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代写美国assignment,Marketing Strategies HSBC
发表日期:2013-09-20 08:45:14 | 来源:assignment.cc | 当前的位置:首页 > 代写assignment > 美国assignment代写 > 正文
INTRODUCTION

One of the largest banking and financial services organisation in the world is known as the HSBC Group. It has established businesses in Europe, the Asia-Pacific region, the Americas, the Middle East and Africa. In 1991, HSBC holdings were incorporated in England, with its head office based in London. In 1999, the company established its international brand name, which ensured that the Group's corporate symbol became a familiar sight all across the world. HSBC differentiates its brand name from those of its competitors by describing the unique characteristics which distinguish HSBC, namely being, 'The world's local bank'. As at 31st December 2004, its total asset was valued at £660 billion. It has over 9,800 offices worldwide. It employs over 253, 000 people, across different countries and territories. Its shares are held by around 200,000 people in some 100 countries and territories. The company's shares are also traded on most of the world's renowned stock exchanges, namely, London, Paris, New York, and Bermuda stock exchanges respectively. One of the major tools it uses for functionality on a worldwide scale is the company's use of information technology. Its e-business channels include the internet, PC banking, interactive TV, and telephone banking. It maintains its own private network (intranet and extranet), in which HSBC's websites attracted 900 million visits in 2004.

The HSBC group provides a comprehensive range of financial services namely:

Personal Financial Services: It has over 100 million personal consumers' worldwide (including Consumer Finance customers). It provides a full range of personal finance services, including current and savings accounts, mortgages, insurance, loans, credit cards, pensions, and investment services. It is one of the world's top ten issuers of credit cards.

Consumer Finance: The Company's Finance Corporation's consumer finance business ensures point of sale credit to consumers, and lends money and provides related services to meet the financial needs of everyday people. In 2004, it completed the integration of its former household businesses.

Commercial Banking: HSBC is a leading provider of financial services to small, medium-sized and middle market enterprises. The group has over two million such customers, including sole proprietors, partnerships, clubs, and associations, incorporated businesses and publicly quoted companies. In the UK, 209 Commercial Centre were launched to provide improved relationship management for higher value small-medium-sized enterprise customers, while in Hong Kong, Business Banking Centres, were expanded to provide a one-stop service.

Corporate Investment Banking and Markets: Tailored financial services are provided to corporate and financial clients. Business lines include Global Markets, Corporate and Institutional Banking, Global Transaction Banking, and Global Investment Banking. Global Markets includes foreign exchange, fixed income, derivatives, equities, metals trade, and other trading businesses. Corporate and Institutional Banking covers relationship management and lending activities. Global Transaction Banking includes payment and cash management, trade services, supply chain, securities services, and wholesale banknotes businesses. Global Investment Banking involves investment banking advisory, and investment banking financing activities.

Private Banking: HSBC is one of the world's top private banking businesses, providing financial services to high net worth individual and families in 70 different locations.

HISTORY OF THE HONGKONG AND SHANGHAI BANKING CORPORATION

The HSBC group evolved from The Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited, which was founded in 1865 in Hong Kong with offices in Shanghai, London, and an agency in San Francisco, USA. The company expanded primarily through already established offices in the banks name until the mid 1950's when it began to create or acquire subsidiaries. The following are some of the key transitions in the Groups growth and history since 1959.

In 1959, HSBC acquired the British Bank of the Middle East formerly known as the Imperial Bank of Persia. In 1965, it acquired a majority shareholding of the Hang Seng Bank Limited. In 1971, the British Bank of the Middle East acquired a minority stake of 20% in the Cyprus Popular Bank Limited, which currently trades as the Laiki Group. In 1972, Midland Bank acquired a shareholding in UBAF Bank Limited (now known as British Arab Commercial Bank Limited). In 1978, the Saudi British Bank is established under local control to take over the British Bank of the Middle East's branches in Saudi Arabia. In 1980, it acquired 51% of New York State's Marine Midland Bank (now known as HSBC Bank USA). At the same time Midland acquired a controlling interest leading German private bank, Trinkaus and Burkhardt (now known as HSBC Trinkaus & Burkhardt KGaA). In 1981, HSBC established a branch in Vancouver, Canada. In the same year the Group acquired a controlling interest in Equator Holdings Limited, which was a merchant bank engaged in trade finance in sub-Saharan Africa. In 1982, Egyptian British Bank S.A.E. is formed, with the HSBC group holding a 40% stake. In 1983, Marine Midland Bank acquired Carroll McEntee and McGinley (now HSBC securities (USA) inc.), a New York based primary dealer in US government securities. In 1986, HSBC Australia was established. In 1987, it acquired the remaining shares of Marine Midland and a 14.9% equity interest in Midland Bank (now HSBC Bank Plc).

In 1991, HSBC Holdings was established (as mentioned previously); its shares were traded for the first time in London and Hong Kong stock exchanges. In 1992, it purchased the remaining equity stake in Midland Bank. In 1993, it moved its head office to London. In 1994, HSBC Malaysia was established. In 1997, the group established a subsidiary in Brazil, Banco HSBC Bamerindus S.A., and acquired Roberts S.A. de Inversiones in Argentina, HSBC Brazil, and HSBC Argentina, respectively. In 1999, shares of HSBC began trading on a third stock exchange, New York. In the same year it acquired, Republic New York Corporation, which was then integrated into HSBC USA Inc and its sister company Safra Republic holdings S.A. (now known as HSBC Republic Holdings Luxembourg). At the same time Midland acquired a 70.03% stake in Mid-Med Bank Plc (now HSBC Bank Malta Plc.), the biggest commercial bank in Malta.

In 2000, HSBC acquired CCF, one of the largest Banks in France. Its shares were also traded on a fourth stock exchange, Paris. The group also increased its shareholding in the Egyptian British Bank to over 90% and then later renames it HSBC Bank Egypt S.A.E. It went on to acquire Demirbank TAS, now HSBC Bank A.S., Turkeys fifth largest private Bank in 2001. Additionally, it signed an agreement to purchase 8% stake in the Bank of Shanghai. In 2002, it acquired Grupo Financiero Bital, S.A., de C.V., one of Mexico's largest financial services groups; and a 10% interest in Ping An Insurance Company of China Limited, the second largest life insurance operation in China. In 2003, it acquired Household International (now HSBC Finance Corporation), a leading US consumer finance company; and Lloyds TSB's Brazilian assets including Losango Promotora de Vendas Ltda, a major consume credit institution. Four French private banking subsidiaries combine to form HSBC Private Bank France. The company's insurance brokers at the same time formed a joint venture Beijing HSBC Insurance Brokers Ltd, in which it has a 24.9% stake. Hang Seng Bank also acquired about 16% of Industrial Bank Co. Ltd, a mainland Chinese Commercial Bank, and HSBC agrees to purchase 505 of Fujian Asia Bank Limited (now known as Ping An Bank Limited). In 2004, it acquired the Bank of Bermuda Ltd, a leading provider of fund administration, trust, custody, asset management, and private banking services. It also opened in a fifth stock exchange, the Bermuda stock exchange. In the same year it acquired about 20% of the Bank of Communications Limited, Chinas fifth largest bank.

