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代写留学生作业,Stage of Language
发表日期:2013-10-09 08:47:34 | 来源:assignment.cc | 当前的位置:首页 > 代写留学生作业 > 正文
Extract: From your experience of a young child that you know describe the stage of language he or she is at, and what preceded this.

Ary is a cheerful, engaging 4-and-a-half year old boy who was born in Kazakhstan and spent the first three years of his life in an orphanage.  He lives in America now with the single mother who adopted him just over a year ago.  Ary is an American nickname; in Kazakh, his name is Arystan, which literally means lion.  Everyone in Kazakhstan commented on that association so that Ary's mother bought him a t-shirt with a picture of a lion on it and felt that he identified strongly with the animal.  But when they returned to America and no one mentioned that Arystan meant lion, Ary didn't seem to mind.  In fact, he didn't seem to get the significance of the lion Halloween costume his mother bought him after he had been in America for six months.  He has come a long way in a year.

In the orphanage when he was 3-years-old, Ary expressed himself in single Kazakh words, mostly nouns and some verbs.  He knew the names of colors, animals, foods, body parts, clothing, toys, vehicles, playground equipment, other children in his group.  He knew the words for basic movements like sit, come on, eat, potty, and even dance.  His vocabulary was rudimentary and without apparent grammatical structure.  He pointed to things and uttered simple words to get his meaning across to his caregivers who were referred to as "auntie." 

Today Ary speaks in full English sentences.  He can carry on a conversation and express his wants and needs quite specifically.  Today he came in from playing outside and said to his mother:  "Mommy, the ice cream truck is coming.  I'm going have ice cream.  I need money.  I need 400 dollars."  His vocabulary consists of adjectives and adverbs as well as nouns and verbs, indefinite and personal pronouns (although he generally refers to everything in the masculine), prepositional phrases, conjunctions and articles (although he frequently skips them when he talks in a hurry).  

He can recognize and express emotions, which he could not do a year ago, and he engages in imaginative play, which was also not part of his language repertoire.  He talks about nature and his environment; he distinguishes between different kinds of animals within the same genus and can make appropriate animal sounds and gestures; he argues with his mother (who is a lawyer) and invites "uncles" on the phone to come over and play with him; he asks questions about how things work and where things came from and when they arrived in his world; he explains why he does not like a certain food ("too spicy"); he comforts his mother when she hurts herself ("I'll kiss your finger and make it better"); he chastises the cats when they jump up on the kitchen table; he pretends to make a cake out of a handful of leaves; he offers to help around the house ("I'm going to open the door for you").

Even with this amazing progress in one year, Ary lags behind his age peers in some language areas.  Compared to others in his day care group (3-6 year olds), his verbalization is often fragmented and simple in structure.  When he is tired, Ary forgets the names of things and speaks in short sentences.  Grammar gets mixed up and he says, "Are you got more strawberries?"  He confuses sensations (being thirsty and having to urinate) and has accidents; he says he's hungry and then throws up.  He says, "I'm going to take a walk my byself," and calls Donald Duck "Don Deluck." 

He seems to have no concept of outer space, though he does recognize the moon and stars and has flown in an airplane.  And he has no patience for hearing the text of storybooks but prefers to look at the pictures and make up his own stories.  He has no real sense of time and constantly confuses today, tomorrow, last week as well as morning, noon and evening (and lunch and dinner).  He has learned to count to 13 but then skips to 18.  He knows the names of the seasons and weather, but he cannot apply them appropriately to a conceptual time period.  His vocabulary is very concrete, descriptive, definite, grounded in his real world. 

Ary's pronunciation is generally understandable with a few problem areas.  He cannot say his "r" sound and so his name sounds like "A-yee" and umbrella comes out as "umbellalla."  Sometimes he confuses internal consonant sounds, such as stack and snack, or adds consonants that don't belong, such as gloob instead of glue.  The "wh" sound gets lost, so he says "every-air" instead of "everywhere" and "ale" instead of "whale."  The initial "th" sound becomes a "d" sound as in "dis" and "dat."  And he somehow adds a syllable before vowel sounds in certain words, such as "p-otty" and "Harry P-otter."

Ary's mother reports that he has chronic ear problems, so some language development may be hampered by a lack of hearing.  It is also likely that he still experiences cultural language confusion.  For example, in Kazakhstan they routinely overdress the children so it becomes difficult for them to read their own body temperature signals.  And the caregivers did not take the children outside during inclement weather, so while Ary may have seen snow and rain through windows, he did not experience weather personally.  When Ary's mother first began working with him in Kazakhstan, she concentrated on giving him the English words for basic needs (potty, sleep, play things, foods).  After returning to America, the international adoption clinic evaluated Ary and made him use language in order to get his needs met.  They advised Ary's mother to "make him talk"  instead of pointing to things.  Between day care and constant prompting from a verbal mother and caring friends, Ary learned how to communicate in the English language very quickly.


