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代写加拿大assignment,Victims of Bullying
发表日期:2013-10-08 08:56:11 | 来源:assignment.cc | 当前的位置:首页 > 代写assignment > 加拿大assignment代写 > 正文
Victims of Bullying

Schools offer more than educational opportunities; they offer many opportunities for social interaction for youth. These social opportunities also offer many opportunities for children to become victims of bullying. In the last ten years, there has been a dramatic rise of research on bullying in the United States. This research has been spurred by continued extreme school violence where the perpetrators of the violence had been victims of bullying.

Bullying encompasses a range of various aggressive behaviors, which are targeted at an identified victim (Espalage, 2002). It is differentiated from fighting because it involves an imbalance in strength such that the individual targeted has difficulty defending him or herself. Bullying has been a common obstacle of childhood for many generations (Olweus, 1995). Many people believe that bullying is a natural part of growing up that does not cause serious harm but help to toughen children up (Pianta & Walsh, 1995). On the other hand, extensive research in this area has identified consequences for the victims of bulling (Olweus, 1995).

There have been many high profile cases of victims of bullying who have retaliated by horrific school shootings (Kumpulamen, Rasanen, & Puura, 2001). A number of recent studies have investigated the immediate and short-term effects of peer victimization (Espelage, 2002; Espelage & Swearer, 2003; Nansel, Overpeck, Pilla, Ruan, Simons-Morton, & Scheidt, 2001). Rejection from a peer group has been linked to adverse psychological and physical consequences (Kumpulamen et al., 2001). Victims have been noted to be at risk for increased levels of depression, anxiety, and psychosomatic symptoms (Nansel et al., 2001). School avoidance and feelings of isolation are common among victims. Furthermore, it has been reported that these victims of bullying are developing post-traumatic stress disorder (Kumpulamen et al., 2001). This reveals the detrimental impact that peer rejection may have on youth and the importance of more research on the long-term impact bullying has on victims.

The media has portrayed “bullies” and “nerds or geeks” in numerous films, thus bringing awareness of childhood social hierarchies and the desire to be accepted as part of a group. The “nerds” are social outcast who are commonly victimized by their peers and often blamed for not being tough enough. Recent research and pop culture movies like “Mean Girls” have brought more attention to girls and their bullying behaviors. There is limited research on the prevalence and effects bullying has on girls (Brinson, 2005).

Many bullies experience mental health difficulties. One study found that one-third of bullies have attention-deficit disorder, 12.5% were suffering from depression, and 12.5% had oppositional-conduct disorder (Kumpulamen et al., 2001). Bullies then in turn take out their frustrations on someone the see as weaker than them. These bullies are also seeking to impress their peers. The rejection felt by the victim can have a direct impact on their lives.

Several authors suggest that youth who are continually victimized may be at risk for poorer psychological functioning as adults (Espelage, 2002; Nansel et al., 2001). There has not been much research in this particular area. Little is known about how these victims function as adults. Research suggest that adolescents do not simply grow out of emotional problems with age, which implies that youth who have poor social skills may continue to experience difficulty in their area of maintaining relationships as adults (Nansel et al., 2001). Espelage (2002) found that many victims of bullying continue to think about their experiences of being bullied and recall painful memories well into adulthood.

Depression and suicidal ideation have been found to be common outcomes of being bullied for both boys and girls. Bullies themselves have been prone to depression (Espelage, 2002). Bullying behaviors has similarly been found to transfer from the classroom to the streets, male bullies having been found to be seventeen times more likely to be frequently violent outside of the classroom and female bullies over one hundred times more likely to be frequently violent on the streets (Brinson, 2005). Longitudinal research has found that bullying and aggressive behavior were identified as being characteristics of those students who later became involved in criminal behavior (Nansel et al., 2001).

Statement of Problem

There have been limited mixed-methods studies on the phenomenon of bullying (Espelage & Swearer, 2003). There has been no research that has attempted to explore the long term effects of bullying on individuals who have experienced it. This study will use a mixed-methods approach to explore both the long term effects of bullying on individuals that were bullied in their youth.

Statement of Purpose

The purpose of this concurrent, mixed methods study is to explore and generate themes about the long term effects bullying, that occurred in childhood, has on men and women. The quantitative research questions will address the prevalence of bullying between male and female participants that they encountered at school when they were in their teens. Qualitative open-ended questions will be used to probe significant resilience factors by exploring aspects of the bullying experiences and how they impacted the person’s adult life.