EXISTING LITERATURE REVIEW

Around the world corporations are increasingly becoming aware of the enhanced value that corporate branding strategies can provide for an organization. According to Weitz and Wensley (1988), they define marketing strategy as an indicator that is specific towards which activities are to be targeted and the types of competitive advantages that are to be developed and exploited. Implicitly, the strategy requires clear objectives and a focus in line with an organisation's corporate goals; the right customers must be targeted more effectively than they are by its competitors, and associated marketing mixes should be developed into marketing programmes that successfully implement the marketing strategy, Varadarajan (1999).

A strategic market plan is an outline of the methods and resources required to achieve an organisation's goals within a specific target market. It takes into account not only marketing but also all the functional aspects of a business unit that must be co-ordinated. These functional aspects include production, finance and personnel. Environmental issues are an important consideration as well. The concept of the strategic business unit is used to define areas for consideration in a specific strategic market plan. Each strategic business unit (SBU) is a division, product line or other profit centre within a parent company. Each sells a distinct set of products to an identifiable group of customers, and each competes with a well defined set of competitors, Dibb et al. (2001). Each SBU's revenues, costs, investments and strategic plans can be separated and evaluated apart from those of the parent company. SBUs operate in a variety of markets, which have differing growth rates, opportunities, degrees of competition and profit making potential. HSBC's business units includes, personal financial services, consumer finance, commercial banking, corporate investment banking and markets, and finally, private banking. Strategic planners within the group therefore must recognise the different performance capabilities of each business unit and carefully allocate resources or strategically implement its business objectives in order to meet the company's long term goals. They must also ensure that the business units complement each other for the greater good of the overall business.

The process of strategic market planning yields a marketing strategy that is the framework for a marketing plan. A marketing plan includes the framework and entire set of activities to be performed; it is the written document or blueprint for implementing and controlling an organisation's marketing activities. Thus a strategic market plan is not the same as a marketing plan; it is a plan of all aspects of an organisation's strategy in the marketplace, Dibb et al. (1996). A marketing plan, in contrast, deals primarily with implementing the marketing strategy as it relates to target markets and the marketing mix, Abell and Hammond (1979).

To achieve its marketing objectives, an organisation must develop a marketing strategy, or a set of marketing strategies. The set of marketing strategies that are implemented and used at the same time is referred to as the organisation's marketing programme. Most marketing programmes centre on a detailed marketing mix specification and include internal controls and procedures to ensure that they are implemented effectively. Through the process of strategic market planning, an organisation can develop marketing strategies that, when properly implemented and controlled, will contribute to the achievement of its marketing objectives and its overall goals. However, Harris (2002) argues that companies operating in the financial services market, particularly the big four retail banks (HSBC, Barclays, Lloyds TSB, and the Royal Bank of Scotland (with its acquisition of Natwest), primarily rely on generic marketing strategies. To formulate a marketing strategy, the marketer identifies and analyses the target market and develops a marketing mix to satisfy individuals in that market. Marketing strategy is best formulated when it reflects the overall direction of the organisation and is co-ordinated with all the company's functional areas. The strategic market planning process is based on an analysis of the broader marketing environment, by which it is very much affected. Marketing environment forces such as legal forces, political forces, technological forces, economic and competitive forces, societal/green forces, and regulatory forces, can place constraints on an organisation and possibly influence its overall goals; they also affect the amount and type of resources that a business can acquire, Dibb et al (2001). They also do create favourable opportunities as well, such as internet banking in which HSBC and Merrill Lynch created an online banking and investment facility, which has proved profitable for both company's as a whole, Eppendorfer et al. (2002). Marketing environment variables play a part in the creation of a marketing strategy. When environment variables affect an organisation's overall goals, resources, opportunities or marketing objectives, they also affect its marketing strategies, which are based on the factors mentioned previously. They impact consumers needs, desires and they affect competitors' plans.

Now, according to Polito (2005), branding in the classic sense is all about creating unique identities and positions for products and services, hence distinguishing the offerings from competitors. Corporate branding employs the same methodology and toolbox used in product branding, but it also elevates the approach a step further into the board room, where additional issues around stakeholder relations (shareholders, media, competitors, governments and many others) can help the corporation benefit from a strong and well-managed corporate branding strategy. Not surprisingly, a strong and comprehensive corporate branding strategy requires a high level of personal attention and commitment from the CEO and the senior management to become fully effective and meet the objectives.

Corporate branding is a serious undertaking that entails more skills and activities than just an updated glossy marketing facade with empty jargon. A strong corporate branding strategy can add significant value in terms of helping the entire corporation and the management team to implement the long-term vision, create unique positions in the market place of the company and its brands, and not the least to unlock the leadership potential within the organization. Hence a corporate branding strategy can enable the corporation to further leverage on its tangible and non-tangible assets leading to branding excellence throughout the corporation, Polito (2005).

HSBC as stated in the latter has in recent years acquired a vast number of companies across the globe and adopted them fully under its international corporate brand with great success and within a surprising short timeframe. A strong brand is about building and maintaining strong perceptions in the minds of customers. This takes time to establish and many resources to keep, but eventually no one remembers what the local banks used to be called, and HSBC has managed to transfer the brand equities from the acquired brands into its own corporate brand equity.

There are several benefits for employing a branding strategy that a corporation can exploit. First of all, a strong corporate brand is no less or more than the face of the business strategy, portraying what the corporation aims at doing and what it wants to be known for in the market place. The corporate brand is the overall umbrella for the corporations' activities and encapsulates its vision, values, personality, positioning and image among many other dimensions. Think of HSBC, which has successfully implemented a stringent corporate branding strategy. HSBC employs the same common expression throughout the globe with a simple advertising strategy based on the slogan The world's local bank. This creative platform enables the corporation to bridge between many cultural differences, and to portray many faces of the same strategy.

Additionally, HSBC's brand name has enabled a number of key mergers and acquisitions (mentioned previously) around the globe, which has so far strengthened its market presence in the banking world, Brand Finance (2000). 

The Marketing Strategies of the HSBC Group 2005 
Towards the end of 2003, HSBC launched 'Managing for Growth', a strategic plan that provides HSBC with a blueprint for growth and development during the next five years. The strategy is evolutionary, not revolutionary. It builds on HSBC's strengths and it addresses the areas where further improvement is considered both desirable and attainable.
HSBC concentrates on growing earnings over the long term at a rate which will place it favourably when compared with its peer group. Also it focuses on investing in its delivery platforms, its technology, its people and its brand to support the future value of HSBC as reflected in its comparative stock market rating and total shareholder return ('TSR'). HSBC remains committed to benchmarking its performance by comparison with a peer group.

Its core values are integral to its strategy, and communicating them to customers, shareholders and employees is deemed as intrinsic to the plan. These values comprise an emphasis on long-term, ethical client relationships; high productivity through teamwork; a confident and ambitious sense of excellence; being international in outlook and character; prudence; creativity and customer focused marketing.

Under the 'managing for growth' scheme, eight strategic imperatives were identified as the key marketing and business strategies for 2004 - 2008. They are:

  • Brand: make HSBC and its hexagon symbol one of the world's leading brands for customer experience and corporate social responsibility
  • Personal Financial Services: drive growth in key markets and through appropriate channels to make HSBC the strongest global player in personal financial services
  • Consumer Finance: extend the reach of this business to existing customers through a wider product range and penetrate new markets Commercial Banking: make the most of HSBC's international customer base through effective relationship management and improved product offerings in all the Group's markets
  • Corporate, Investment Banking and Markets: accelerate growth by enhancing capital markets and advisory capabilities focused on client service in defined sectors where HSBC has critical relevance and strength
  • Private Banking: serve the Group's highest value personal clients around the world
  • People: attract, develop and motivate HSBC's people, rewarding success and rejecting mediocrity; and
  • TSR: fulfil HSBC's TSR target by achieving strong competitive performances in earnings per share growth and efficiency.

