五旬节派领导人写“澳大利亚基督教堂”,而不是“五旬节”在2001年的人口普查。
    移民
    从单一文化,单一信仰多文化,多信仰的改变澳大利亚。
    自第二次世界大战和解除白澳政策有更多样性的迁移和宗教团体的多样性随之增加。
    第二次世界大战后的迁移导致的天主教徒人数增加的国家,如意大利,马耳他等
    这也增加了从希腊和东欧的东正教基督徒的数字。
    白澳政策结束后,于1972年开发的迁移从更大范围的国家带来了更广泛的宗教。
    迁移导致了人谁是佛教徒,穆斯林,印度教徒和犹太人的数量显着增加。
    佛教来自印度和中国的国家 - 越南,老挝,柬埔寨 - 马来西亚,香港和中国更近的时候。
    来自穆斯林国家,如印度尼西亚,黎巴嫩,伊朗,伊拉克,波斯尼亚。
    增加也发生在基督教教派那里是一个大的人口非盎格鲁 - 东正教(东欧)和天主教教会(从爱尔兰为主,包括地中海,东欧,亚洲,南美,非洲的成员) 。
    增加各种宗教团体的存在也导致更大的升值的这种多样性。
    宗派切换
    绝大多数的隶属于澳大利亚宗教团体的人出生于宗教。
    相同的宗教传统宗派或团体之间交换的现象称为作为宗派切换。
    比在天主教教会,宗派切换多见于基督教。
    五旬节派的大部分已经从其他新教教派参加五旬节组。
    五旬节是所使用的术语来描述基督教教派有强烈的重点放在了圣灵的恩赐(说方言,医治,说预言等) 。
    他们往往是相对较小的群体提供了更多的个人互动,他们也有活泼的崇拜。
    五旬节是增长最快的基督教团体。
    大多数五旬节派组切换到另一个基督教教派。许多人离开后,再次约2年 - 这被称为“旋转门综合症” 。
    新时代宗教的兴起
    人口普查数字显示了相当的水平,与传统的宗教团体不满。
    除了这种不满是一个迹象表明,一个强大和不断增长的精神层面生活的向往。
    “新时代”是一个总称,它是指一系列的替代和/或人被吸引到的伪宗教团体。
    新时代宗教的特点是其采用东方宗教的元素,并随后将其排斥传统的西方观点,而事实上,它有利于创造为中心的灵性。
    新时代的宗教风水,瑜伽,太极拳,占星术,塔罗牌,命理等一些例子
    很多人坚持传统的宗教信仰和习俗,但对其进行补充的新时代元素。
    世俗主义
    世俗主义是信仰,宗教不应该干涉或集成到一个社会的公共事务。
    有多种因素,这些都有助于宗教的衰落相关的整合和现代生活的合法化。
    社会日益增长的个人主义和传统宗教不满的一起社会的日益多元化和唯物主义是世俗化的重要原因。
    在响应“无宗教”一起在普查中普查记录在基督教数字整体下降的人的数量显着增加,这种趋势最为明显。