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代写英国assignment,British Parish Life
发表日期:2013-10-10 16:11:19 | 来源:assignment.cc | 当前的位置:首页 > 代写assignment > 英国代写assignment > 正文
Models of British parish life: Offer a systematic and critical analysis of the use of models of parish life and how these may or may not promote the ongoing pastoral renewal of parishes.

'So of course renewing our Church will mean renewing our parishes.

But so much of that renewal -- spiritual, liturgical, pastoral -

will come from the communities forming and meeting in our

parishes our parishes should see themselves as a primary focus

for renewal.'

(Cardinal Murphy-O'Connor,2005)

Of late British parishes have been in severe crisis: applications for priesthood have dwindled,congregations have in some places halved, churches have been closed and their land sold, and others forced to merge with their neighbours. Many of the Church's critics have implied that this decline is irreversible. Cardinal O'Connor's words suggest something different. They suggest that a fundamental renewal and restructuring of British parishes can reinvigorate pastoral and spiritual life of the Church and that of the parishes themselves.

This essay examines several possible future models of British parish life and evaluates each of them to measure their fitness to bring about this parish renewal. After assessing each of these models, the essay looks at two specific examples of the implementation of these models to British parish life. To begin though, let us briefly consider the circumstances that make the introduction these models of renewal necessary; what is it that needs to be renewed?

For centuries the parish was the focal point of British Church life; parishes were replete with congregations and candidates for priesthood; they knew pastoral success, spiritual vitality and financial security. A parish was typically ministered to by apastor who was supported by fellow clergy and a secretary and bookkeeper. Laity had an important, but discreet and limited role in the leadership and organization of the parish (Horns by-Smith, 1999). The past thirty years have witnessed a profound collapse in the fortunes of the parishes of Europe and Britain in particular. This decline is usually assigned to the growth ofsecularization and increasing hesitancy and doubt about the Church's and its parishes' ability to perform their spiritual and pastoral tasks.

This crisis has become so intense that throughout the United Kingdom dioceses and parishes have been forced to contemplate radical restructuring and re-organization of centuries old traditions. Certain 'models of parish life' have been proposed by theologians and parishioners as ways to renew the pastoral life of these parishes (Sweeter, 1993). These models commonly have the following features. They involve the amalgamation of several parishes into a larger single parish; they depend far more upon the assistance and participation of laity; they seek to incorporate broader faith communities into their structures. Presently this essay examines five such models. The first is that of the 'cluster' parish.

(1) The 'Cluster' model of parish is swiftly replacing the traditional parish model and establishing itself as the dominant alternative type of parish. According to this model, two or more parishes are fused together and tended to by a single pastor, or pastoral team. Each parish nonetheless keeps its distinctiveness and independence as required by both church and state law. Each parish retains the right to have its own program of ministry and its own staffing hierarchy and structure (though in practice however 'clustered' parishes generally adopt a centralized administration and ministry).

According to diocesan instructions, clustered parishes can maintain a joint pastoral assembly which is attended by members of each individual parish. Individual parishes must keep their own financial assembly, although the various financial councils of different parishes may convene together at any time to discuss collective policies or proposals. The purpose of clustered parishes is to promote collective community activity. Thus parishes in a cluster are described as 'yoked': they are separate entities, but joined in a common purpose and direction. The distinct advantage of such parish models is that they facilitate the sharing of 'pooled resources' (financial, staffing, congregational etc.,).

These collective activities are intended to produce 'cluster plans' whereby several parishes devise a blueprint for the short-term and medium-term future of these several parishes. In Bedford shire for instance: the parishes of Shillington, Barton and Shefford came together to hire a lay minister to coordinate social services, an educational advisor for nine local schools, and a director of lay training. This is an instance of a high level of 'clustering' activity; it is argued that if other parishes were to adopt such schemes then the contemporary pressures of finance, staff and congregation shortages would be much improved.

