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代写英国assignment,Criminal Media Psychology
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Criminal Media Psychology
In media depictions, “criminal psychology is frequently portrayed in a very favourable light, almost as if it were a sort of ‘secret science’” (Hale et al, 2005). Critically evaluate media (mis)representations relating to the intersection of psychology and crime. Within your answer make particular reference to a filmic depiction of an offending behaviour. Ensure you utilize both mainstream and critical literature within your discussion.
The term ‘Serial Killer’ strikes fear deep into the hearts of most, however it is often thought that fear is what drives some curiosities, thus finding it appropriate to understand why serial killers commit horrific acts of violence repetitively. Finkelhor (1984) four-factor model, social learning theory, psychodynamic theory, ‘Nature V Nurture’ and treatment programmes for offending behaviour all play a part in understanding and treating psychopathological behavior.
We all experience rage and inappropriate sexual instincts, yet we have some sort of internal cage that keeps our inner monsters locked up. These internal blockades have long since been trampled down in the psychopathic killer. Not only have they let loose the monster within; they are virtual slaves to its beastly appetites. Why men and women develop into serial killers has been one of the foremost questions guiding research on severe deviant behaviour in the 21st century.
The film titled ‘Natural Born Killers’ is based upon two fictional serial killers who go on a rampage, slaughtering their way across the south-west of United States and ultimately claiming fifty-two victims who are then made famous by the media. The film captures specific behaviours by the two serial killers that can be psychologically explained with regards to how they are first modelled to act in the way that they do and how this behaviour was shaped from early childhood. Serial killers can be influenced from the early stages of life from as early childhood.
Finkelhor (1984) proposed a four-factor model of the preconditions to child sexual abuse, which integrate the various theories about why individuals begin to participate in sexually deviant behaviour. Finkelhor constructed an organisational framework consisting of four separate underlying factors that explain not only why offenders abuse, but also why the abuse continues. The factors known to contribute to child sexual abuse are grouped into four pre-conditions; such as, motivation, internal inhibitions, external inhibitions, and blockage.
Mallory’s father would have had to produce motivation to sexually abuse. Morals and taboos would have to be ignored, otherwise, argues Finkelhor, sexual abuse wouldn’t occur. Mallory’s father found his wife to be of less satisfactory of sexual satisfaction, which led him to release his sexual frustration upon Mallory. This provided the ‘motivation’ needed to carry out this type of abuse. In correlation with motivation, the fact that women are a physically weaker target than me explains why he chooses women as there is much more chance to succeed.
Psychologists assert that internal controls are not developed because of deficient or deviant values of a person. It is obvious that a man with strong and right values does not even think of such a humiliation of an innocent woman and of ruining her life. With no internal inhibitions, the abuser can proceed with little care for the emotions of the victim and he’s own. This led Mallory’s father to sexually abuse Mallory.
Mallory’s father had no external inhibitions to stop him from carrying act this abnormal act. In Mallory’s case, the sexual abuser, her father, had no obstacles preventing him from sexually abusing Mallory, thus sexual abuse occurred. Thus, children who are sexually abused learn sex through inappropriate means, and if exposed enough, children may internalise this learned behaviour. When this occurs after a long period of time, the offender begins to behave accordingly. Thus this leads the sexually abused child to develop chronic low grade depression, low self-esteem, due to being ridiculed their entire life thus distorting her view of the world. This distorted view upon the world, perhaps, had influenced her extreme violence upon her victims.
Blockage essentially deals with the abuser’s ability to have his sexual and emotional needs met in adult relationships. The potential abuser has to overcome a child’s ‘resistance’, a form of blockage to being sexually abused. Abusers pick a vulnerable child who show little or no signs that they may resist the offender. In Mallory’s case, as a child, she covertly displayed a confident and assertive manner which conveyed a strong message to her abuser not to try fear of detection against her, but nevertheless, still sexually abusing her by being co-coerced by her father.