RESEARCH APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY EMPLOYED

Research Approach
The research approach will be carried out using the positivist case research approach. According to Cavaye (1996), positivist epistemology tries to understand a social setting by identifying individual components of a phenomenon and explains the phenomenon in terms of constructs and relationships between constructs. The theoretical constructs describing the phenomenon are considered to be distinct from empirical reality. Hence, empirical observations can be used to test theory. This looks at the world as external and objective. Positivism employs four major research evaluation criteria: a good research should make controlled observations, should be able to be replicated, should be generalizable and should use formal logic.

Under positivism, case research findings are not statistically generalizable to a population, as the case or cases cannot be considered representative of a population, however case research can claim theoretical generalizability.

This will also include comparing, contrasting and critically evaluating past and present papers, articles, journals, and established theories that have been published on the subject matter.

Methodology Employed
Multiple-Case Study Design
This project uses the multiple case study method in order to enable analysis of data across cases and relating it to the theoretical perspectives in the available literature of marketing strategy. This enables the researcher to verify that findings are not merely the result of idiosyncrasies of research setting (Miles and Huberman, 1984). According to Yin (2002), in such a method it is important to use: multiple sources of evidence.

The appropriate number of cases depends, firstly, on how much is known about the phenomenon after studying a case and secondly, on how much new information is likely to emerge from studying further cases (Eisenhardt, 1991).

This paper detailed analysis about the marketing strategies employed by HSBC, in comparison to its other major competitors, namely Barclays Bank, Royal Bank of Scotland, and Citibank. Analysis of the marketing strategy of HSBC is evaluated with regard to the organisation meeting customer needs and requirements, advertising strategies and the need to increase its customer base and market share are all addressed. One wants to see if there are any matches with regard to the theoretical literature of marketing strategy and what the empirical evidence gathered says and also any mismatches. This also relates to the literature review.

Qualitative Data
Cavaye (1996) states that qualitative investigation refers to distilling meaning and understanding from a phenomenon and is not primarily concerned with measuring and quantification of the phenomenon. Direct and in-depth knowledge of a research setting are necessary to achieve contextual understanding. Hence, qualitative methods are associated with face-to-face contact with persons in the research setting, with verbal data (Van Mannen 1989) being gathered.

Qualitative data can be collected in a number of forms. One major form of qualitative evidence is interviews, which may be recorded and later transcribed. Qualitative data are rich, full, holistic 'real' their face validity seems unpeachable; they preserve chronological flow where that is important (Miles 1979).

In spite of the abovementioned, qualitative data have weaknesses (Miles 1979; Miles and Huberman, 1984). Collecting and analysing data is time-consuming and demanding. In addition, data analysis is not easy, as qualitative data analysis methods are not well established. Recognised rules of logic can be applied to verbal data in order to make sense of the evidence and to formally analyse the data.

Rubin and Rubin (1995) state that it is most desirable to disclose the identities of both the case and the individuals interviewed because,

The reader is able to recall any other previous information he or she may have learned about the same case from previous research or other sources in reading and interpreting the case report.

The entire case can be reviewed more readily, so that footnotes and citations can be checked, if necessary, and appropriate criticisms can be raised about the published case.

Nevertheless, there are some occasions when anonymity is necessary. The most common rationale is that when the case study has been on a controversial topic, anonymity serves to protect the real case and its real participants. The second reason is that the issuance of the final case report may affect the subsequent actions of those that were studied.

Quantitative Data
This is concerned with measuring aspects of a market or the population of consumers making up the market. This includes soft approaches such as consumer attitudes as well as the hard things such as market size, brand shares, purchase frequencies etc. Quantitative data on a market or consumer group can be obtained through carrying out a census, obtaining the relevant measures from every single consumer or player in the market.

In practice, research through a census collection is very rare; for one thing it is usually prohibitively expensive to obtain data from every individual (the government only carries out a population census once every 10 years) and even if the money is available the timescales involved are likely to be too long to meet commercial deadlines, Meier (1991). Furthermore, a census is unnecessary since the alternative; sampling can normally produce adequate and acceptably reliable data for a fraction of the cost. Quantitative research is, therefore, nearly always based on more or less rigorous sampling methods which have in common the assumption that the data from the samples can be taken to represent, within estimated levels of accuracy, the population or universe from which they are drawn, (Hague 2002).

Types of Quantitative Data
The range of information which can be and is collected through quantitative research is enormous if not infinite. In relation to deciding how data should be collected, all the possibilities can be categorised into a simple threefold classification:

1.Market measures
2.Customer profiles or segmentation
3.Attitudinal data.

Market measures quantify and describe a market. Common examples include: market and sector size; shares of the market held by suppliers or brands; penetration levels (what proportion of all potential consumers own or buy a product); purchase and consumption frequencies; patterns of consumption and seasonality. Data of this type is very essential for any manager developing or reviewing a marketing plan for a company, product group or brand name like HSBC's hexagon logo.

Market measures taken from a sample are generally projected or grossed up to the total market or population, e.g., the proportion of households in a sample found to be without a PC can be multiplied by available estimates of the number of total households to provide an indicator of untapped potential. A vital concern in the marketing of a product or service is knowing and understanding the potential customer base; what type of people or organisation are they? What other types of products or services do they own or use? What is required to meet this need is customer profiling or segmentation data and it is quantitative in nature because reliable breakdowns are needed for the whole market or population, Buck (1990).

Hague (2002) argues that profiling data can take various forms: socio-demographics (age, sex, income and occupation group, education level, home tenure etc); geo-demographics; various business classifications such as company size, industry etc. for business to business research or it can relate to consumer behaviour (ownership of various products, purchase or usage levels, media exposure etc.). Unlike market measures, consumer profiling data can be collected only from consumers (including organisations in the case of business to business research) although the distribution or manufacturing levels in the market may also need profiling.

Attitudinal data is used in a quite general sense to cover concepts such as awareness, perceptions, beliefs, evaluations, preferences and propensities. In other words they are, in their various forms, subjective and reside in the minds of individuals. Much market research under this is concerned with attitudes and attitude measurement because attitudes and your marketing may mould consumer choice in your favour. Attitudes are of course very much the subject of qualitative research which is often concerned to identify relevant dimensions and categories of attitudes. In quantitative research, the focus is on establishing the degree to which specific attitudes exist among the market and population.

The most important tool for data collection under quantitative research is face to face interviewing. However, in situations where over a hundred firms need to be interviewed, due to the cost attached to carrying out such a task, doing a telephone interview would seem more appropriate. The methods used to record data and data analysis here, is predominantly through questionnaires. Most questionnaires used in quantitative research involve a predominance of pre-coded or closed questions and the layout of the response points can help to minimize problems of mis-recording. More problematical, however, is the recording of open-ended questions, such as why did you buy this product, then? This usually leads to a lengthy or rambling response from the individual, in which what is said is then summarized or abbreviated and there is no way of knowing whether what is recorded reasonably reflects the response given.

