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悉尼大学课程论文(The University of Sydney):关于减少船舶温室气体排放的技术和业
发表日期:2013-06-09 13:28:01 | 来源:assignment.cc | 当前的位置:首页 > 代写assignment > 美国assignment代写 > 正文
1. Introduction
介绍
 
 
Following the assessment of the amount of emissions to air from shipping in chapter 3 and the effect on climate and ozone described in chapter 4, this chapter focus on alternatives for reduction of emissions to air from ships. In the following both technical and operational measures are presented.
继在第3章中向空气中的排放量评估航运后,在第4章描述气候和臭氧的影响,本章重点介绍减少船舶排放到空气中的替代品。在下面的技术和业务措施中。
 
 
The assessment of various options was performed with both a short term and long term perspective. In the context of this report, short term is closely related to availability of technical measures. As applicability of various measures may be different for new and existing ships, the discussion of the various technical alternatives was divided into one part concerning new ships and one part concerning existing ships.
评估各种选项,以短期和长远的角度来看。在这份报告的背景下,短期内是密切相关的技术措施的可用性。
 
 
2. Short-term considerations – applying state-of-the-art knowledge
短期考虑 - 国家的最先进的应用知识
 
 
2.1. Hull and propeller: new ships
船体和螺旋桨:新船
 
 
This section focuses on the energy savings that can be obtained by application of current technology within hydrodynamics (hull and propeller) on new ships. Energy savings can then be easily converted into emission reductions.
本节重点介绍在流体力学中目前的技术应用,可以得到新船(船体和螺旋桨)节约能源。然后,可以很容易地转换成减排节能。
 
 
International merchant shipping is a highly economically optimised business. Fuel cost is a major operating cost of most merchant ships. Ship designs are usually fairly well optimised with respect to maximum profitability. Thus, one should expect that there is not much efficiency to be gained by better design and selection of propulsion systems without changing the external economic conditions. Also in this section, measures that are not currently profitable will be discussed.
国际商船是一个高度经济优化业务。燃料成本是一个主要的经营成本,大多数商船中,船舶设计通常是相当不错的,在最大盈利方面进行了优化。
The energy savings obtained by different measures can be very accurately predicted for a specific ship. However, savings will in most cases vary between different ship categories and even between ship
 
 
The energy savings obtained by different measures can be very accurately predicted for a specific ship. However, savings will in most cases vary between different ship categories and even between ships of the same category. Due to this, the general presentation presented in this chapter was supported by the case study presented in chapter 6.
通过不同的措施节约能源,可以非常准确地预测某一特定船舶。
 
 
Hull Design
船体设计
 
 
It is reasonable to expect that due to the significant effort put into hull optimisation for many years, there should be little potential left for improvement. Experience from work in the MARINTEK towing tank however indicates that reduction of power in the order of 20% may still be gained by relatively minor changes to the bow and/or stern on a vessel. From this experience, one might conclude that there is still a significant potential for power savings by good hull design, and that hull optimisation must be carefully performed by specialists for each new hull design.
从这样的经历中,可能会得出这样的结论:有显着节省功耗的潜力仍然是一个良好的船体设计,由专家为每一个新的船体设计,船体优化,必须认真履行。
 
 
To try to quantify a typical potential for energy savings by hull design, MARINTEK’s database of model test results was used to estimate best and worst speed-power curve for typical categories of large contributors to CO2 emissions identified in the emission inventory study in chapter 3. This was done by normalising results in the MARINTEK database for each of the ship category back to the size of a typical case ships (further described in chapter 6) and then drawing estimated best and worst curves as shown in Appendix 4. The results of this approach show very large potentials for reduction – in the order of 30%.
为了量化一个典型的潜在节约能源的船体设计,MARINTEK模型试验结果的数据库,是用来估计最好和最坏的速度和功率曲线,为典型类别的排放库存研究,在第3章中确定的二氧化碳排放大贡献者。
 
Figure 5-1 - Example of speed-power curve for tanker case ship, included predicted best power level
例如在加油机的情况下,船的速度和功率曲线,包括预测最佳的功率电平
 
 
To exploit this potential one must have full freedom in selecting optimum main dimensions. This is not the case in practice, where limitations in harbours and canals usually restrict selection of main dimensions. Thus, 5 – 20% is considered more realistic, and in line with experience from work in the towing tank. The reference for this reduction is taken as the average of the fleet that is basis for the case-ship study.
为了利用这种潜在的,必须有充分的自由选择最佳的主要尺寸。这是在实践的情况下,在港口和运河的限制,通常选择的主要尺寸限制。