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代写美国assignment,Pneumatology
发表日期:2013-10-10 16:08:24 | 来源:assignment.cc | 当前的位置:首页 > 代写assignment > 美国assignment代写 > 正文
What is the relationship between the Pneumatology contained in the Pauline corpus* and the experience of the writer and his intended readers? What implications does your answer have for the development and application of Christian Pneumatology in the 21st century?

Introduction
Pneuma comes from the Greek and means wind or spirit and ology is a body of thought on a given subject thus theology, sociology etc.. Pneumatology is the theology of the Holy Spirit as understood in the Christian tradition. References to the Spirit of God are to be found throughout the Old Testament, in the New Testament and in the Pauline body of writings. Moltmann (1992) contends that for many years the Holy Spirit was the ‘Cinderella’ of modern theology but the rise of the ecumenical movement and in particular the second Vatican Council saw growing awareness of the role of the Spirit. The subsequent growth of Pentecostal and Charismatic movements has since generated a renewed interest in this neglected area of theology.

This assignment looks at the relationship between Paul’s experiences, the Pneumatology contained within his work, and the intended recipients of his letters. On the basis of the answers to this question conclusions will be drawn as to their implications for the development and application of Christian Pneumatology in the 21st century.

Christians were preaching the words of Jesus before Paul came along, first as the Church’s persecutor and then as its foremost advocate. For many Christian thinkers Paul is the foremost Christian theologian, others see his work as detracting from the teachings of Jesus as found in the Gospels. Bultmann (1972) maintains that in order to understand early Christianity one must first understand Paul. Whatever position scholar’s take with regard to Paul’s work he is most certainly not an Apostle who will be ignored. Paul is known for his tirades against enforced Jewish Orthodoxy and his mission to the Gentiles, in fact he is seen by many as the foremostapostle to the Gentiles.

Paul’s Theology
The body of work that is attributed to Paul documents his experiences and demonstrates the development of his theology on the basis of such experiences (Becker, 1993). Becker maintains that:

…the theology of Paul is the theology of experience under the influence of the gospel and of the Spirit connected with it, . . . [so that] if Paul designs his theological statements on the basis of his experience of the gospel, then the content of the gospel must consequently be the measure and criterion of everything -- in short, for the interpretation of all reality (Becker, 1993::xi).

Paul came from Tarsus and was not a disciple of Jesus he had heard the preaching of the Hellenistic Church and had a dramatic conversion experience on the road to Damascus. Paul was a fervent and pious Jew and his conversion experience led him to question the Torah. This was because Paul was convinced that salvation came through the grace of Christ alone and not through personal righteousness and adherence to the Law (Bultmann, 1972). However, he believed that the Law did show the Jews (and the Gentiles) what righteousness was. Certain of the Jews tried to achieve this through an enforced legalism and Paul said that this was not possible. The Law exposed sin and people’s inability to truly adhere to the Law. This, as Stendahl (1963) points out was because of his concern about what would happen to it with the coming of the Messiah and what would happen to the Jews who were God’s chosen elect.

An Eschatological and Anthropological View
Bultmann (1972) maintains that Paul’s conversion was not the result of repentance but rather obedient submission to the call of the judgement of God through Christ and it is this that is the basis of his theology. Eschatology or the doctrine of the end times and God’s judgement on the present world is central to Paul’s thinking and the presence of the Holy Spirit demonstrates this feeling of ‘now and not yet’. For Bultmann, Paul’s own understanding of the human situation is the key to understanding Paul’s theology. Thus Bultmann (1972) argues that Paul’s theology is anthropological ie. a doctrine of human beings before the life of faith and under the life of faith. Bultmann (ibid) contends that the pneumatology that is found in the Pauline corpus can be confusing because Paul uses the term pneuma in a number of different ways. This it seems is due to his understanding of humanity as embodied subjects who have both a psyche and a spirit or pneuma.. Bultmann says:

When Pauls speaks of the Pneuma of man he does not mean some higher principle within him or some special intellectual or spiritual faculty of his, but simply his self, and the only question is whether the self is regarded in some particular respect when it is called pneuma (Bultmann, 1972:206).