In the case of this paper, due to the short deadline associated with writing this paper, one was only able to get a telephone interview (primary data collection method) from a senior manager of customer relationship management at one of HSBC's flagship branches in the London area. Additionally one has also used multiple sources of evidence, i.e. secondary sources of information, articles, journals, established theories, HSBC's annual report, comments by top management within the organisation are analysed and also the company's website are all used to evaluate and address the effectiveness of its use of market strategy to increase its market share and customer base.

The remainder of this paper proceeds as follows, analysis of findings, overview of the marketing strategy, criticisms, summary and conclusion.

ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS

Central to achieving a company's corporate vision is the need to build up a loyal customer base of satisfied customers. HSBC did not overtake its major competitors by chance in acquiring foreign financial institutions; it developed a clear marketing strategy based on a desire to fully satisfy a carefully targeted set of market segments. As the BBC (2004) gathered, a quarter of HSBC's 2003 profits were made in the UK, and it made around £70 profit per customer. Additionally, the bulk of its profits came from acquisitions elsewhere, US personal loan firm Household International and HSBC Mexico. Although Household International operates in the UK, HSBC says its British market accounts for less than 10% of this division's profits.

Market segmentation is at the core of robust marketing strategy development. This involves identifying customer needs, expectations, perceptions, and buying behaviour so as to group together homogeneous customers who will be satisfied and marketed to in a similar manner. One segment will differ from another in terms of customer profile and buying behaviour, and also with regard to the sales and marketing activity likely to satisfy these customers. Having sufficient knowledge of these customers is fundamental. It is important to remember that the process of market segmentation involves more than simply grouping customers into segments. Shrewd targeting of certain segments and the development of a clear brand positioning are part and parcel of the market segmentation process.

Now, HSBC launched a marketing strategy called 'Managing for growth', which is to cover and deal with its strategic outlook for the period 2004 - 2008. From the company website, they have stated that they will deliver this by; focusing on enhancing HSBC's revenue generation culture, develop its brand name further (hexagon logo), manage costs strategically, maintain a prudent credit/market risk stance, and invest further in its people. Addition ally, acquisitions still remains an integral part of their strategy.

As stated from the company's website, they will concentrate on growing earnings over the long term at a rate which will place it favourably when compared with its peer group. It will also focus on investing in its delivery platforms, its technology, its people and its brand to support the future value of HSBC as reflected in its comparative stock market rating and total shareholder return ('TSR'). HSBC remains committed to benchmarking its performance by comparison with a peer group.

They argue that their core values are integral to its strategy, and communicating them to customers, shareholders and employees is intrinsic to the plan. These values comprise an emphasis on long-term, ethical client relationships; high productivity through teamwork; a confident and ambitious sense of excellence; being international in outlook and character; prudence; creativity and customer focused marketing.

They state that their brand name has been an outstanding success and they will continue with the next phase of their strategy. They argue that the brand name is now sufficiently strong that they can accommodate brand variety at customer, product and even country level as and when required by the business model. Adding, reputation on their part is the key element of the brand proposition and cannot be overstated. Their policies for corporate social responsibility and the environment are part of their brand name in which they reach their objectives through the philanthropic objectives of the company.

Details of Telephone Interview
In a telephone interview conducted, the head manager of personal customer relationships management argued that HSBC does have a marketing strategy. The respondent stated that they were responsible for 25 people all working on different projects within the customer relationship management department. The respondent added that the marketing strategies employed predominantly by HSBC were, advertising with the use of its already established brand name of being seen as 'the world's local bank', market segmentation of products and services to consumer groups at different locations worldwide. When asked if these marketing strategies have been effective? The respondent replied, yes, they have been effective, adding that most of the profits generated have been from its overseas subsidiaries. This tallies with what was stated on the BBC (2004).

With regard to payoffs or financial gains generated in relation to the effective use of these marketing strategies, the respondent argues that they have been able to capitalise on their overseas presence, local knowledge, and expertise to bring in new customers to open personal current accounts, and also look at other products and services offered by HSBC.

When asked what influential factors would inform a potential customer to choose HSBC's services and products over its major competitors like Barclays, the respondent replied, the long term experience of the company plays a critical part in dealing with customer preferences, its excellent and well trained staff are fully equipped to deal with customer queries and body language, the corporate brand name, a recommendation from a fellow user of HSBC's products and services, lower charges, its vast range of products which other competitors do not have (e.g. its international reach), a convenient location to be able to withdraw and look at cash balances (ATM accessibility), and lastly advice from an individual with regard to the services and products that HSBC provides.

Finally, when asked whether these marketing strategies are generic or are they based on a roll-plan? The respondent stated that they are generic, depending on what country or region that the various subsidiaries of HSBC are located, certain strategies mentioned previous are put to good use over the other.

Overview of marketing strategy employed for 'The Business Units'
In 2003, HSBC invested significant amounts in proprietary customer relationship management systems to ensure their growing customer base is managed efficiently. As a result of this they now handle a greater share of customer financial requirements and in the process, generating higher levels of customer satisfaction. For example in 2001, the 'Individual solutions programme' in the UK generated more than five million customer contacts, over one million of which led to an expansion of an existing relationship. 
The internet goes to the very heart of customer convenience and is an increasingly important channel for their customers. The joint venture Merrill Lynch HSBC extended its online investment-led broking and banking service from Canada and Australia to the UK. Although roll-out plans for other countries had to be postponed following the downturn in equity markets Merrill Lynch HSBC expanded its existing service with the introduction of managed funds in Australia and tax - efficient products in the UK.

With more financial services available through the internet, electronic organisers, mobile phones, television and private network connections, their electronic banking customer numbers have more than doubled to more than three million in a space of two years. HSBC's e-banking services are available in seventeen countries and territories worldwide. Their websites according to them receive an average of 210,000 customer visits a day, about 75 million a year and rising.

Commercial banking: this is an area where they provide banking services for small to middle market business customers, which they see this as one of their traditional strengths. The 1.8 million customers in this particular business unit include incorporated businesses, trading entities, partnerships, sole traders, clubs and associations. Adding that due to there international reach; they are ideally placed to meet the requirements of their existing and future customers. There main contact with these customers is through a network of relationship managers. Relationships are established and managed at the local branch level or through their expanding worldwide network of commercial banking centres.

Corporate, Investment Banking and Markets: The international reach of HSBC enables the company to be one of the few financial institutions that can provide its major customers with a full range of transaction and investment banking and markets services worldwide. This undoubtedly proved to give HSBC a competitive advantage in 2001 when despite the challenging economic conditions; improvements were made in performance and profitability by focusing on the core business relationship. The company provides services to over 25,000 subsidiaries and offices of about 1,200 major customers in more than 50 countries and territories.

Adding, client service teams are at the heart of the operations of the group as a whole. This consists of relationship and product managers from around the world who understand customer business needs. The group supports these teams by investing heavily in increased automation and software for risk management, central systems to support relationship management, and intranet sites to share industry, product, and geographical knowledge.

Private Banking: Following the company's recent acquisitions, the group continued to integrate the private banking operations of Republic and CCF in 2001, creating a Swiss holding company, HSBC Private Banking Holdings (Suisse) SA, through which most of their worldwide private banking operations are now owned. This coherent method of ownership structure benefits high net worth individuals and their families by enabling them to bring together a full range of world class private banking services. They have over 4,500 employees in 50 different locations that supply services such as deposits and fund transfer, tax and trustee structures, asset and trust management, mutual funds, currency and securities transaction, lending and guarantees.