Psychodynamic theory asserts that the human psyche is composed of three primary elements; the id, the ego, and the superego. The id is the unconscious domain from which all the instinctual human drives originate (i.e. sex, aggression). The id is ruled by the pleasure principle that demands instant gratification of these urges. The second part of Freud’s model, the ego, is the conscious part of the human psyche that serves as the mediation between the id and the external environment. The final element, the superego, is more commonly referred to as the conscience. Thus, serial killers seem to be overwhelmed by their id. This theory appears to have corresponding relations to Mickey and Mallory’s sexual abuse and later why Mickey raped and sexually abused himself towards his own victims. In this respect, the environment plays an important part in the up-bringing of a child and life-long effects. Studies have suggested that anywhere from 30% to 80% of offenders have been sexually abused themselves in the past, and this information may offer credible evidence to support this theory.
Both Mallory and Mickey did not receive proper care as an infant, thus they were both negatively affected into adulthood. In short, serial killers seem to manifest their feelings of oppression from childhood in the form of brutal murders. The Superego (or the conscience) of rapists is not strong enough to countervail the wild inborn instincts of the Id. Freud claims that the sexual instinct is the most powerful in people’s decisions, but the Superego manages to control it. But when the Superego is weak, sexual abusers listen to this wild instinct to satisfy the sexual wish. Moreover, it is quite possible that many sex offenders are very self centred people who are very selfish, and were only looking to satisfy their own yearnings. Thus id, ego and superego become relevant to the argument.
According to Bandura, observational learning is achieved by viewing and then systematically rehearsing the modeled behaviour and then finally reenacted in reality. With regards to the depicted film ‘Natural Born Killers’ the messages injected into the public can sometimes pass the wrong messages to the wrong viewers. For example, On March 5 1995 Sarah Turnondson and Ben Darrus in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, watched the film ‘Natural Born Killers’ repeatedly and fantasized about recreating the scenes by randomly killing people. On the 7th March, near Hernando, Mississippi, Ben entered an office and shot Bill Savage twice in the head at point-blank range. Sarah explains later to the police that: “it was as if he was fantasizing from the movie”. In this case, Ben ‘learned’ the modeled behavior and reenacted the characteristics of a serial killer.
The social learning theory states that particular individuals, especially children, are influenced by the environment and thus imitate this behavior, especially modeled behavior from the mass media which completely ignores an individual's biological state. Also, the social learning theory rejects differences formed in individuals that are due to genetic, brain, and learning differences. For example, if a child witnessed a crime or murder, he or she might respond in a variety of ways. Biological psychologists believe that the responses would be normal and they come from the autonomic nervous system. In addition, the social learning theory rejects the classical and operant conditioning processes.
The ‘Social Learning’ theory can be broken down into four learning techniques, such as; Attention, Retention, Motor Reproduction, and Reinforcements. In Attention, individuals cannot learn much by observation unless they retain what they viewed and then act out significant modeled behavior, such as Mickey’s murdering rampage by Ben Darrison. In order to reproduce this behavior, the individual must code this information into long-term memory. Therefore, the information will be retrieved for later use. For example, verbal descriptions acted out by copy cat killers by witty one liners such as “you poor darling, you’re not dead yet” by Mallory is known as retention.
‘Motor reproduction’ is concerned with the fact that the observer must be able to reproduce the model’s behavior. The observer must learn and posses the physical capabilities to produce the aggressive act. However, in this case, Ben Darrison used the gun method to act out this particular murder. Ben watched the film repeatedly to learn the modeled behavior to try and perfect the same behavior and physical movement of the fictional serial killer.
The final process in observational learning is reinforcements. In this process, the observer expects to receive positive reinforcements for the modeled behavior. For example, the serial killers in ‘Natural Born Killers’ were portrayed as super-stars by the imaginary American public for their killing spree reputation, as well as being portrayed as a form of, yet again, secret science. Ben Darrison would thus assume that such behavior would be reflected in ‘reality’ because of the positive reinforcements determined by the media (Bandura, 1977). In addition to learning behavior by influence of the environment and the mass media, it is important to address the possibilities of genetic factors that may contribute to criminal behavior.
