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代写英国assignment,Curriculum Development Learning Styles
发表日期:2013-10-08 08:56:56 | 来源:assignment.cc | 当前的位置:首页 > 代写assignment > 英国代写assignment > 正文
Focus on Curriculum Development Learning Styles

Introduction

There are different learning styles that have developed with accompanying tests that helps individuals to understand their learning styles. A learning style is a method that is used to educate which is particular to a specific individual and which is assumed that if used by that individual, it will help them to learn their best. It has been described as that particular style that helps individuals to process the stimuli of their mind which helps them to understand what they are being taught.

Though the concept of learning style is relatively young having gained ground in the 1970s, it has become an important process in the modern education especially on matters concerning how teachers use it in the curriculum and how it is used in the development of the curriculum. It has been found out that if teachers understand the learning styles of their pupil, they can help their students to adapt to the needs of their classroom work and hence make the process of learning interesting to them. Therefore it has been found quite important to integrate the various learning styles of students in the curriculum in order to ensure that the curriculum meets the needs of the various students who are taught using the same curriculum. (Wang and Nagy, 2007)

This paper looks at different learning styles that have been identified. It will try to relate the learning styles with how they are being in the curriculum. Hence the focus will be on the learning styles and how the curriculum has been developed to cater for the needs of different learning styles. But first let us look at learning styles.

Models and theories of learning styles

There are more that 80 learning styles that have been proposed but all of them consist of some basic styles. There are three basic learning models that have been identified and that are used by learners. Let us look at these models.

Visual learners

This is a model where student learn through seeing. It is a method in which ideas, concepts, and other information are closely associated with the images that are represented in a graphical manner. The learner just need to see the body language of the teacher and the facial expression that the teacher in order to understand what they are teaching. This method is mostly used by those students who are able to concentrate for a long time and who prefer to sit in front of their classrooms in order to avoid any distraction to their visual aids. These students may think in pictures and at the same time learn form the visual displays like diagrams, overhead transparencies, videos, flip charts, and other materials which use visual aids to communicate. The learners are usually very much attentive during the classroom lessons and they take notes in order to absorb most of the information that is being given by the teacher. (Lawrence, 1999)

Researches have found out that visual learning theory helps students to improve in many education areas including critical thinking where they are likely to link graphics with verbal and visual information and draw understanding from such a relationship, retention where these students are likely to remember most of the information which was visually or verbally represented, comprehension where student can understand new ideas and connect then to their previous experience or knowledge, and organization where the students can actually use diagrams in order to organize large amount of data in a way that it can be easily understood. The base of this learn style lies in the way a student can visualize the data and later interpret it and build literacy along that data. (Sather, 2007)

Auditory Learning Style

This is a style where students learn through listening. In this style, students learn through verbal lectures which include a variety of discussions, talking and listening. The student who uses this style may not strive to be in front of the classroom but they like staying at a distance where they can get most of what is happening. They are able to interpret the meaning of a speech through interpreting the underlying tone of teacher voice, pitch, speed and other nuances of speech. They may not concentrate on writing what is being said but they are very keen on listening what is being said. They don’t rush to take notes but they take time to write their notes. The learners also can benefit a lot from reading aloud texts and also use a tape recorder. This style is used by about 20 percent of the population. In most instances, when these students are learning, the read but they cannot understand if there is no sound in the background. Therefore most to them will be reading and at the same time listening to music or any other background noise. Some of the students have been found to read when there is noise in the background. These learners focus more on the sound that they are hearing that what they are learning. When they are spelling, they usually use sounds. In case they meet with individuals, they are likely to forget their faces but remember their names. These students also like to talk a lot. (Kolb, 2003)

Tactile or Kinesthetic Learners

These can be described as learners who learn by moving, doing or touching. They have been descried as learning best through a hands approach in which they actively explore the physical world around them. Although they may appear like restless students how finds it hard to sit still for long period, they use their restlessness in moving and touching to learns. In this regard, this learning style is said to take place when student carry out the physical learning activity instead of taking their time to listen or watch the demonstration of a learning activity. Student who use this learning styles have been said to the some of the natural discoverers learners as they are able to achieve most of their learning through practical applicability of the theories unlike having thought over something for along time and then initiating the concept. However there is not evidence that has been shown to support the efficacy of the kinesthetic theory of learning.

Going by the above learning theories, the visual learners makes up to 30 percent of the population while the auditory learners are around 20 to 25 percent. There fore kinesthetic learners could make up majority of the population in this regard making up to about 45 percent of learners. Kinesthetic learners have been found to be more efficient in the other physical activities at school and in other areas of application.