British parishes might learn from the example of the United States where cluster parishes have proved very successful. For instance, in the diocese of Rochester Bishop Clark's scheme 'Pastoral Planning in the New Millennium' (Bishop Clark) has been administered successfully to several parishes. 'Clusters' are also seen asa vital way of rejuvenating and refreshing the leadership structure of parishes. The 'Notre Dame Study of Parish Life' (Notre Dame) affirmed the ascendancy of lay staff within the parish structure. The accumulation of various professional experiences brought together by clusters allows for a broader training and expertise for lay ministers. For instance, laity can be trained to minister Sunday Communion Services minus in the absence of a priest. Parishes can also employ lay staff -- including women -- to work in parish ministries as 'pastoral assistants' (Hoge, 1998).

(2) Single Parishes are the traditional and ideal form of the British parish. Despite the crises affecting British parishes and the increasing tendency of dioceses to cluster their parishes, there are still single parishes being created in the United Kingdom. A single parish is established to meet the need of a growing an expanding Catholic or Anglican population in a particular area. The enormous demographic shifts of recent decades have meant that large numbers of people have flocked to previously sparsely populated areas, and, vice-versa, large groups have moved from heavily populated areas leaving them sparsely populated (Harrington,1997).

Faced with these mass movements parishes have often had to shift and alter their boundaries to accommodate the movements of their parishioners. Some single parishes have been closed; others have been reconstituted or invented to cope with the demographics of their congregations. As such, some single parishes take over the areas of other parishes that have now been closed. Increasingly this overlapping is happening where many parishes are adjacent to one another. Many parishes that are closing were originally established to minister to different nationalities (an Italian or Polish immigrant community for example) in heavily populated parts of cities. The purpose of a single parish is to strengthen a faith community, raise finances for building projects and development programs, and create a system of pastoral care for its parishioners.

(3) The Single Parish With Multiple Worship and Ministry Sites is a new type of model that involves the complete union of two or more separate parishes into a single parish. The individual facilities - church, lands, other buildings -- of each parish are retained and used by parishioners, but there is now a single paris hand one faith group. The newly created parish is given a new name, takes a new pastor and pastoral administration and ministry leadership. Frequently one church from these amalgamated parishes will be transformed into a site for ministry education or sold to another community organization.

(4) In the Single Parish with Multiple Faith Communities model a single parish assumes responsibility and care for several faith communities - hospitals, schools,prisons and so on. If a school, for instance, is in the vicinity of a particular parish, then the vicar or chaplain for that school is placed on the pastoral leadership panel of that parish. In this model the parish assumes direct pastoral responsibility for the school. This coming together of different faith communities is intended to reinvigorate the pastoral work and spiritual vitality of the parish and to promote greater coordination within different faith communities. The leadership of the parish is made more multi-cultural and can draw upon a more diverse panel of expertise to supervise its pastoral care.

(5) A similar model is that of Multiple Parishes with Multiple Faith Communities. In this model several independent parishes foster a partnership to supply pastoral help to the various faith communities within their collected parishes. In addition to faith communities such as hospitals and schools, these schemes give pastoral care to special faith communities like the physically or mentally disabled, immigrants, victims of domestic violence and so on. In these instances the joint parish partnership shares the financial cost with the faith community that it helps. In such instances, the ministry of the parish may be based in a single parish or be a collective representation of each of the several parishes. In Luton, for instance, several parishes work together to provide aid for the local Pakistani and Indian immigrant communities.

In addition to these new models of parish life, many parishes are considering alternative models of leadership and ministry. This essay briefly examines three of these now. Joint Programs are ministry programs run as a partnership program between several parishes, rather than as separate programs as has been done traditionally. These programs also tend to be centered in a single site to improve efficiency. This scheme has been piloted in America in the Monroe County's Catholic Schools with the partnership board of the Monroe Country Parishes (Monroe) - and this model may prove a successful introduction here in Britain. (2) Joint Staff programs allow several parishes to hire one member of staff who runs minister programs throughout these several parishes. This is a particularly inventive way to use the larger numbers of laity who are becoming involved in parish life. (3) Independent Single Parish Programs are the traditional model of parish ministry and some single parishes are still wealthy enough to completely finance their own ministry programs. Numbers of such independent programs however are diminishing in favour of either of the two types of program described above.