Classical Conditioning (Watson, 1913) argues that behavior could be understood in the term of conditioned responses. He also argued that learning could be studied by observing behavior of people, in the same way that rats, cats and dogs were observed. With regards to the murder carried out by Ben Darrison, Ben had viewed and studied the film several times before carrying out the murderous rampage. After viewing the film several times, a form of classical conditioning, he modeled this new behavior to carry out criminal activities.
Classical conditioning causes the process of behavior modification by when the subject, Ben Darrison, begins to respond in a desired manner to a previously neutral stimulus that has been repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus. Such unconditioned stimulus is the viewed material of ‘Natural born Killers’. The neutral stimulus then becomes conditioned and causes the conditioned response, such as, Ben Darrison reenacting the new modeled behavior and killing relentlessly.
In a famous study 'Little Albert' he demonstrated how specific fears might be conditioned in humans. Their subject was an 11 month old infant named Albert. 'Little Albert' like most infants, feared loud noises, but not white rats. So Watson and Rayner (1920) presented him with a white rat and as he reached out to touch it, struck a hammer against a steel bar just behind his head. After seven repetitions of seeing the rat and hearing the frightening noise, Albert burst into tears at the mere sight of the rat. Also 5 days later Albert showed generalization of his conditioned response to the rat by reacting with fear when presented with a rabbit and a dog. Watson concludes that classical conditioning is one way that all living organisms learn to adapt to their environment once specific changes are made to their environment are witnessed and received.
Operant Conditioning (Skinner, 1989) argues that Operant conditioning is sufficient to explain all learning. Skinner argued that' "behavior operates on the environment to generate consequences". Thus the copy cat killer, Ben Darrison, was influenced by the criminal behavior of the viewed media source, and because this behavior was favored in a favorable light by the filmic depiction of the two serial killers receiving glamour and support by the fictionist American public, Ben thought that he would be 'rewarded' for such behavior and be glamorized. The subject here, Ben, increased his behavior on the note that he would be rewarded for such behavior, if however, the film depicted the behavior by the two serial killers as negative and damning the behavior that they committed, could have had a different lasting impression on the modeled individual.
According to Freud (1912) all humans have natural drives and urges repressed in the unconscious. More importantly he also claims that all humans have criminal tendencies. It is through the process of socialisation that these tendencies are curbed by the development of inner controls that are learned through childhood experiences by being influenced by the environment. (Eysenck, 1977). Thus the debate concerning ‘Nature V Nurture’ was proposed to argue which factor imposes the real reason ‘why’ certain individuals commit crime.
According to Gibbons (1968), the genetic theory (nature) indicates that inherited traits are specific in nature, i.e. a person inherits green eyes and blonde hair. What some people do find difficult is the thought that a gene or chromosome may cause the difference between a criminal and a non-criminal (Eysenck, 1977). There have been numerous studies carried out on twins to determine whether genetic influence plays a part in criminal behaviour. Christiansen (1977) reported on the criminality of a total population of 3, 586 twin pairs from Denmark. He found that 52% of the twins were concordance for criminal behaviour for identical twin pairs, whilst 22% of the twins were concordant for fraternal twin pairs. These results suggest that identical twins carry some form of biological characteristics that increases their risk of becoming involved in criminal behaviour (McLaughlin, 2003).
Nature is also concerned with not only genetic attributes but also the effects of brain damage. Many scientists believe brain damage creates a change in human behaviour. The frontal lobe is considered to be responsible for human behaviour that makes us stable and have adequate social relations. Damage to the limbic system can also be a cause of serial killers ‘dysfunction’. The limbic system controls one’s emotions as well as motivations; some serial killers are believed to have limbic system in the brain damaged. When the limbic brain is damaged, it may account for uncontrollable aggression.