This analysis gives us the three major types of learning styles that are used. This shows diversity that exists in the student population and therefore there is need to understand this diversity in order to be an effective curriculum instructor. This indicates that though a teacher may be having student in the same class, they m ay be having diverse needs than the physical needs that the teacher can actually see in the students. Therefore as was said in the introduction, there is need for the teacher to have full knowledge of the diverse learning styles of each and every student in order to cater for their needs. Without such and understand of the learning styles of students, it would be hard for a teacher to identify students and classify them into their respective learning styles. This would help the teacher to serve them well. Let us now look at how the curriculum is developed in order to cater for the needs of these students. (Fang, 2002)

Curriculum Development and Learning Styles

Curriculum is used to support the effort of the teacher in education. A curriculum is just a set of program that gives detail on how students should be taught. It acts as guideline that is systematically made to allow learner to understand concepts it stages. It is an important tool not only to the teacher but also to the learners. Educators place so much emphasize on the design of the curriculum since it has impacts on the education of the students. Curriculum and instruction are some of the most important sectors in education. Hence we can say the curriculum is the base of any education process. (McCarthy, 2004)

As we have said learning theories are very imprint in the education process. This is because they have an impact on the design of not only the curriculum but also instruction and assessment. Learning theories are considered when coming up with the process since they are important in supporting the education process. Learning theories are important in the curriculum since educator place a lot of emphases on the intuition, feeing, sensing, imagination and other aspects that are important in helping the student understand what they are being taught. In the curriculum learning styles are also important in analyze, reason and the problem solving process.

In the instruction, learning theories have an impact in that teachers should come up with their own instruction methods which will help the students understand what they are being taught. Teachers should come up with instruction methods that caters for the needs of the students using the above four learning styles. This means that it will first take the teacher time to understand the kind of learners who are in the class and try to address their needs in the process of teaching. A teacher will use various experiences that have been gained over time. In addition a teacher will be expect to use reflections, conceptualization and experimentations in coming up with the best teaching method that will help the students understand. As instructors of the curriculum, teachers can introduce variety of experiment elements in the classrooms like sound, music, visuals, body movement, verbal lecturing and other methods which will cater for the needs of the students.

For a teacher to know whether they are giving needed curriculum and instruction to the student, they are likely to assess the students. This is a part of the curriculum which shows the effective of the design and implementation of the curriculum. In this regard, teachers must understanding the needs and learning styles of different students in order to come up the proper assessment techniques. Because teachers cannot give different assessment tests to different students according to their learning style, they should therefore employ various techniques in the assessment that will help them to develop all the brains in their classroom. In their regard, the assessment tests should be balance such that it addresses all the needs of students without giving undue advantage to others.

The curriculum is made up of the above mentioned three aspects. That means that there is the curriculum content, there must be defined was in which the curriculum shall be instructed to the students, and it must provide means of assessment for the contents of the curriculum. Therefore the provision of the curriculum must be based on the learning style as had been illustrate above.

Consideration of the learning styles is very crucial in the learning environment since it dictates the way the curriculum is developed. In developing the curriculum, there must be effort to address the needs of each and every student. As we have seen from our analysis, the biggest percentage among the student population perhaps the kinesthetic learner who constitute about 45 percent of the population. Therefore the curriculum must take into consideration this proportion of the population in order to have relevant and effective contents. The content of the curriculum must give specific details which ensure that the deliver of the contents will have more practical work than theoretic work. This is in order to work with the percentage of the population that is high in the population.

Unfortunately many curriculums that have been designed have not kept to the issue of learning theories in the population. This makes many of the curriculums unable to meet their expectation. The expectation of any curriculum is to impart knowledge to the students in the simplest manner possible. This will help them to gain knowledge easily. Therefore if the curriculum is to meet its goals, it must be designed in a way that it addressed the needs of each and every learner in the population. In this regard the curriculum may be having the contents that take care of the learners but the instructors may fail to implement these provisions. This makes learning ineffective and student underperforms.

Conclusion

As we have seen there are various learning styles that are used by students. These learning styles are important since they help each and every student to understand the contents of the curriculum in the simplest way possible. Teachers as the instructors of the curriculum must understand the learning style of their students in order to give them the best instructions that they need in their learning process. The design of the curriculum must also take care of the needs of each and every student. Therefore the curriculum should be developed in a way that its content, instruction and the assessment guides must give each and every student an advantage. This means that teachers as the instructors of the curriculum have a role to play to ensure that the needs of each and every student is met.