Pneumatology and Christology
In Paul’s theology the Holy Spirit is almost indistinguishable from Christ and in fact in Paul’s view the two are inseparable to such an extent that the notion of the Holy Spirit as Ruach or the breath of the Father seems to have disappeared from Paul’s theological scene.  Thus Gaffin (1998) demonstrates that in Paul,

The presence of the Spirit is the presence of Christ. There is no relationship with Christ that is not also fellowship with the Spirit. To belong to Christ is to be possessed by the Spirit. Elsewhere, within the comprehensive sweep of the prayer at the close of Ephesians 3, for “you to be strengthened by [the] Spirit inwardly” is nothing other than for “Christ to dwell in your hearts through faith” (Eph. 3. 16–17) (Gaffin, 1998:10).

It is arguably the case that Paul viewed the Spirit in this way because of his own experiences whereby acceptance of Christ means the indwelling of the Divine Spirit and this bears witness to our spirit that we are God’s children (Romans, 8:16). The Spirit therefore is evidence of Christ’s presence in the believer. This is a view that has been adopted by many present day evangelical Christians but would perhaps not have been so popular in the early Church. In the Gospels (and even in some of Paul’s work) the Holy Spirit is related to yet distinguishable from, the Father and the Son. The Holy Spirit is a person who is worthy of worship in his/her own right.

When Paul had his conversion experience he pledged obedience to Jesus Christ. It is in Paul’s writings that Luther discovered the doctrine of justification by faith In many instances in the Pauline corpus the Holy Spirit is seen almost as a guarantee of salvation because he/she witnesses to the presence of Christ. Scholars maintain that the letter to the Romans was written to address the specific needs of the churches in Rome. This may also have related to Paul’s own experiences and circumstances but the general consensus is that the main purpose of Romans (which has the most references to peumatology) was to edify the Roman church. At that time there were threats to the unity of the Church due to problems between the Jewish Christians and the Gentiles. Hahn (2000) maintains that Paul’s plea for the Church to live in the Spirit rather than according to the flesh was necessary in a Church that whose unit was under threat.

Paul speaks to the Church of being in the flesh or in sin, being a slave to sin. The Holy Spirit, the Spirit of Christ, is what sets a believer free from sin and gives a person life. Bultmann (1972) says:

Man, called to selfhood, tries to live out of his own strength and thus loses his self-his life-and rushes into death. This is the domination of sin. All man’s doing is directed against his true intention-viz, to achieve life (Bultmann, 1972:246).
 
It is the person who has faith who receives life, here again we see the connection between Paul’s pneumatology and his own personal experience of being given new life at the moment of conversion. This is when a person turns from death to life through the ministry of the Spirit. Paul speaks to both Jew and Gentile when he says that human beings are confronted by righteousness through the Law but are unable to achieve it. Only God, through the ministry of the Holy Spirit can make a person righteous so that they can stand before God as a righteous person (Bultmann, 1972). With the righteousness of faith comes the freedom of the Spirit as expressed in the first letter to the Corinthians.

For all things are yours…whether the world or life or death or the present or the future, all are yours

The Spirit takes on a number of different roles in Paul’s writings and is closely connected to the concepts of eschatology and of soteriology or salvation history. Paul’s pneumatology is a pneumatology of freedom. In Paul’s thinking the Christian is set free from the cares of the world to enter the service of God as he himself had done. Through baptism and the gift of the Spirit a person is freed from sin and death and Galatians (5.25) is encouraged to walk in the Spirit If we live by the Spirit, let us also walk by the Spirit (Bultmann, 1972). It would seem that the whole of Paul’s experience and thus the theology that is found in the Pauline corpus is permeated by his pneumatology. The whole of the Christian life is based on Paul’s idea of freedom in the Spirit thus 2 Corinthians 3.17 tells us that where the Spirit of the Lord is there is freedom. The believer is freed from the Law. The legalism of some of the Jews had made them slaves to the Law-when it was supposed to do the opposite.

It is through faith and the gift of the spirit that the believer is adopted as a child of God a process Pauls calls the Spirit of adoption to Sonship. As adopted children of God we choose to walk in the Spirit rather than the flesh. It is the gift of sonship that frees believers from slavish adherence to the Law. Bultmann (1972) writes:

Christian freedom is freedom from all

This freedom however is only granted in God. Paul’s pneumatology points to a Christian way of life that is marked by or filled with God’s Spirit (Reumann, 1991:79). This stems from Paul’s own experience since devoting his life to the work of God.