The appointment of relationship managers who operate on a cross border basis to serve the specialised requirements of clients in such sectors as diamonds, jewellery, sports and media are all in line with the group's differentiated approach to international private banking.

Service Centre: The importance of global processing is at the heart of the group's strategic aim of pursuing economies of scale in order to improve service, increase productivity and achieve a competitive, economic advantage. Since their introduction in 1996, these processing centres have taken on progressively, on a cross border basis, more of the back office functions previously conducted in the country of origin of that particular transaction. Due to the ever increasing customer base of the group more service centres are planned for the future. Most recently, two centres were opened in Bangalore, and Shanghai.

The Brand: The establishment in 1999 of HSBC as a uniform, international brand name ensured that the corporate symbol is an increasingly familiar sight across the world. In 2001, a programme was launched to differentiate the 'Hexagon' symbol from those of the other competitors by describing the unique characteristics which distinguishes HSBC.

CRITICISMS OF THESE STRATEGIES

Banks have found that Personal Current Account's (PCA) are a 'gateway' to selling other financial products. According to Lloyds TSB "the PCA remains the key relationship product". Abbey National states that a PCA provides almost 100 customer contacts a year, much more than other financial products.

Evidence from Lloyds TSB is that customers who hold a PCA are two to four times more likely to hold another Lloyds TSB financial product. In a document published by the Competition Commission (2001) they argue that Lloyds TSB has a higher market share within their own PCA customers than they have within the market as a whole. Whilst this does suggest a general pattern of cross holding of financial products, it does not mean that the cross selling has been from PCAs to other products rather than vice versa.

Regardless of the causality of financial product purchase, the PCA seems to represent燼 pivotal financial product that provides:

A direct opportunity for profit; 
It provides an opportunity to cross-sell additional profitable financial products; 
It also acts as an important opportunity for a high level of customer contact.

It might be assumed that the PCA is a financial product where banks aggressively seek to defend current customers and acquire new customers.

In 2000, Banks in the UK spent £313 million on advertising. In a report by the UK Competition Commission (2001), they found that while there was a tentative relationship between total advertising expenditure and PCA market share, there were significant exceptions to the trend and virtually no relationship at lower market shares.

Theoretically, if marketing and market share are related, there may be a relationship between the change in market share and the marketing expenditure. However, even within the 'big four' this is clearly not true. Barclays and HSBC have both increased their market share by 1% in the five years to 2000, despite very different levels of marketing investment. Lloyds TSB have dropped by 2% despite spending more than Barclays or HSBC and NatWest/RBS could be said to have jointly declined by 4% despite having a joint expenditure of more than twice as much as Barclays.

The relationship between market share and expenditure, feeble as it is, disintegrates completely (perhaps even becomes negative) when some effort is made to relate PCA market share to the £23.5M that was spent on advertising that is directly attributable to PCAs.

Much of the higher expenditure as the Competition Commission puts it, is by banks that are growing their brand awareness. Again there is no connection between the 5 year growth in market share (from 1996 - 2001) and the current level of expenditure. This poor correlation might be partially explained if much of the marketing related to PCAs is unmonitored advertising expenditure, (e.g. direct mail) which would be excluded. It is also possible that the aggregate expenditure of the last 5 years (from 1996 - 2001) may be related to the aggregate growth (or decline) in market share. However given that the largest cost in most consumer focused marketing is advertising and given that there has been very little net movement in market share it is more likely that there is little or no relationship between expenditure and market share.

The main point here is that no matter how much the HSBC group has spent on advertising, it does not mean that the advertising marketing strategy will lead to an increased proportion in market share for the group.

Current Banking Communications

BANK - CAMPAIGN - KEY MESSAGES

Lloyds TSB

  • Your Life. Your Bank
  • Cross selling of financial products, the heritage of the bank and its services for small businesses.

Royal Bank of Scotland (Natwest)

  • Another Way
  • Traditional branch based banking, service and convenience are key themes.

Barclays

  • Fluent in Finance
  • Finance experts, (previous campaigns emphasised size and Internet services

HSBC

  • The World's Local Bank
  • Emphasising their global capability and strength

Abbey National

  • Because Life's Complicated Enough.
  • One stop financial service supplier

Halifax

  • Giving You Extra
  • 30x as much interest as 'big four' PCA

The table above shows the most recent communications of the largest banks in the UK would seem to indicate that HSBC and Barclays are targeting large business customers, whilst Lloyds TSB is considering small customers and PCA holders. NatWest and The Abbey National are the only banks emphasising traditional branch-based banking and thus the status quo. But only NatWest (merged into Royal Bank of Scotland) is likely to benefit from this, as it is one of the 'big four', The Abbey National is unlikely to encourage change, but is promoting the traditional model of banking.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
This paper has looked at the history of the HSBC group. From its early days in 1865, when it started of as a Public Limited Corporation in Hong Kong, to being a truly global banking giant. The various acquisitions and takeovers achieved by the corporation are also mentioned. The various financial services or business units which HSBC consists of are identified. These are: Personal Financial Services; Consumer Finance; Commercial Banking; Corporate, Investment Banking and Markets; and Private Banking. We have also touched on existing literature that covers the concept of marketing strategy and also the marketing strategies employed by the HSBC Group are evaluated. Additionally, various research methodologies and approaches are mentioned in which, a telephone interview was the only way one was able to gain a better understanding of the marketing strategies employed by the HSBC Group. An analysis of findings with regard to the type of market segmentation for robust strategy development of the group is looked at. Finally, an overview of these marketing strategies is also done, with a few criticisms as to the validity of employing such marketing strategies are critically analysed.

As a whole it would be worthwhile to conclude that HSBC has done a fantastic job in investing in its brand name, using the hexagon logo, which states 'the World's Local Bank'. It has not only reinforced their customer base and retained their market share at home, but also abroad. Its sensible, timely, and resilient approach to acquisitions abroad, has enabled the company to have a better understanding of global banking, whereby as stated previously, three quarters of the profits generated for the year 2004, came from its subsidiaries abroad, BBC (2004). Although, it spent close to $2 billion in advertising for the year 2004 worldwide, that is a huge amount, whereby its market share with regard to the banking segments in which it functions, has not improved any wider than the previous years market share. One could say that this is a waste of the marketing budget, rather than wasting money on advertising, the group could possibly fare better by diversifying the funds into other areas of production where it is deemed as profitable. Areas such as increased loans and reduced interest payments in areas such as Brazil, where subsistence farming is widely practiced would be beneficial to the Group as a whole.

REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY
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简介
被称为在世界上规模最大的银行及金融服务机构之一的汇丰集团。它建立在欧洲,亚太地区,美洲,中东和非洲的业务。在1991年,汇丰控股在英国注册成立,其总部设在伦敦。 1999年,公司建立了国际品牌,确保本集团的企业标志成为一个熟悉的景象都在世界各地。汇丰区分其品牌名称来自其竞争对手通过描述区别于汇丰银行,即, “世界的本地银行”的独特特点。截至二零零四年十二月三十一日,其总资产价值在660十亿英镑。它拥有全球超过9,800个办事处。它采用超过253 , 000人,在不同的国家和地区。持有其股份在20万人左右,在100多个国家和地区。本公司的股份也大部分世界知名的证券交易所,分别是伦敦,巴黎,纽约,百慕大证券交易所分别买卖。它使用功能在全球范围内的主要手段之一,是该公司利用信息技术。其电子商务渠道包括互联网,个人电脑银行,互动电视,电话银行。它维护其自己的专用网络( Intranet和Extranet ),其中汇丰银行的网站在2004年吸引了900万人次。
汇丰集团提供全方位的金融服务,即:
个人金融服务:它拥有超过100万个人消费者的全球(包括消费金融公司的客户) 。它提供了一个全方位的个人理财服务,包括往来及储蓄户口,按揭,保险,贷款,信用卡,养老金,及投资服务。它是世界十大信用卡发行商之一。
消费金融公司:本公司的金融公司的消费融资业务,确保信贷向消费者销售点,并借钱,并提供相关服务,以满足人们的日常金融需求。在2004年,它完成其前任家庭业务的整合。
商业银行:汇丰银行是一家领先的小型,中型和中型市场企业提供金融服务。该集团拥有超过200万客户,包括独资企业,合伙企业,俱乐部和协会,注册成立的企业及上市公司。在英国, 209商业中心推出,而香港商务理财中心,提供一个一站式的服务扩大到价值较高的小中型企业客户,提供更好的关系管理。
企业投资银行及资本市场提供量身定制的金融服务,为企业及金融客户。业务包括全球市场,企业及机构银行业务,环球交易银行业务,全球投资银行。全球市场,包括外汇,固定收益,衍生产品,股票,金属贸易及其他贸易业务。企业及机构银行业务涵盖关系管理和贷款活动。环球交易银行业务,包括支付和现金管理,贸易服务,供应链,证券服务,批发钞票业务。环球投资银行业务涉及投资银行顾问和投资银行等融资活动。
私人银行:汇丰银行是世界顶级的私人银行业务之一,在70个不同地点的高资产净值的个人和家庭提供金融服务。
香港上海汇丰银行有限公司史
香港上海汇丰银行有限公司,始建于1865年在香港设有办事处,在上海,伦敦,及代理美国在旧金山,汇丰集团的发展。该公司主要通过扩大银行名称已经设立了办事处,直到1950年代中期,当它开始建立或收购附属公司。以下是一些在本集团的增长和1959年以来的历史转变的关键。
在1959年,汇丰银行收购了英国中东银行前身为波斯帝国银行。在1965年,它收购了恒生银行有限公司的多数股权。 1971年,英国中东银行在塞浦路斯银行有限公司的热门,目前股价的Laiki集团收购少数股权的20% 。 1972年,美联银行收购了UBAF银行有限公司(现被称为英国阿拉伯商业银行有限公司)的股权。在1978年,沙特英国银行成立本地控制模式下,接管英国银行在沙特阿拉伯中东地区的分行。在1980年,它收购了51%的纽约州的海丰银行(现称美国汇丰银行) 。与此同时,美联收购领先的德国私人银行,特林考斯和布克哈特(现称汇丰特林& Burkhardt的KGaA公司)的控股权益。在1981年,汇丰银行在加拿大温哥华建立了分公司。在同一年,本集团收购赤道控股有限公司,这是一家商业银行从事贸易融资,在撒哈拉以南非洲地区的控股权益。埃及英国银行在1982年, S·A·E·形成与汇丰集团持有40%的股权。 1983年,海丰银行收购卡罗尔麦肯泰和麦克金尼(现汇丰证券(美国)公司) ,总部设在纽约的美国政府债券的主要交易商。在1986年,澳洲汇丰银行正式成立。在1987年,它收购了海丰和美联银行(现汇丰银行有限公司) 14.9 %的股权的剩余股份。
在1991年,汇丰控股成立(如上所述) ;第一次在伦敦和香港证券交易所买卖其股份。在1992年,它收购米特兰银行余下的股权。在1993年,它移动其总行伦敦。在1994年,马来西亚汇丰银行正式成立。在1997年,集团成立了一个子公司,在巴西,银行汇丰Bamerindus SA ,收购罗伯茨SA DE INVERSIONES在阿根廷,巴西汇丰银行,及汇丰阿根廷分别。在1999年,汇丰银行的股票在第三,纽约证券交易所开始交易。同年收购共和国纽约公司,然后集成到汇丰美国公司和其姊妹公司萨夫拉共和国增持SA (现称汇丰控股共和国卢森堡) 。与此同时,美联在中医学BANK PLC(马耳他汇丰银行有限公司),在马耳他最大的商业银行获得了70.03%的股权。
在2000年,汇丰收购CCF ,在法国最大的银行之一。第四,巴黎证券交易所买卖其股份。该集团还增加其在埃及的英国银行的持股超过90 % ,再后来,并将其更名为埃及汇丰银行它去收购Demirbank TAS , AS ,土耳其第五大私人银行汇丰银行于2001年。此外,它签署了一项协议,以购买上海银行8%的股份。在2002年,它收购了GRUPO Financiero眶, SA de CV公司,墨西哥最大的金融服务集团之一和中国平安保险(中国)有限公司,在中国第二大寿险业务的公司10%的权益。 2003年,它收购的Household International (现为汇丰金融公司) ,一家领先的美国消费金融公司;和劳埃德TSB巴西的资产包括Losango的宣传员德Vendas Ltda公司,主要的消费信贷机构。四个法国私人银行附属公司相结合,形成法国汇丰私人银行。本公司的保险经纪公司在同一时间形成了一个合资公司北京汇丰保险经纪有限公司,其中有24.9%的股权。恒生银行还收购了约16% ,中国大陆的商业银行,兴业银行和汇丰银行同意收购福建亚洲银行有限公司(现名为平安银行股份有限公司) 505 。在2004年,它收购了百慕达公司,基金管理的领先供应商,信托,托管,资产管理,私人银行服务的银行。它还在第五证券交易所,百慕达证券交易所开业。同年,收购约20%的银行通信有限公司,中国第五大银行。
现有的文献回顾
世界各地的企业已经逐渐意识到的价值,增强企业的品牌战略可以提供组织。据韦茨和温斯利(1988) ,它们定义营销战略作为一项指标朝着哪些活动是有针对性的,是特定类型的竞争优势,开发和利用。隐式,战略需要明确的目标和组织的企业目标一致的焦点,合适的客户,必须有针对性更有效地比其竞争对手,以及相关的营销混音应该被开发到营销方案,成功实施的营销策略,瓦拉达拉金(1999) 。