Reference

Fang, A. (2002). Utilization of learning styles in curriculum development. New York State

Kolb, D. (2003). Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. New York: Wiley

Lawrence, G. (1999). Practical Guide to Learning Styles; Oxford University

McCarthy, B. (2004). Teaching to Learning Styles; London: Routledge

Sather, A. (2007). The benefit of principals and teaching of supporting youth engagement in school; NASSP Bulletin December 2007

Wang, N. & Nagy, J. (2007): The alternate route teacher transition to the class. NASSP Bulletin, March 2007

 

介绍
有不同的学习方式,发展伴随测试,帮助个人了解自己的学习风格。学习风格是用于教育,特别是到具体的个人,这是假设,如果使用由该个人,这将有助于他们了解他们最好的方法。它被形容为特定的风格,帮助个人处理刺激他们的心灵,帮助他们了解他们被教导。
学习风格的概念虽然是比较年轻的,在20世纪70年代获得了地面,它已成为一个重要的过程,尤其是在现代教育事宜教师如何使用它在课程和如何使用它在发展的课程。人们已经发现,如果教师了解他们的学生的学习方式,他们可以帮助学生适应他们的课堂教学工作的需要,从而使学习的过程中,能吸引他们的。因此它已被发现非常重要,以确保课程符合需要的各种使用相同的课程,教的学生在课程整合各种学习风格的学生。 (王和纳吉, 2007年)
本文着眼于不同学习风格已经确定。它将尝试与它们是如何在课程的学习风格。因此,重点将放在学习方式和课程已经开发,以满足不同学习风格的需求。但首先让我们来看看学习风格。
模型和理论的学习风格
80 ,学习风格已经被提出,但所有的人包括一些基本的样式。有三种基本的学习模式已确定所使用的学习者。让我们来看看这些车型。
视觉学习者
这是一个模式,学生通过学习看到。这是一个想法,概念,和其他信息的方法是密切相关的一个图形化的方式表示的图像。学习者只需要看到老师的肢体语言和面部表情的老师,以了解他们的教学。这种方法主要用于那些学生能够集中精力,很长一段时间,喜欢谁坐在在自己的教室前,为了避免任何分心,他们的直观教具。这些学生可能会认为图片中,并在同一时间,学习像图,投影胶片,视频,挂图,和其他材料使用直观教具进行沟通,形成视觉显示。学习者通常是非常周到的,他们在课堂学习,以吸收大部分的老师给出的信息,目前正在做笔记。 (劳伦斯, 1999年)
研究已经发现,视觉学习理论,帮助学生提高在许多教育领域,包括批判性思维,他们很可能用口头和视觉信息和链接图形绘制从这样的关系的理解,保留这些学生是最容易记住的这是视觉上或口头上表示,学生可以了解新的想法,然后连接到他们以往的经验或知识,并组织那里的学生实际上可以使用图表,以便组织大量数据的方式,它可以很容易的理解的信息明白了。这种学习方式的基础在于学生可以在路上可视化的数据,稍后解释它,并建立扫盲沿着这条数据。 (萨瑟,2007年)
听觉学习风格
这是一种风格,让学生通过学习听。在这种风格中,学生通过口头演讲,其中包括各种讨论,谈话和听。谁使用这种风格的学生可能不落下风,在教室前面,但他们喜欢住在距离那里他们可以得到大多数正在发生的事情。他们能够解释意义的一次讲话中,通过教师的声音,音调,速度等细微之处的言论解释基调。他们可能不专心写你在说什么,但他们都非常热衷于听你在说什么。他们不急于做笔记,但他们需要时间来写自己的笔记。学习者也可以受益不少朗读文本,也可以使用一台录音机。这种风格用于约20 %的人口。在大多数情况下,这些学生学习,所读取的,但他们无法理解,如果不存在声音的背景。因此他们将被读取,并同时听音乐或任何其他背景噪音。已发现一些学生阅读时,是在背景噪音。这些学习者更专注于自己听到的声音,他们的学习。当他们拼写,他们通常使用的声音。如果他们满足与个人,他们可能忘记了自己的脸,但记得他们的名字。这些学生也喜欢谈了很多。 (科尔布,2003年)
触觉或动觉学习者
通过移动,做或触摸这些可以描述为学生们学习。他们已经descried学习最好通过手中的做法,在他们积极探索他们周围的物理世界。虽然他们可能会出现像不安分的学生如何发现它很难长时间静坐,他们用自己的躁动,在移动和触摸学习。在这方面,这种学习方式是说要带学生物理学习活动的开展,而不是采取自己的时间,聆听或观看学习活动示范。谁使用这个学习风格的学生说,一些自然发现者学习者,因为他们能够达到他们的学习通过不像想到过的东西,随着时间的推移,然后启动的概念理论的实用性。然而,没有证据,已被证明的动觉学习理论的支持的疗效。