Theoretical Framework

Several theories have sought to explain the existence of bullying behavior. Some developmental theorists perceive bullying as a child’s attempt to establish social dominance over other children. This dominance is established through developmentally appropriate actions; in the early years, when children lack complex social skills, they bully using physical means. As these overt acts are punished by disciplinarians, and as children develop a larger repertoire of verbal language, bullying becomes more verbal in nature. Finally, when children gain the skills to understand and participate in intricate social relationships, they begin to use these relationships as a more covert type of bullying in order to establish power and social dominance (Smith, 2001).

Resilience theory is defines as a person’s ability to cope or adapt to stressful situations. In different environments, resilience can have different meanings. In a high crime neighborhood, resilience could mean just surviving unscathed from the violence. This is having the ability to overcome a challenging set of circumstances with success. Studies in resilience theory demonstrate that resilient individuals are those who grow and develop as a result of trauma. Rather than being stunted by life difficulties, they recover from the traumatic events with an increased sense of empathy, enhanced coping skills. (Pianta & Walsh, 1998).

Peer rejection theory provides an important context for socialization that fosters social skills that children learn and use through out their lives. Rejection theory is based on the premise that children that are rejected by their peers are not given the same opportunities to socialize and develop socialization skills. This further distances them from their peers (Cole & Gillenssen, 1993).

Life course perspective is an appropriate lens to use when reviewing bullying and the after effects it has on the victims of it. Research has shown that bullying can cause victims to have varying degrees of posttraumatic stress syndrome (Houbre et al., 2006). Elder (1998) researched the social pathways in the life course. This research revealed that individual’s lives are influenced by their ever-changing effects of their experiences.

Research Questions/Null Hypothesis

Research Question #1:

How are men and women impacted by the bullying they encountered as youth?

Null Hypothesis #1:

There will be no statistical significant difference in how men and women are impacted by bullying that they encountered as youth as measured by the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire.

Research Question #2:

How did bullying as a youth affect men?

Null Hypothesis #2:

There will be no evidence that being bullied in their youth will have an impact on their adult lives as men.

Research Question #3:

How did bullying as a youth affect women?

Null Hypothesis #3:

There will be no evidence that being bullied in their youth will have an impact on their adult lives as women.

Research Question #4:

What are the implications in their current life that they feel resulted from the bullying they encountered as youth?

Null Hypothesis #4:

There will be no statistically significant evidence of implications in their current life that were a result from bullying that they encountered as youth.

Research Question #5:

How do they feel their bullying experiences impacts their ability to socialize with people now?

Null Hypothesis #5:

There will be no evidence that bullying experiences in their past will impact an adult’s ability to socialize with other people.

Definition of Terms

Bully/victims: individuals who both bully others and are victims of bullying (Espelage & Swearer, 2003).

Bullying: aggressive behavior that occurs repeatedly over time and includes both physical and emotional acts that are directed towards another individual with the intent to inflict harm or discomfort (Olweus, 1993).

Bystander: individual who observes a bullying incident (Olweus, 1993).

Emotional Scarring: the association of negative feelings with the recollection of painful memories of being bullied (Espelage, 2002).

Peer: an individual belonging to the same groups based on age, grade, and status (Olweus, 1993).

Victim of Bullying: an individual who is exposed repeatedly over time to aggressive behavior that is inflicted by his peers with the intent to cause harm or discomfort (Espelage, 2002; Olweus, 1993).

Assumptions

The assumptions made about the participants in this study are that they are of sound mind to participate in this study.

The assumptions made that all of the participants will answer the web survey honestly.

The assumptions made that all of the participants were bullied in their youth.

Delimitations

The research recognizes the following delimitations for the study:

  • The sample size will be dependent of the amount of people who respond to the email of inquiry at this study.
  • All respondents are mentally competent to answer the questions in the online survey.
  • The participants have the potential to be spread out across the United States.

Limitations

Quantitative research looks for generalizability of the research findings to the larger population (Crestwell, 2005). Generalizability is not as important to qualitative research that is seeking to explore a phenomenon and the impact it has. If more men respond then women to this survey, then it would not be an equally distributed sample. Socio-economic status is not asked in this study.