市场的战略计划是在一个特定的目标市场,以实现组织的目标所需的方法和资源的轮廓。它不仅考虑营销,但功能方面的一个业务单元,必须统筹。这些功能方面,包括生产,财务和人事。环境问题是一个重要的考虑因素。战略业务单元的概念,是用来定义在一个特定的市场战略计划需要考虑的地方。每个战略业务单元( SBU )是一个分工,产品线或其他在母公司的利润中心。每销售一组不同的产品识别的客户群,每一个定义良好的竞争对手,迪布等竞争。 (2001年) 。可以被分离每个SBU的收入,成本,投资和战略计划,评估除了母公司。 SBU的工作在不同的市场,有不同的增长速度,机会,竞争程度和利润潜力。汇丰的业务单位包括,个人金融服务,消费金融,商业银行,企业投资银行及资本市场,最后,私人银行。因此,集团内的战略规划者必须认识到不同的性能各业务单位,并仔细分配资源或战略实现其业务目标,以满足该公司的长远目标。他们还必须确保各业务单位互相配合,整体业务更大的利益。
市场策略规划的过程中产生的营销策略,营销计划的框架。营销计划的框架和整套要执行的活动,它是书面文件或蓝图,实施和控制一个组织的营销活动。这样一个战略市场计划是不一样的,它是作为一个营销计划迪布等在市场上各方面组织的战略计划。 (1996) 。营销计划,相反,主要涉及实施的营销策略,因为它涉及到目标市场和营销组合阿贝尔和Hammond (1979) 。
为了实现其营销目标,组织必须制定营销策略,或一组营销策略。在同一时间,实施和使用的一套营销策略被称为作为该组织的营销方案。大部分的营销方案进行了详细的营销组合规范,包括中心,以确保他们实施有效的内部控制和程序。通过市场策略规划的过程中,组织可以制定营销策略时,正确的实施和控制,将有助于实现其营销目标和总体目标。然而,哈里斯(2002)认为在金融服务市场经营的企业,尤其是四大零售银行(汇丰银行,巴克莱银行,劳埃德银行,苏格兰皇家银行(国民西敏银行收购) ,主要依赖于通用的营销策略要制定市场营销战略,营销人员识别和分析的目标市场,并开发一个满足个人在该市场的营销组合。营销策略是最好的制定时,它反映了组织的整体方向和公司的所有统筹功能区。市场策略规划过程进行分析的基础上更广泛的营销环境,它是营销环境的力量,如法律的力量,政治力量,技术力量,经济和竞争力,社会/绿色力量受到很大影响。 ,和监管力量,可以将组织的限制,并可能影响其总体目标,他们也影响资源的数量和类型,一个企业可以收购,欧华等人(2001 ) ,他们也创造了有利的机会,如网上银行在汇丰银行和美林创建一个在线银行和投资设施,这已被证明有利可图两家公司现有Eppendorfer等人。 (2002年)作为一个整体,市场营销环境变量发挥的一部分在创造一种营销策略。当环境变量影响一个组织的总体目标,资源,机会或营销目标,他们也影响其营销策略,这是基于前面提到的因素,影响消费者的需求,欲望,它们会影响竞争对手的计划。
现在,根据波利托(2005年) ,在传统意义上的品牌是所有关于创造的产品和服务的独特的身份和位置,从而区分竞争对手的产品。企业品牌采用相同的方法及产品品牌中使用,但它也提升了的做法更进了一步到板房,其他问题的利益相关者的关系(股东,媒体,竞争对手,政府和许多其他人)可以帮助公司利益的工具箱从一个强大而管理良好的企业品牌战略。这并不奇怪,一个强大而全面的企业品牌战略需要高水平的个人关注和承诺的CEO和高级管理人员要充分有效满足目标。
企业品牌是一个严肃的承诺,需要更多的技能和活动不仅仅是一个更新的光泽营销门面空行话。一个强大的企业品牌策略可以增加重大价值在帮助整个公司的管理团队,以实现长期的愿景,创建的公司,其品牌在市场上的独特的位置,而且至少不会解锁领导组织内的潜力。因此,一个企业的品牌战略可以使公司进一步利用其有形和无形的资产,品牌卓越领先整个公司,波利托(2005年) 。
汇丰银行表示,后者在最近几年收购了大量世界各地的公司,并通过他们完全根据其国际企业的品牌取得了巨大成功,并在一个令人惊讶的短时间内。一个强大的品牌是在顾客心目中的建立和维持强有力的看法。这需要时间来建立,而且很多资源可以保持,但最终没有人记得使用被称为本地银行,汇丰管理品牌资产转移到自己的企业品牌权益收购品牌。
采用品牌战略,公司可以利用有几个好处。首先,没有一个强大的企业品牌是少于或多于面对的经营策略,塑造公司的目的是什么做的,它究竟想在市场上被称为。企业的品牌是公司活动的总体框架和封装的愿景,价值观,个性,定位和形象在许多其他尺寸。想想汇丰,成功实施了严格的企业品牌战略。汇丰在全球各地采用相同的通用表达式用一个简单的广告策略基础上的口号世界的本地银行。这一创造性的平台,使公司之间的桥梁很多文化上的差异,以及刻画多面相同的策略。
此外,汇丰的品牌名称已经启用了一些关键的兼并和收购(前面提到的)世界各地,至今已在银行界加强了其市场占有率,品牌金融(2000) 。
2005年汇丰集团的营销策略
接近2003年年底,汇丰银行推出了“管理增长” ,提供汇丰的战略计划,在未来五年的成长和发展的蓝图。策略是进化,而​​不是革命性的。它是建立在汇丰的强项,它解决了进一步改进的地方都被认为是可取的,并达到。
汇丰精矿的长期盈利增长的速度,这将会把它毫不逊色,当与它的对等体组相比。此外,它着重于投资在其交付平台,它的技术,它的人民和它的品牌支持汇丰的未来价值体现在其相对股市评级及股东总回报( TSR ) 。汇丰将继续致力于为基准,其性能与对等体组的比较。
它的核心价值是其战略的组成部分,并传达给客户,股东和员工被视为内在的计划。这些价值观包括侧重于长期的,伦理的客户关系,通过团队协作的高生产率;一个自信和雄心勃勃的追求卓越的意识;国际世界观和性格;审慎创造力和客户集中营销。
根据“管理增长”计划, 8个战略举措被确定为2004年 - 2008年的主要市场推广及业务策略。它们分别是:
品牌:使汇丰银行及其六角形标志之一,全球领先的品牌客户体验和企业社会责任
个人金融服务:推动经济增长的主要市场,并通过适当的渠道,使汇丰成为全球最强的球员在个人金融服务
消费金融公司:通过更广泛的产品范围内,这项业务的覆盖范围扩展到现有客户和开拓新市场的商业银行:汇丰的国际客户基础,通过最有效的关系管理和改进的产品在本集团的所有市场
加强资本市场和咨询能力,专注于客户服务,其中汇丰银行具有重要的相关性和强度的定义行业企业银行,投资银行及资本市场加速增长
世界各地的私人银行业务:集团的最高价值个人客户提供服务
人物:吸引,培养和激励汇丰的人,奖励成功和拒绝平庸;
TSR :满足汇丰银行的的TSR目标的实现较强的竞争表现在每股盈利增长和效率。
研究方法和方法论
研究方法
将开展研究方法使用的实证案例研究方法。卡瓦耶(1996年) ,实证主义认识论通过确定单个组件的一个现象,并试图了解社交结构和结构之间的关系解释的现象。理论结构描述的现象被认为是有别于经验现实。因此,实证观测可以用来测试理论。这看起来和外部客观世界。实证采用四大科研评价标准:良好的科研应该控制的观察,应该是能够被复制的,应该是一般化的,并应使用形式逻辑。
但在实证案例研究结果无统计学推广到人口,视情况或个案不能算是人口的代表,案例研究可以要求理论一般化。
这也将包括比较,对照和批判性地评估过去和现在的论文,文章,期刊,并建立理论已就此事发表。
方法运用