由上述学习理论,视觉学习者,使30 %的人口,而听觉学习者约20 %至25 % 。因此动觉学习者可以弥补大多数人口在这方面弥补约45 %的学员。动觉学习者已发现其他体育活动在学校和其他领域的应用更高效。
这一分析为我们提供了学习风格,所使用的三种主要类型。这表明多样性中存在的学生人口,因此有必要了解这种多样性,以有效的课程教练。这表明,虽然可能有一个老师在同一个班级的学生,他们唉比身体的需要,在学生,老师实际上可以看到有不同的需求。因此说,在引进,是需要有充分了解每一个学生的不同学习风格的老师,为了迎合他们的需求。如果没有这样的学生的学习风格和理解,这将是一个老师找出学生和他们归类到各自的学习风格。这将有助于老师为他们服务好。现在让我们看看如何课程的开发,以满足这些学生的需求。 (方, 2002年)
课程发展与学习风格
课程用于支持教师在教育的努力。课程表是一组程序,给出了详细的应教导学生如何。它作为指引系统,让学习者了解概念阶段。这是一个重要的工具,不仅给老师,但也给学习者。教育家放置这么多的课程设计上强调的,因为它的学生对教育的影响。课程与教学是一些最重要的教育部门。因此,我们可以说,任何教育过程的课程是基础。 (麦卡锡, 2004年)
正如我们已经说过,学习理论在教育过程中的印记。这是因为他们的设计不仅课程还指令和评估产生影响。学习理论时,被认为是未来的过程,因为他们是在支持教育过程中的重要。理论学习是非常重要的教育课程,因为很多重点直觉,哪里不,感知,想象和其他重要的方面是在帮助学生了解他们被教导。在课程的学习方式也很重要,分析原因,解决问题的过程。
在指令中,学习理论的影响,教师应拿出自己的教学方法,这将有助于学生了解他们被教导。教师应与教学方法,适合使用上述四种学习风格的学生的需求。这意味着它将先来老师的时间来了解学习者的那种类,并在教学过程中,尽量满足他们的需求。一位老师将使用已获得的各种经验,随着时间的推移。在另外一个老师会期待在未来的最好的教学方法,这将有助于学生理解,使用反射,概念化和实验。作为导师的课程,教师可以引入各种实验元素,在教室里像声音,音乐,视觉,身体运动,口头说教和其他方法,将满足学生的需求。
知道他们是否给需要的学生的课程及指导老师,他们很可能以评估学生。这是课程的一部分,它显示了有效的设计和实施的课程。在这方面,教师必须了解不同学生的需求和学习方式,以拿出适当的评估技术。由于教师可以​​给出不同的评估测试不同的学生根据自己的学习风格,因此,他们应该采用各种技术的评估,这将有助于他们开发的所有的大脑在他们的教室。在他们的方面,评估测试应该是平衡的,它满足所有学生的需求,而不给他人不正当好处。
该课程是由上面提到的三个方面。这意味着,课程内容,必须定义课程应当责令学生,课程的内容,它必须提供的评估方法。因此,必须根据提供的课程的学习风格已在上面说明。
代价学习风格的学习环境是非常重要的,因为它决定了课程开发方式。在开发课程时,必须有努力满足每个学生的需求。正如我们已经看到从我们的分析,也许在学生人口比例最大的动觉学习者占约45 %的人口。因此,课程必须考虑到这一比例的人口,才能有内容相关的和有效的。课程内容必须给出具体的细节,确保交付的内容,将有更多比理论工作的实际工作。这是为了工作的人口,是人口高的百分比。
不幸的是,许多课程已设计没有跟上学习理论在人口的问题。这使得许多课程无法满足他们的期望。任何课程的期望是将知识传授给学生尽可能简单的方式。这将帮助他们轻松地获得知识。因此,如本课程以实现其目标,它必须被设计成一种方式,它在人群中针对每个学习者的需要。在这方面的课程,照顾学习者,但教练可能无法执行这些规定的内容。这使得学习效果不佳,学生表现不佳。
结论
正如我们已经看到有学生所使用的各种学习风格。这些学习风格是重要的,因为他们在尽可能最简单的方法,帮助每一个学生理解教学内容。为了给他们最好的说明,他们需要在他们的学习过程中,教师作为课程的教官必须了解学生的学习风格。课程的设计也必须照顾每一个学生的需求。因此,应制定课程的内容,指导和评估指南的方式,必须让每一个学生的优势。这意味着,教师作为课程的教官都发挥作用,以确保每一个学生的需求满足。
参考
方, A. (2002) 。利用课程发展的学习方式。纽约州
科尔布, D. (2003) 。体验式学习:经验学习​​和发展的来源。纽约:威利
劳伦斯, G. (1999) 。学习风格的实用指南,牛津大学
麦卡锡, B. (2004) 。教学学习风格;伦敦:劳特利奇
萨瑟, A. (2007) 。支持青年参与学校的校长和教学的好处; NASSP公告2007年12月
王, N. &纳吉, J. (2007) :备用路由教师过渡到类。 NASSP通报, 2007年3月