 

学校提供超过受教育的机会,他们提供了许多机会,为青年社会互动。这些社会的机会,也提供了许多机会,让儿童成为受欺负。在过去的十年中,出现了一个戏剧性的崛起在美国欺凌研究。这项研究已经持续极端的校园暴力事件,其中的肇事者的暴力一直受欺负的刺激。
欺凌包括一系列的各种攻击行为,这是在一个确定的的受害者( Espalage ,2002年)的目标。它不同于战斗,因为它涉及到一个不平衡的力量捍卫他或她自己个人的目标有困难。欺凌一直是常见的障碍,为许多代人的童年( Olweus ,1995) 。许多人认为欺负是一个自然成长的一部分,不会造成严重的伤害,但有助于锻炼孩子(皮安塔沃尔什,1995) 。另一方面,广泛的研究,在这方面已经确定Bulling对话( Olweus ,1995) ,受害者的后果。
已经有很多高调的案件的受害者,欺负谁报复,可怕的校园枪击事件( Rasanen Kumpulamen , Puura , 2001) 。一些最近的研究调查同伴侵害的直接和短期影响( 2002年埃斯皮莱奇埃斯皮莱奇起誓, 2003 Nansel奥弗佩克,皮拉,阮经天,西蒙斯莫顿,沙伊特, 2001年) 。从对等体组的抑制已被链接到心理和生理上的不利后果( Kumpulamen等, 2001) 。人们已经注意到,受害者是在风险水平的提高抑郁症,焦虑症,心身症状( Nansel等, 2001) 。学校避免和孤独感是常见的受害者。此外,据报道,这些受欺负的创伤后应激障碍( Kumpulamen等, 2001)发展。这揭示了同行的排斥可能对青少年的不利影响和长期影响欺凌受害者的重要性,更多的研究。
媒体描绘的“恶霸”和“书呆子或怪才”在众多电影中,从而使儿童社会阶层的认识和渴望被接纳为一组的一部分。 “书呆子”是社会的弃儿,通常他们的同龄人的受害者,常常被指责为不够强硬。最近的研究和流行文化的电影,如“贱女孩”带来了更多的关注女孩和他们的欺凌行为。的患病率和影响欺负女孩(布林森2005 )的研究非常有限。
许多欺负经验的心理健康问题。一项研究发现,有三分之一的恶霸有注意力缺陷障碍, 12.5%的人患有抑郁症, 12.5%有对立的行为障碍( Kumpulamen等, 2001) 。霸王然后依次取出有人看到弱于他们的挫折。这些恶霸也在寻求他们的同龄人留下深刻的印象。由受害者的拒绝感到对他们的生活有直接的影响。
一些作者认为,青年不断受害的人可能是较差的心理充当成人(埃斯皮莱奇,2002; Nansel等,2001) 。风险。在这一特定领域一直没有太大的研究。鲜为人知的是,这些受害者是如何充当成人。研究表明,青少年没有简单地生长出来的情绪问题,随着年龄的增长,这意味着,青年社交能力差,可能会继续遇到困难,在他们的地区维持作为成人( Nansel等, 2001)的关系。埃斯皮莱奇(2002)发现,许多欺凌的受害者继续被人欺负的,想想自己的经历和回忆痛苦的回忆到成年。
抑郁症和自杀意念已被发现,被人欺负的男孩和女孩的共同成果。霸王本身已经容易患抑郁症(埃斯皮莱奇,2002) 。男性恶霸欺凌行为也同样被发现从教室转移到街道,已发现有17倍更有可能是在课堂外频频暴力和女性恶霸超过一百倍更可能是经常在街道上暴力(布林森,2005年) 。纵向研究发现,欺凌和侵略行为被认定为是后来参与犯罪行为( Nansel等, 2001) ,这些学生的特点。
问题的声明
已有限的混合方法研究的欺凌(埃斯皮莱奇起誓,2003年)的现象。一直没有研究,一直试图探索欺上个人谁经历过长期的影响。这项研究将使用一种混合方法的方法来探索个人在他们的青年被人欺负的欺上双方的长期影响。
目的声明
这种并行的混合方法研究的目的是探索和生成有关欺凌的长期影响的主题,即发生在童年,对男性和女性。定量研究的问题会解决的患病率之间的男性和女性参加,他们在十几岁的时候,他们在学校遇到欺凌。定性开放式的问题将被用来探测显著回弹因素探索方面欺凌的经验,以及它们是如何影响人的成年生活。