Other ways in which the Pauline corpus refers to pneumatology are (as his letters to the Church at Corinth demonstrate) in terms of spiritual gifts such as prophecy and speaking in tongues. Here Paul was dealing with the excesses of some Christians and was giving instructions on how the gifts of the Spirit should be used wisely.The Spirit is also seen as the sanctifier of the believer’s life. Although the believer becomes righteous and free from the Law through faith, this is often a future righteousness that depends on the sanctifying work of the Holy Spirit.

Conclusion
.Based on the above brief survey of the Pauline corpus it is arguably the case that Paul had a very distinct pneumatology. However, his tendency to speak of Jesus and the Spirit almost interchangeably could be problematic in a contemporary, religiously diverse society. The early Church in the main, had a theology of the Spirit which did not tie the Spirit to the Son. This was achieved in 381 with the addition of the filioque clause. Originally the Spirit proceeded from the Father (this remains the case in the Orthodox Church) the filioque changed this to the Spirit proceeding from the Father through the Son (Moltmann, 1992). In some respects therefore it is arguably the case that Paul’s theology has a tendency to limit the role of the Holy Spirit, and the fourth Century addition to the Nicene Creed eventually split the Eastern and Western Churches in 1054. Limiting the role of the Spirit in this way, I would argue, is detrimental to the pneumatological freedom that is also found in the Pauline corpus. A pneumatology that speaks of the freedom of the Spirit is arguably a vital part of any movement to renew the Christian faith in the twenty first century. Without this freedom contemporary Christianity could be said to be in danger of distancing itself from its roots and becoming something that should not be confused with the teachings of Christ. Thus Pneumatology in the twenty first century should be developed as one of the major themes relating to liberation in scripture. A pneumatology of freedom not just in the Christian life, but from all forms of injustice and oppression. As the Prophets would have it knowledge of God is demonstrated by the way in which we treat those who are oppressed.

Bibliography
.Becker,  J. 1980 Paul the Apostle: The Triumph of God in Life and Thought Philadelphia Fortress Press
Becker, J. 1993 Paul: Apostle to the Gentiles Westminster, John Knox Press.
Bultmann, R. 1972 Theology of the New Testament: Volume 1 London, SCM Press
Gordon Fee and the Quest for a Biblical Pneumatology accessed 11/10/05
Moltmann, J. 1992 The Spirit of Life A Universal Affirmation London, SCM Press
Reumann, J 1991 Variety and Unity in New Testament Thought  Oxford, Oxford University Press
Stendahl, K. 1963 “The Apostle Paul and the Intorspective Conscience of the West” Harvard Theological Review Vol 56 1963 pp 422-434
Gaffin, R. 1998 “Life Giving Spirit: Probing the centre of Paul’s Pneumatology”Jets 41/4December 1998573-589 
Hahn, R. Pneumatology in Romans 8:Its Historical and Theological Context accessed 12/10/05

 