阿雷是一个开朗,从事4和半岁的男孩谁是出生在哈萨克斯坦和在孤儿院度过了他的生命的头三年。他现在住在美国的单身母亲,仅仅过了一年多前收养了他。阿雷是美国的绰号,在哈萨克语中,他的名字是Arystan ,字面意思是狮子。在哈萨克斯坦的每个人都评论说,该协会使Ary的母亲给他买了一件T恤的图片的狮子觉得他确定了强烈的动物。但是,当他们回到美国,没有人提到Arystan意味着狮子,阿雷似乎并不介意。事实上,他似乎并没有得到狮子万圣节服装的意义,他的母亲给他买了六个月后,他一直在美国。一年中,他已经走过了很长的路要走。
今天阿雷说完整的英语句子。他可以进行对话,并表达了自己的愿望和需要相当具体。今天,他来到在外面玩,他的母亲说: “妈妈,冰淇淋车来了。我要去吃冰淇淋,我需要钱,我需要400美元。”他的词汇量由形容词和副词以及名词和动词,无限期和人称代词(虽然他一般是指在男性的一切) ,介词短语,连词和文章(虽然他经常跳过他们时,他说有急事) 。
他可以识别和表达情绪,他不能做一年前,他从事想象力的发挥,这也是他的语言剧目的一部分。他谈论的性质和他的环境,他区分不同种类的动物在同一属,可以作出适当的动物的声音和手势,他认为与他的母亲(谁是律师) ,在手机上的“叔叔” ,并邀请过来和他一起玩,他问的问题是如何工作的,以及那里的东西来自在他的世界里,当他们到达,他解释说,他为什么不喜欢某种食物(“太辣” ) ,他安慰他的母亲时,她伤害了自己( “我会亲吻你的手指,使之更好”) ,他惩戒的猫,当他们在厨房桌子上跳起来,他假装做蛋糕了一把树叶,他提供帮助周围的房子(“我要你“开门)。
即使在一年中的这个惊人的进步,阿雷落后于他的同龄人在某些语言领域。别人在他的日常护理组(3-6岁)相比,他的语言表达往往是支离破碎,结构简单。当他累了,阿雷忘记事物的名字,并说在很短的句子。语法得到混合起来,他说, “你得到了更多的草莓吗?”他混淆的感觉(即口渴,小便) ,有意外,他说,他是饿了,然后抛出了。他说,“我要采取走我的byself , ”唐老鸭“唐Deluck调用。 ”
他似乎没有什么概念外层空间,虽然他不承认的月亮和星星,并已在飞机飞行。他有没有耐心听故事书的文本,但喜欢看图片和弥补自己的故事。他有没有真正意义上的时间和不断地混淆了今天,明天,以及上周早晨,中午和晚上(午餐和晚餐) 。他已经学会数到13 ,然后跳过18 。他知道季节和天气的名字,但他不能将它们应用到概念的时间段适当。他的词汇是非常具体的,描述性的,明确的,植根于他的真实世界。
Ary的发音一般是可以理解的,有几个问题领域。他不能说他的“ r”音,所以他的名字听起来像“ A-议”和“ umbellalla伞出来。 ”有时他混淆内部辅音,如堆栈和小吃,或将不属于的辅音,如gloob代替胶水。 “ WH”的声音得到丢失,所以他说: “每一个空气” ,而不是“无处不在”和“麦芽酒”,而不是“鲸鱼”。最初的“日”的声音变成了“d”的声音“ DIS” , “DAT ”。他莫名其妙地增加了一个音节,前元音在某些字,如“ P - otty ”和“哈利· P -水獭”。
Ary的母亲报告,他有慢性耳疾,所以有些语言发展可能会缺乏听力受阻。它也有可能,他仍然经历了文化语言的混乱。例如,在哈萨克斯坦,他们经常穿得过多的孩子,供他们阅读自己的身体温度信号,所以变得很困难。照顾者没有采取外面的孩子在恶劣的天气,而阿雷可能已经看到了雪,雨透过窗户,他没有体验亲自天气。 Ary的母亲第一次在哈萨克斯坦开始与他一起工作,她集中在给他的英语单词的基本需要(如厕,睡觉,玩的东西,食品) 。回到美国后,国际收养诊所评估阿雷和他使用的语言,以获得满足他的需求。他们建议Ary的母亲“让他说话”,而不是指着事。进制之间的日间护理和不断提示从口头的母亲和照顾朋友,学会了如何在英语语言沟通非常迅速。