Environmental factors (nurture) also can cause severe damages and contribute to deviant behaviour, and sometimes leading to serial killer status. With regards to ‘Natural Born Killers’ Mallory was brought up in a hostile environment with her repulsive, abusive father who traumatised her into committing mass murder. Mallory was also environmentally influenced by Mickey to convince her to kill her parents and to ‘run free’ with him to escape her current hostile environment. Also in the case of Jeffrey Dahmer, who had an apparently normal upbringing, environment does not seem able to explain the behaviour displayed. If there is a genetic explanation, it is difficult to explain, as we do not see entire families of, in this case, serial killers.
No one study carried out can be said to provide conclusive evidence for either genetic factors or environmental factors (Christionsen, 1983). “There must be something in the child himself which the environment brings out in the form of delinquency” (Gibbons, 1968). This quote demonstrates the importance of both nature and nurture acting together. It would appear that it takes a combination of both nature and nurture to understand how and why serial killers turn to sinister means. However if genetics were to be seen as the cause of criminality, this would post future problems, it may lead to genetic screening for the interest of risk assessment. This could lead to genetic discrimination, thus if crime was due to genes, the individual would not be to blame yet they would be punished.
Understanding how and why offenders stop committing offences is critical for the development of effective crime prevention and criminal justice practises. Thus developing treatment programmes to treat all criminals, and specifically serial killers, is critical to our society