圣灵包含在宝莲语料库*和经验的作家,他的目标读者之间的关系是什么?基督教圣灵在21世纪的发展和应用你的答案有什么影响?
介绍
牛马来自希腊语,原意是风或精神和易学的思想在一个给定的主题是一个身体神学,社会学等。圣灵是圣灵的神学在基督教的传统理解。参考神的灵可以发现在整个旧约,新约圣经中,在宝莲体的著作。莫特曼(1992)争辩说,多年的圣灵是“灰姑娘”的现代神学,但合一运动的兴起,特别是第二次梵蒂冈会议看到了精神的作用日益认识。五旬节和魅力的运动,随后的增长产生了新的兴趣,在这个被忽视的地区的神学。
这种分配看起来保罗的经验之间的关系,圣灵包含在他的工作,他的信件的预期收件人。基督教圣灵在21世纪的发展和应用及其影响的基础上,对这个问题的答案将得出结论。
基督徒宣讲耶稣的话之前,保罗来了,首先是作为教会的迫害者,然后作为其最重要的倡导者。对于许多基督教思想家保罗是最重要的基督教神学家,别人看到他的作品贬低耶稣福音的教导。布特曼( 1972)认为,以了解早期基督教首先必须了解保罗。无论位置学者的关于保罗的工作中,他是最肯定不是使徒谁将会被忽略。保罗被称为他的长篇大论反对强迫犹太东正教和他的使命的外邦人,实际上却是在看到许多作为首要外邦人的使徒。
保罗的神学
该机构的工作,归因于保罗文件他的经验,并演示了他的神学的基础上,这样的经历(贝克尔,1993)的发展。贝克尔认为:
保罗的神学福音的影响下,和与它相连的精神,是神学的经验。 。 。 [ ]如果保罗的福音,他的经验的基础上,设计了他的神学报表福音的内容必须因此一切措施和标准 - 总之,所有现实的解释(贝克尔,1993 :: XI ) 。
保罗来自塔尔苏斯是不是耶稣的门徒,他听到古希腊教会的讲道,在前往大马士革的路上有一个戏剧性的转换经验。保罗是一个狂热和虔诚的犹太人,他的转换经验使他质疑托拉。这是因为保罗确信救恩临到仅通过基督的恩典,而不是通过个人的正义和遵守法律(布特曼,1972) 。不过,他认为,该法确实显示的犹太人(外邦人)什么是公义。若干犹太人试图实现这一目标,通过执行法家和保罗说,这是不可能的。法暴露罪和人民无法真正坚持依法。这斯滕达尔(1963)点出,是因为他担心会发生什么,它与弥赛亚的到来,会发生什么样的犹太人是上帝的选民当选。
末世论和人类学的视野
布特曼(1972)认为,保罗的转换是不悔改, ,而是听话提交借着基督的召唤神的审判的结果,这就是他的神学的基础。末世或结束时间的教义和神的审判目前世界上是保罗的思想和圣灵的存在说明了这一点的感觉“ ,而不是现在” 。对于布特曼,保罗自己的理解人类的处境是理解保罗神学的关键。因此,布特曼( 1972)认为,保罗的神学人类学即。前人类生活的信念和信心的生活下的一种学说。布特曼(同上)争辩说,圣灵与宝莲语料库中发现可以是混乱的,因为保罗在许多不同的方式使用的术语元气。这似乎是由于他所了解的人性体现科目谁都有一个心理和精神元气..布尔特曼说:
当圣保罗说话的牛马的人,他​​并不意味着一些更高的原则在他或他的一些特殊的智力或精神的师资队伍,而仅仅是他的自我,唯一的问题是,是否自认为在某些特定的方面时,它被称为元气(布特曼, 1972:206 ) 。
圣灵和基督
在保罗的神学圣灵是从基督几乎没有区别,并其实保罗认为这两个是分不开的这样一个程度圣灵RUACH或父亲的气息的概念,似乎已经消失了保罗的神学现场。因此,加芬( 1998)表明,在保罗,
圣灵的存在是基督的存在。有没有与基督的关系,是不是也与圣灵相交。属于基督圣灵所拥有。在其他地方,在弗3结束, “你要加强[ ]灵内心祈祷全面扫描”是没有其他比“基督住在你们心里,通过信仰” (弗三16 -17) (加芬1998:10 ) 。
这可以说是保罗认为,在这种方式,因为他自己的经验,接受基督意味着神圣之灵,这见证了我们的精神,我们是神的儿女(罗马书8:16)留置精神的情况下。因此圣灵是基督信徒的存在的证据。这是一种观点认为,已经通过许多现今福音派基督徒,但或许不会一直如此受欢迎,在早期教会。在福音中(甚至在某些保罗的工作)圣灵尚未区分,父亲和儿子。圣灵是一个人谁是值得崇拜他/她自己的权利。
当保罗,他的转换经验,他承诺服从耶稣基督。这是保罗的著作,路德发现因信称义的教义在宝莲语料库在许多情况下,圣灵看到几乎救恩的保证,因为他/她目击到基督面前。学者认为,信的罗马人写在罗马教会的具体需求。这可能也涉及到保罗自己的经验和情况,但普遍的共识是罗马书(拥有最引用peumatology的)的主要目的是为了造就了罗马教会。当时有教会的统一威胁由于犹太基督徒和外邦人之间的问题。哈恩(2000)认为,保罗的恳求圣灵住在教会,而不是按肉体是必要的,其单位是在教会受到威胁。
保罗说在肉体或在罪中的教会,是一个奴仆。圣灵,基督的灵,是从罪的信徒,并给出了一个人的生活。布特曼( 1972年)说:
人,被称为个性,活出自己的实力,从而失去了他的自我,他的生活和死亡冲进。这是支配罪。所有男人的做的是针对他的真实意图,即,实现生活(布特曼, 1972:246 ) 。
 