These various models require a substantial restructuring of the traditional staffing model of a parish. Less than fifty years ago a normal parish was staffed by a pastor and perhaps several assistant pastors as well as a parish secretary and a parish accountant (Hoge, 1998). This parish structure was almost uniformly distributed throughout Great Britain. Now however parishes are beginning to show greater diversity: their staff is composed of a higher percentage of permanent deacons,priest pastors and laymen. This diversity of staff allows individual parishes to choose their staff according to the particular needs of that parish and the parish model it has chosen to adopt. Certain parishes for instance may employ retired priests or women to conduct wedding or baptism ceremonies.

Priest administrators are charged by bishops to act as administrators for parishes; they are essentially more efficient replacements for the traditional but now expensive type of parish bookkeeper. Permanent Deacons have been employed in diocese as far back as 1982. Permanent Deacons have several functions in a parish; they work at baptisms, funerals, wakes and so on. Deacon scan witness marriages, help at the Mass, and introduce prayers. Deacons have far reaching pastoral responsibilities: they are heavily involved in charity work and with care in the justice system. Declining numbers of priests mean that parishes are increasingly turning to permanent deacons for pastoral work and for helping exhausted pastors. Permanent deacons are increasingly working as ministers also.

Pastoral Administrators are delegated in accordance with Canon 517.2 to conduct pastoral work within a parish without actually being priests. Pastoral administrators do the work of pastors except they are not allowed to preside over sacraments intended only for ordained priests. Women with qualifications and lay people can be appointed as pastoral administrators. If a parish has a pastoral administrator then in addition a sacramental minister will be appointed to perform sacraments such as the Eucharist. Catechetical Leaders supply schemes of religious education for all members of a parish. They promote programs for various types of religious education: education for school children, instruction for sacraments, education for parents and catechumen ate for children awaiting Confirmation. Business Managers are increasingly necessary in modern parishes to organize the finances of a parish, their plans for building, staff costs, legal matters, accounts and so on.

Let us now turn to look at the effectiveness of the 'cluster' model for the renewal two modern British parishes. Cardinal Murphy O'Connor, the Archbishop of Westminster,argues that 'cluster' type parishes will be the future of parishes within his own diocese of Westminster. The Cardinal's long-anticipated green paper 'Response and Analysis', delivered as a speech in Westminster Cathedral, declares that radical restructuring of Westminster parishes is required to ensure their renewal. To quote The Times on the day of the Cardinal's speech: 'Although just one diocese among 22 in England and Wales , the pioneering plans of Westminster, this country's ''mother'' diocese, to radically change the way it operates to cope with the rapidly declining numbers are being watched closely by church authorities throughout the West.'

That such a senior figure in the Catholic Church could make such a speech was interpreted throughout Europe to imply the seriousness of the need to reform parish structures. The Cardinal informed his parishioners that many parishes would face closure or merger, and parishioners were told that they can no longer expect a permanent priest in their parish and must adapt to this difficult change. The Cardinal also encouraged laymen to be far more involved in administration, pastoral work and prayers of parishes. He proposed that Masses be held less often than presently, and that parishes will be forced to coordinate staff, ministries, prayer and perhaps liturgies.

The Cardinal explained that these clustering measures were a response to the radically dwindling numbers of priests and congregations in recent years. In 1990 843priests were working in Westminster's parishes; the number was 623 in 2005 and is estimated to drop to 471 by 2015 - a 50% fall in a quarter of a decade. Westminster is implementing the cluster model to check these worrying numbers. Cardinal Murphy feels confidant the new measures will be successful, saying 'There is no reason to lose confidence in the Lord of the harvest who desires to send labourers His harvest' (Murphy-O'Connor, 2005).