The psychology of the serial killer is intriguing yet frightening. There is no concrete theory to explain neither the psychology nor the actions of serial killers. The phenomenon of serial killing dates back to persons such as Jack the ripper in 1887 and have continued into the present in reality as well as reflected in the media as a form of ‘secret science’. Through criminological and sociological research perhaps a better understanding of serial killers will develop, thus producing a way to deter such criminal actions.
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在媒体的描述中, “犯罪心理学经常描绘处于一个非常有利的光,仿佛是一种”秘密科学“ ( Hale等人,2005) 。审慎地评估媒体(MIS)交涉有关心理学和犯罪的交集。在你的答案中特别提到的电影描绘的违规行为。确保你利用主流和文学批评在您讨论。
术语“连环杀手”罢工担心成心中最深处,但它经常被认为恐惧是什么驱使一些好奇心,从而找到适当的理解,为什么连环杀手犯下可怕的暴力行为重复。 Finkelhor (1984)四因素模型,社会学习理论,心理动力学理论, “自然V培育和治疗方案的违规行为,都扮演一个角色,在了解和治疗心理病理行为。
电影名为“天生杀人狂”是基于两个虚构的连环杀手,谁去上横冲直撞,屠宰他们的方式横跨美国西南和最终自称受害者谁,然后由著名媒体52 。该片捕捉特定的行为,可以在心理上解释它们是如何首先仿照他们做的方式行事,这种行为是如何形成从幼儿教育方面由两个连环杀手。连环杀手可以从生命的早期阶段的影响,从早期儿童。
Finkelhor (1984)提出的四因素模型的前提条件,对儿童性虐待的个人开始参与性越轨行为的原因,它集成的各种理论。 Finkelhor构建了一个组织架构,包括四个独立的相关因素,不仅解释为什么罪犯滥用,但也就是为什么继续滥用。已知的导致儿童性虐待的因素分为四个预条件;如动机,内部压抑,外部压抑,堵塞。
马洛里的父亲将不得不产生的动力性虐待。道德和禁忌被忽视,否则认为, Finkelhor的,不会发生性虐待。马洛里的父亲发现他的妻子是不太令人满意的性生活满意度,这使他释放他的性挫折后,马洛里。这就需要开展滥用这种类型的'动机' 。相关动机,事实上妇女是体质较弱的目标比我解释他为什么选择女性有更多的成功机会。
堵塞主要关乎施虐者的能力,他的性和情感需求满足成人的关系。潜在的施虐者克服孩子的“抵抗” ,堵塞遭受性侵犯的一种形式。施虐者挑一个脆弱的孩子谁显示很少或没有任何迹象表明他们可能会抵制罪犯。马洛的情况下,作为一个孩子,她暗里显示出自信和张扬的方式传达一个强烈的信息,她的施虐者,不要试图检测对她的恐惧,但尽管如此,仍性侵她由她的父亲被裹挟。
心理动力学理论断言,人类的心灵是由三个主要元素的id ,自我和超我。 id是无意识领域,从所有源自人类本能的驱动器(如性别,侵略) 。 ID是法治的快乐原则,要求即时满足这些敦促。弗洛伊德的模型,自我,第二部分是人类心灵意识的一部分,作为ID和外部环境之间的中介。最后一个元素,超越自我,更通常被称为良心。因此,连环杀手似乎被淹没他们的ID 。这个理论似乎有对应关系到米奇和马洛里的性虐待和后来为什么米奇强奸和性虐待自己对自己的受害者。在这方面,环境起着重要的作用,在向上带来一个孩子终身的影响。有研究表明,任何地方,从30%到80 %的罪犯被性虐待自己在过去,这个信息可能提供可信的证据支持这一理论。
根据班杜拉的观察学习是实现查看,然后系统地排练模仿行为,然后终于在现实中重演。方面所描绘的电影“天生杀手”的公众注入的消息有时可以传递了错误的信息错误的观众。例如, 1995年3月5日在塔勒阔,俄克拉何马州的萨拉· Turnondson和Ben Darrus的,看了电影“天生杀手”反复想像重现场景的随机杀人。埃尔南多附近,在3月7日,密西西比州,奔进入办公室和拍摄比尔野人两次点补射在头部。莎拉解释后来对民警说:“如果他幻想从电影” 。在这种情况下,奔'教训'模仿行为,并重演了一个连环杀手的特点。
“社会学习理论可以细分成四个学习技术,如关注,保持马达再现,和增援。注意,个人不能学到很多东西通过观察,除非他们保留他们观看什么然后行动显著建模的行为,如米奇的谋杀横冲直撞由Ben Darrison的“ 。为了重现此行为,个人必须编写这个信息转化为长期记忆。因此,信息将被取出,供以后使用。例如,口头描述表现出来的诙谐一客轮如复制猫杀手“你这个可怜的亲爱的,你是不是死了,但”被称为马洛保留。