这是人谁拥有的信仰生命谁收到,在这里我们再次看到保罗的圣灵论和自己的亲身经历,被赋予新的生命的瞬间转换之间的连接。这是当一个人通过教育部的精神变成从死亡的生命。保罗说犹太人和外邦人时,他说,人类正面临通过法律的公义,但无法实现。唯一的神,可以使一个人的公义,使他们能够站在上帝面前,作为一个正义的人(布特曼,1972)通过部级圣灵。与正义的信念而来的科林蒂安的第一个字母所表达的自由精神。
对于所有的东西都是你的世界,或生或死,或现今或未来是否,全是你们的
精神需要一些不同的角色,在保罗的著作,是紧密相连的末世论和救世或救赎历史的概念。保罗的圣灵论是一个自由的圣灵论。在保罗的思想基督徒是从世界的重担,进入上帝的服务,正如他自己做了。通过洗礼和圣灵的恩赐,一个人从罪恶和死亡和加拉太书( 5.25)鼓励顺着圣灵而如果我们若是靠圣灵释放,也让我们走的精神(布特曼,1972) 。这似乎是贯穿他的圣灵与保罗的经验和神学宝莲语料库,发现在整个。因此,整个基督徒生活的基础上,保罗的想法自由精神哥林多后书3.17告诉我们,主的灵在那里有自由。信徒被释放法。法家的一些犹太人做了他们的奴隶法当它是应该做的相反。
信徒的信仰和精神的礼物,它是通过采用进程圣保罗调用的灵儿子身份通过神的孩子。通过神的儿女,我们选择走在精神而非肉体。这是儿子的名分,释放信徒从奴性遵守该法的礼物。 “布特曼” ( 1972年)写道:
基督徒的自由是所有自由
然而,这种自由只授予神。保罗的圣灵论指向一个基督徒的生活方式的标志是充满了神的的精神( Reumann , 1991:79 ) 。这源于保罗自己的经验,因为他的生命投入到神的工作。
其他方式,宝莲语料库是指圣灵论是在属灵的恩赐,如预言,说方言(科林斯演示教会他的信件) 。保罗在这里处理一些基督徒的过激行为,并发出指示如何圣灵的恩赐,应使用wisely.The精神也被视为圣者信徒的生命。虽然信徒都成为正义和自由的信仰通过法律,这往往是取决于未来的义,圣灵成圣的工作。
结论
基于以上简单的宝莲语料库调查的情况下,它可以说是保罗有一个非常独特的圣灵论。然而,他的倾向讲耶稣和圣灵几乎可以互换可能是有问题的,在当代,宗教多元化的社会。早期教会中的主力,有一个神学精神的儿子不配合的精神。这是实现filioque条款增加了381 。本来圣灵从父亲(这仍然是在东正教教堂)圣子改变了这种精神诉讼从父的儿子(莫特曼,1992) 。因此,在某些方面,这是无疑的情况下, ,保罗神学有一种倾向,限制圣灵的作用,除了最终分裂的东方和西方教会在1054年尼西亚第四世纪。限流的作用,这样的精神,我认为,也发现在宝莲语料库的的自由pneumatological ,是不利的。 à圣灵与说话的自由的精神,可以说是任何运动续期在二十一世纪的基督教信仰的重要组成部分。如果没有这种自由可以说当代基督教是在疏远自己从它的根,并成为与基督的教导的东西,不应该被混淆的危险。因此,圣灵在二十一世纪应该制定有关解放经文的主要议题之一。 à圣灵论自由不只是在基督徒的生活,但是从各种形式的非正义和压迫。正如先知有知识的上帝是表明我们对待那些谁是被压迫的方式。
参考书目
贝克尔, 1980年J.保罗使徒:神的胜利在生活和思想费城丰泽新闻
贝克尔, 1993年J.保罗使徒到外邦人的威斯敏斯特大教堂,约翰·诺克斯出版社。
布特曼, R. 1972年的新约神学:第1卷伦敦, SCM出版社
戈登费和任务圣经圣灵访问11/10/05
莫特曼, J. 1992年生命的灵一种通用的誓词伦敦, SCM出版社
Reumann 1991年,J在新约圣经中的品种和统一思想牛津大学,牛津大学出版社
斯滕达尔, K. 1963年“使徒保罗和Intorspective的良心西”哈佛神第56卷1963页422-434
加芬, R. 1998年“生活给予精神:探测中心的保罗的圣灵”喷气机41 / 12月4日1998573-589
哈恩, R.圣灵在罗马书8 :它的历史和神学语境访问12/10/05