多案例研究设计
本项目采用多案例研究方法,以使跨案件和有关数据分析的理论观点的营销策略在现有的文献。这使研究人员验证,结果是不仅研究设置(万里和Huberman ,1984)特质的结果。据贤(2002年) ,在这样一种方法,它是重要的使用方法:多种来源的证据。
适当数量的情况下,首先要看别人知道多少对这种现象的研究个案后,其次,多少新的信息可能出现进一步研究例(艾森哈特,1991) 。
本文详细的分析相比其他主要竞争对手,即巴克莱银行,苏格兰皇家银行,花旗银行,汇丰银行,雇用有关的营销策略。汇丰银行的营销策略分析评价方面组织会议客户的需求和要求,广告策略和需要增加其客户基础及市场份额都解决。人们希望看到的,如果有任何方面匹配的营销策略的理论文献,收集经验证据说什么,任何不匹配。这也涉及到文献综述。
定性数据
卡瓦耶(1996)指出定性研究是指蒸馏从一个现象的意义和理解,而不是主要关心的测量和量化的现象。直接和深入的了解,研究设置是必要的,以达到语境理解。因此,面对面进行面对面的接触,研究制定相关的定性的方法,正在收集口头资料(凡1989年万年) 。
定性的数据可以被收集在许多形式。定性证据的主要形式之一是面试,这可能被录下来,之后转录。定性数据的丰富,完整,全面的'真正的'自己的面子的有效性似乎unpeachable ;它们保存的时间流是非常重要的(万里1979年) 。
尽管上述,定性数据也有弱点( 1979年万里,万里和Huberman ,1984) 。收集和分析数据是费时和苛刻。此外,数据分析是不容易的,定性数据分析方法尚未完全建立。为了使证据意识和正式的数据进行分析,确认的逻辑规则可以应用到口语资料。
鲁宾和鲁宾(1995年) ,它是最希望透露身份的情况下,个人采访,因为,
读者能够回忆起他或她可能已经了解了相同的情况下,从以往的研究在阅读和解释的情况下报告或其他来源的任何其他以前的信息。
整个案件可以更容易地检讨,脚注和引文可以检查,如果有必要,有关出版的情况下,可以提出适当的批评。
然而,也有一些场合,当匿名性是必要的。最常见的理由是,案例研究时,一直是一个有争议的话题,不愿透露姓名的供应保障房的情况下,其真正的参与者。第二个原因是,最后的情况下报告发行可能会影响后续操作的进行了研究。
定量数据
这是关注与测量方面的市场或消费者市场的人口。这包括软方法,比如消费观念以及坚硬的东西,如市场规模,品牌股,购买频率等市场或消费群定量数据可通过开展普查获得,获得相关的措施,从每一个消费者或播放机在市场上。
在实践中,通过普查收集的研究是非常罕见的,其中之一就是它通常是昂贵的,如果这笔钱是从每一个人(政府只进行一次人口普查,每10年一次),甚至获取数据涉及的时间尺度很可能,以满足商业的期限太长,魅儿(1991) 。此外,人口普查是不必要的,因为替代的取样可以正常产生充足和可接受可靠的数据的一小部分成本。定量研究,因此,几乎总是基于更或较不严格的抽样方法,在共同的假设,可以从样品的数据来表示,在估计的精确度,人口或宇宙从他们所绘制(海牙, 2002年) 。
定量数据的类型
可以通过定量研究,并收集信息的范围是巨大的,如果不是无限的。有关决定数据应该如何收集,所有的可能性,一个简单的三重分类可分为:
1,市场的措施
2。客户配置文件或分割
3.Attitudinal数据。
市场措施,量化和描述一个市场。常见的例子包括:市场和行业规模,供应商或品牌的市场占有股份;渗透水平(什么比例,所有潜在的消费者拥有或购买产品) ;购买和消费频率,消费和季节性模式。这种类型的数据是非常必要的,任何经理或检讨营销计划的公司,产品组或品牌,如汇丰银行的六角形标志。
市场采取的措施普遍预测或推算的总市场或人口,例如从样品,发现样品中的家庭比例是无需PC ,可以乘以可用的数目占全港家庭总数的估计,提供一个指标尚未开发的潜力。在营销的产品或服务的一个重要问题是要知道和了解的潜在客户群是什么类型的人或组织吗?其他哪些类型的产品或服务,他们拥有或使用?需要什么来满足这种需求顾客分析或分割数据,它是可靠的故障定量性质,因为需要对整个市场或人口,巴克(1990) 。
海牙( 2002 )认为,分析数据,可以采取多种形式:社会经济人口统计资料(年龄,性别,收入和职业组,受教育程度,家庭权等);地理人口统计;各种业务分类,如公司规模,行业等商业研究,或它可以涉及到消费者的行为(各种产品,购买或使用水平的所有权,媒体曝光等)的业务。与市场的措施,消费者分析数据可以只收集来自消费者(包括组织企业到企业调研的情况下) ,虽然分发或制造水平,在市场上可能还需要分析。
态度数据采用的是一个相当一般意义上的概念,如意识,知觉,信念,评价,偏好和倾向。换句话说,他们是在他们的各种形式,主观和驻留在个人的头脑中。根据本多的市场调研,关心的态度和姿态测量,因为态度和你的营销可能对你有利的模具消费者选择。态度当然是非常的主题往往是关注的定性研究,确定相关的尺寸和类别的态度。在定量研究,重点是建立在何种程度上具体态度之间存在的市场和人口。
根据定量研究的数据收集工具最重要的是面对面采访。然而,在超过一百家公司的情况下,需要接受采访,由于开展这样一个任务,做一次电话采访中所附的成本似乎更合适。用来记录数据和数据分析的方法,主要是通过问卷调查。定量研究中使用的大多数问卷涉及一个优势预编码或封闭的问题和响应点的布局,有助于最大限度地减少错误记录的问题。更成问题的,但是,是开放式的问题,比如你为什么要购买这种产品,然后记录?这通常会导致一个漫长的从个人或散漫的反应,在说什么,然后汇总或简称,是没有办法知道什么是合理的记录反映作出的反应。
这种纸,由于写这篇文章的相关短期限的情况下, 1是唯一能够以得到一个电话采访(数据收集的主要方法)从一个客户关系管理高级经理,汇丰银行的旗舰分行之一在伦敦区域。另外1已还使用多个证据的来源,即次要来源的信息,文章,期刊,建立理论,汇丰银行的年度报告,由最高管理者在组织内的意见都进行分析和也是该公司的网站被全部使用,以评估和应对的有效性其使用的市场策略,以增加其市场份额和客户基础。
本文的其余部分进行如下分析发现,营销策略的概述,批评,总结和结论。
调查结果分析
实现公司的企业愿景是需要建立一个忠诚的客户的满意客户群。汇丰没有机会超越其主要竞争对手在收购外国金融机构,它制定了明确的营销策略基础上的愿望,充分满足细分市场精心组目标。由于英国广播公司( BBC ) (2004)收集,汇丰银行2003年利润的四分之一在英国,英镑左右, 70年盈利的每个客户。此外,其利润的大部分来自收购其他地方,美国的个人贷款公司的Household International ,汇丰墨西哥。国际家庭经营虽然在英国,汇丰银行表示,其英国市场占不到10% ,该部门的利润。
市场细分是发展强大的市场营销策略的核心。这包括识别客户的需求,期望,认知和购买行为等组一起齐人将以类似的方式和销售客户。一个段从另一个不同的客户档案和购买行为方面,也可能,以满足这些客户的销售和营销活动方面。这些客户有足够的知识是根本。重要的是要记住,市场细分的过程中涉及到更多的不是简单地将客户分组成段。