'电机再现'而言,观察者必须是能够再现模型的行为的事实。观察者必须学习和拥有的物理性能产生积极的行为。然而,在这种情况下, Ben Darrison的使用枪的方法,特别是谋杀行动。奔观看了这部电影,反复学习模仿行为,尝试和完善相同的行为和身体运动的虚构的连环杀手。
观察学习中的最后一道工序是增援。在这个过程中,观察者预期收到积极的增强材料,模型化的行为。例如,在“天生杀人狂”的连环杀手被描绘成超级明星假想的美国公众对他们的杀人狂魔的声誉,以及被描绘成一种形式,再次,科学秘密。本Darrison因此认为这样的行为将反映在“现实” ,因为媒体(班杜拉,1977)确定的积极增援。除了学习行为对环境的影响和大众媒体,它是重要的遗传因素,可能导致犯罪行为的可能性。
经典条件反射(沃森,1913)认为,在任期空调的反应是可以理解的行为。他还认为,学习可以研究通过观察人的行为,以同样的方式观察,鼠,猫,狗。开展由Ben Darrison的谋杀方面,本已查看和研究电影前几次进行的杀气横冲直撞。在观看电影好几次,古典空调的一种形式,他模仿这个新的行为进行犯罪活动。
古典空调时的主题, Ben Darrison的,开始以期望的方式响应与无条件刺激配对已多次到以前的中性刺激导致行为改变的过程中。这种无条件刺激的“天生杀人狂”的图片材料。中性刺激就变成了空调,并导致空调的响应,如Ben Darrison的重演新的建模行为和无情的杀戮。
在一个著名的研究“小阿尔伯特” ,他演示了如何具体的恐惧可能会在人类条件。他们的主题是一个11个月大的婴儿名为阿尔伯特。 “小艾伯特”最喜欢的婴儿,怕大声喧哗,但不是白老鼠。因此,沃森和雷纳(1920)提出了他与一只白老鼠,他伸手去触摸它,敲锤子对钢筋脑后。经过7个重复看到大鼠和听到了可怕的噪音,阿尔伯特大鼠仅仅看到泪流满面。另外5天后伟业表明泛化与恐惧反应的大鼠与兔子和狗时他的条件反应。沃森的结论,经典条件反射是一种方式,所有生物体的学习,以适应他们的环境,一旦具体的改变他们的环境被目击和接收。
斯金纳的操作性条件反射( 1989)认为,操作性条件反射是足以解释所有的学习。斯金纳认为, “行为对环境产生的后果” 。复制猫杀手, Ben Darrison的,因此受到媒体源的犯罪行为,因为这种行为是在一个有利的光的青睐,电影描写两个连环杀手接收魅力和小说家的美国公众支持,本以为,他将“奖励”这样的行为,动人。这里的主题,本,增加了他的行为,他会注意,对这种行为予以奖励,但是,如果这部电影描绘消极和确凿的行为,他们致力于由两个连环杀手的行为,可以有不同的持久建模个人的印象。
根据弗洛伊德(1912年)所有的人都压抑在无意识的自然驱动,并敦促。更重要的是,他还声称,所有的人有犯罪倾向。它是通过社会化的过程中,这些倾向受制于内部控制的发展受环境影响的童年经验教训。 (艾森克,1977)。这样的辩论,关于“自然V培育'建议认为哪些因素带来的真正原因”为什么“某些个人犯罪。
据吉本斯(1968) , (自然)的遗传理论表明,遗传性状的具体性质,即一个人继承绿色的眼睛和金发。什么有些人觉得困难的是一个基因或染色体的思想,可能会导致刑事和非刑事(艾森克,1977)之间的差异。已经有不少对双胞胎进行了研究,遗传因素的影响,以确定是否犯罪行为中扮演了一个角色。克里斯蒂安森(1977)报道,来自丹麦的总人口为3 ,586对双胞胎的犯罪行为。他发现, 52 %的双胞胎是同卵双胞胎对犯罪行为的一致性,而22 %的双胞胎是一致的双胞胎兄弟。这些结果表明,同卵双胞胎进行某种形式的生物特性,增加他们的风险,卷入犯罪行为(麦克劳克林,2003年) 。
环境因素(培育)也可造成严重的损害,并有助于越轨行为,有时会导致连环杀手的地位。至于“天生杀手”马洛里长大,在一个充满敌意的环境与她令人厌恶的,辱骂性的精神创伤,她的父亲是谁进入犯下大规模谋杀。马洛里也是环保米奇的影响,说服她杀死她的父母和“自由奔跑” ,他逃脱她目前的敌对环境。同样的情况下,显然是正常的培养杰弗里达默,环境不似乎能够解释所显示的行为。如果是一种遗传性的解释,这是很难解释的,因为我们没有看到整个家庭,在这种情况下,连环杀手。
没有人进行的研究,可以说是遗传因素或环境因素( Christionsen ,1983)提供的确证。 “一定有什么东西在孩子自己所处的环境带来了拖欠的形式” (吉本斯,1968) 。这句话表明两者性质的重要性和培育共同行动。它会出现,它需要结合两者性质和培养了解如何以及为什么转向手段毒辣的连环杀手。但是,如果基因被视为犯罪的原因,这将发表未来的问题,这可能会导致遗传筛查的利益风险评估。这可能会导致基因歧视,因此,如果犯罪是由基因引起的,个人不会是罪魁祸首,但他们将受到惩罚。
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