理论框架
一些理论试图解释存在的欺凌行为。一些发展理论家认为,作为孩子的尝试建立社会优势超过其他孩子欺负。这种支配是通过发展适当的行动建立在早年,当孩子缺乏复杂的社会技能,他们欺负使用物理手段。由于这些明显的行为受到惩罚,教训,为孩子制定一个更大的口头语言剧目,欺负变得更加口头性质。最后,当孩子获得的技能在错综复杂的社会关系,了解和参与,他们开始使用这些关系更隐蔽型的欺凌,以建立权力和社会的主导地位(史密斯,2001) 。
韧性理论定义为一个人的能力,以应付或适应紧张的情况下。在不同的环境下,弹性可以有不同的含义。在一个高犯罪率附近,韧性可能意味着只是尚存毫发无损的从暴力。这是有能力克服成功的情况下,一个具有挑战性的。在弹性理论的研究表明,弹性的个人是那些因外伤发展壮大。而非发育不良的生活困难,他们恢复的创伤性事件增加换位思考意识,增强应对能力。 (皮安塔沃尔什,1998) 。
同侪排斥理论提供了重要的社会背景下,促进儿童社会技能,通过了他们的生活,学习和使用。抑制理论为基础的前提下,被拒绝的儿童,他们的同龄人没有给予同样的社交和发展社会技能的机会。这更远的距离,他们从他们的同龄人(科尔& Gillenssen 1993 ) 。
生命历程的角度来看,是一个合适的镜头审查时使用的欺凌和之后的效果,它有它的受害者。研究已经显示,欺负可以导致受害人有不同程度的创伤后应激综合征( Houbre等,2006) 。长老(1998)研究生命过程中的社会途径。研究表明,个人生活的影响,他们的经验他们不断变化的影响。
研究问题/零假设
研究问题1:
男性和女性受到欺负,他们遇到青年是如何?
零假设#1 :
欺负/受害者修订​​Olweus问卷作为衡量他们遇到青年欺负男人和女人如何影响将不会有统计显着差异。
研究问题2 :
怎么欺负作为一个青年影响男性?
零假设2 :
将不会有任何证据表明被人欺负自己的青春将影响他们的成年生活是男性。
研究问题3 :
怎么欺负作为一个青年对妇女的影响呢?
零假设#3 :
没有证据表明被人欺负自己的青春将作为女性对他们的成年生活有一定影响。
研究问题4 :
在他们目前的生活中,他们觉得导致欺凌他们遇到青年的含义是什么?
零假设4 :
欺凌的结果,他们遇到的青年,在他们目前的生活影响不会有统计学显着的证据。
研究问题#5 :
他们如何看待他们的欺凌经验影响他们现在与人交往的能力吗?
空假说#5 :
将不会有任何证据表明欺凌在他们过去的经历会影响一个成年人的社交能力与其他人。
术语的定义
欺负/受害者:个人人都欺负别人欺凌的受害者(埃斯皮莱奇起誓,2003年) 。
欺凌:过激的行为,随着时间的推移和反复出现朝向另一个人的意图伤害或不适( Olweus ,1993) ,包括身体和情感的行为。
旁观者:个人观察欺凌事件( Olweus ,1993) 。
情绪疤痕:协会的负面情绪,被人欺负的痛苦回忆回忆(埃斯皮莱奇,2002) 。
同伴:个人属于同一组根据年龄,年级,的状态( Olweus ,1993) 。
欺凌的受害者:个人谁是随着时间的推移反复暴露了过激的行为,所造成的意图他的同龄人造成伤害或不适(埃斯皮莱奇, 2002; Olweus , 1993年) 。
假设
在这项研究中的参与者所做的假设是,他们参与这项研究的心智健全。
所作的假设,所有的参与者都将诚实地回答网络调查。
所作的假设,所有的参与者被欺负自己的青春。
划界
该研究确认以下划界的研究:
样本大小将取决于量的人,谁应对在这项研究中的电子邮件查询。
所有受访者是精神上有能力回答的问题,在网上调查。
与会者有可能被美国全面铺开。
限制
定量研究看起来一般性较大的的人口( Crestwell , 2005)的研究结果。概定性研究,正在寻求探索它有一个现象的影响并不重要,重要的。如果有更多的人响应,那么在本次调查的女性,那么它会不会是一个均匀分布的样本。在这项研究中,社会经济地位不问。