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FAQ写作,创建参考文献和参考书目列表
发表日期:2013-08-12 09:09:12 | 来源:assignment.cc | 当前的位置:首页 > 写作FAQ > 正文
Creating the list of references and bibliography  
 
Introduction 
 
The list of references enables readers to easily trace the sources cited within your work. It is a list of the documents from which direct quotations, or examples have been taken. 
 
N.B. A bibliography (where you give credit to sources that were used for background reading, but were not quoted wit hin the body of the text), is NOT required according to the University of Manchester’s (2008) guidelines. 
 
Your list of references (and bibliography if you choose to provide one) should be arranged alphabetically by author and t hen, where necessary, by year of publication.
 
Different types of publication require different amounts of information. The Harvard system lays down standards for the amount of information required for each document type. These are detailed in the section below: 
 
 
Books (single author)
 
•   Author: Surname with capital letter, followed by comma.
•   Initials:  In capitals with full-stop after each. 
•   Year: Publication year (not printing  or impression) in parentheses, followed by full stop.
•   Title: Full title in italics. Only the first word and proper nouns should be capitalized. Follow with a full stop (unless there is a subtitle).
•   Sub-title: Follows a colon at the end of t he full title. Only proper nouns should be capitalized. Followed by a full stop.
•   Edition:  Only include if it is not a first edition. Use the number followed by “ed.” 
•   Place of publication:  Give town or city, and c ountry if there is possible confusion with the UK. Follow with a colon
•   Publisher:  Publisher name followed by full stop.
 
Examples
举例
 
•   Boatright, J. (2006). Ethics and the conduct of business. 5th ed. New Jersey: lxszyzn Pearson Prentice Hall.
 
•   Cameron, S. (2008). The business student’s handbook: learning skills for study and employment . 4th ed. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
 
Books (2, 3 or 4 authors) 
 
For books with two, three or four authors of equal status the names should all be included in the order they appear in the document. Always use “and”, or always use an ampersand (&), to link the last two authors.
 
Required elements:
 
•   Authors, Initial(s). (Year of publication).  Title of book. Edition (if not 1st edition). Place of publication: Publisher.
 
N.B. If two authors use “and” to link the authors, if more than two use commas, followed by “and” to link the final two authors.
 
Examples:
 
• Hirst, P. and Thompson, G. (1999).  Globalization in question . 2nd  ed. Cambridge: Polity Press.
 
• Kotler, P., Wong, V., Saunders,  J. and Armstrong, G. (2005). Principles of marketing: European edition . 4th  ed. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
 
 
Books (more than 4 authors)
 
Use the first author only with surname and initials followed by “et al ”.  Required elements:
 
•  Author, Initial(s). et al . (Year of publication). Title of book. Edition (if not 1st  edition). Place of publication: Publisher.
 
Example:
 
•   Georghiou, L. et al . (2008). The handbook of technology foresight . Cheltenham: Edward Elgar  Publishing Limited.
 
Books which are edited
 
For books that are edited, give the edito r(s) surname(s) and initial(s), followed by “ed.” or “eds.”
 
Required elements:
 
•  Author(s), Initial(s). ed(s). (Year of publication).  Title of book. Edition (if not 1st  edition). Place of publication: Publisher.
 
Example:
 
•   Whitley, R. and Kristensen, P.H. eds. (1996). The changing European firm: limits to convergence . London: Routledge.
 
 
创建列表的引用和参考书目
 
介绍
 
引用列表,让读者方便地跟踪你的工作范围内引用的来源。这是一个列表文件已采取直接报价,或例子。
 
注意:书目(你给信贷用于背景阅读的来源,但并没有引述机智欣正文中),是不是需要根据大学的曼彻斯特(2008年)的指导方针。
 
您的引用列表(如果您选择提供一个和参考书目),应当按字母顺序排列由作者和t母鸡,在必要的情况下,出版年份。
 
出版的不同类型需要不同量的信息。哈佛系统奠定了标准,每种文件类型所需的信息量。这些在下面的章节中详细:
 
 
书籍(单笔者)
 
作者:姓氏大写字母,后跟逗号。
缩写:在首都后,每个句号。
•年:出版一年(不打印或印象)括号中​​,后跟句号。
•标题:斜体全称。只有第一个字和专有名词应予以资本化。按照一个句号(除非有一个副标题)。
副题:遵循一个冒号结束他的t完整的标题。只有应予资本化的专有名词。其次由一个句号。
•版本:只包括如果它不是一个第一版。使用数字随后由“版。”
出版地:给城镇或城市,如果有可能的混乱与英国和c杜林子,湖北社会科学SOCIAL SCIENCES IN HUBEI 2004。按照用冒号
出版商:出版商名称后跟句号。
 
示例
举例
 
•Boatright说道,J.(2006)。道德和商业行为。第5版。新泽西“:lxszyzn皮尔逊Prentice Hall出版社。
 
•卡梅伦,S.(2008)。业务学生手册:学习技能的学习和就业。第四版。哈洛:培生教育出版有限公司。
 
书籍(2,3或4位作者)
 
两个,三个或四个作者的平等地位的书籍的名字都应该被包含在文档中出现的顺序。总是用“和”,或总是使用一个符号(&),链接的最后两位作者。
 
必需的元素:
 
作者初始(次)。 (出版年份)。书的标题。版(如果不是第1版)。出版地:出版社。
 
注意:如果两位作者使用“和”作者链接,如果两个以上使用逗号,其次是“和”连接最后的两位作者。
 
示例:
 
•赫斯特,P.汤普森,G.(1999)。全球化问题。第二版。剑桥:政体机。
 
•科特勒,P.,黄,五,桑德斯,J.和阿姆斯特朗,G.(2005)。营销原则:欧洲版。第四版。哈洛:培生教育出版有限公司。
 
 
书籍(4个以上的作者)
 
使用第一作者只用姓氏和缩写,其次是“等”。必需的元素:
 
作者,初始(次)。等人。 (出版年份)。书的标题。版(如果不是第1版)。出版地:出版社。
 
例如:
 
Georghiou,L.等。 (2008年)。的技术预见手册。切尔滕纳姆:爱德华·埃尔加出版有限公司。
 
这是编辑的书籍
 
对于编辑的书籍,给的参数编辑R(S)姓(s)和初始(次),其次是“编”或“合编。”
 
必需的元素:
 
•作者(次),初步资料。 ED(次)。 (出版年份)。书的标题。版(如果不是第1版)。出版地:出版社。
 
例如:
 
•惠特利,R.和克里斯滕森,P.H.主编。 (1996)。不断变化的欧洲公司:限制收敛。伦敦:ROUTLEDGE。