The Cardinal quoted the 500,000 Roman Catholics that have joined the parishes of Westminster and also the record number (780) of people who were applying to enter the Church via its adult baptism program. Thus the Cardinal claimed that the reorganization of parishes is a necessary compensation for the changing structure and demographics of the Church. His green paper said that there would be a 'profound' change in the image and structure of the church over the next fifteen years. Parishes will also need to adopt a 'new mind set' to exploit the opportunities of lay leadership. Fundamentally: 'The Church in Westminster will need to move away from the idea that the viability of a parish is contingent upon its resident priest' (Murphy-O'Connor, 2005).

The Cardinal's message ramifies throughout the parishes of the United Kingdom: he says that every parish must now think very hard about whether they will close, merge, be assimilated by a larger parish or be 'clustered' with other parishes'. The Cardinal warned of the consequences of not heeding these changes: 'In some ways the Church and parishes in Europe and particularly in Great Britain is at such a time now. It is a time of dying and rising. It is a time of crisis.' The Cardinal defined 'crisis' as 'a time of decisions' and unpredictability; but one in which opportunity was present. Speaking of the need for renewal he said 'We should not be surprised at the challenges and the nervousness and the fears that face us here in our own country' (Murphy-O'Connor, 2005). It can then be said that the parishes of Westminster are tentatively optimistic about the introduction of 'cluster' models.

In the diocese of Salford proposals for new models of parish life have been less welcome(Harrington, 1997). The Diocese of Salford covers the country of Lancashire and the parishes of the towns of Manchester, Bolton, Rochdale, Blackburn, Oldham,and Bury. The Bishop of the diocese, Bishop Terence Brain, recently sought to employ cluster models to resolve the crisis of numbers of priesthood applicant sand congregation attendance. The number of priests in Salford is predicted to fall from 216 today to 113 in 2018. Bishop Brain warned his parishioners that 'Redundant buildings will, on the whole, be demolished and the sites disposed of'(Harrington, 1997). Fifteen churches are proposed to be shut, and seventeen have been shut since the 1960's.

According to one parishioner the Bishop's proposals read like 'the business plan of a chairman compelled to arrange the 'downsizing' of a firm's factory' (Harrington, 1997). Outrage continued when parish churches were demolished whilst the diocese went ahead with a planned office building its Manchester parish at the cost of 1 million. Parishioners suggest that what is needed is not a restructuring of parishes based upon models of parish life, but a reinvigoration of the spiritual side of the Church. 'Only a Church in love with the Eucharist generates holy and numerous priestly vacations' (Harrington, 1997) quoted one passionate parishioner. The apparent commercialisation of the Church under such cluster models is a cause of deep concern to parishioners of Salford. They argue parishes should cease building-schemes, particularly for diocesan offices, and instead focus on conscription of new priests from Brazil, the Philippines and Eastern Europe where their numbers are increasing. Parishes that are called to close or coalesce should only have to do so if their corresponding dioceses are closed or coalesced as well.

In the final analysis, it is agreed by most Church and parish leaders that parishes are in a pastoral crisis. A serious pastoral and spiritual renewal of parish life is required, and there is wide appeal for this to be done by applying to parishes new model of parish life. The 'cluster' model seems both in Britain and the United States, to be the model of choice. It is thought to provide the practical benefits of streamlining parish costs whilst bringing various otherwise disconnected faith communities together. Critics of such models complain of the commercialisation of parish life, and call for a return to the simplicity and effectiveness of the single parish model that worked so well for centuries. A middle position is to suggest 'cluster' models should be a temporary model that can be replaced in the future by the traditional single parish model, once Christianity has recovered its authority in the United Kingdom.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books/Journals

-- Dolan, J. P. (1989). Transforming Parish Ministry: the Changing Roles of Catholic Clergy, Laityand Women. Crossroad,New York.

-- Hammersley, J. (1998). Training for Parish Ministry. Blandford Forum: Parish and People.

-- Harrington, D. (1997). Parish Renewal: Reflecting on the Experience (Vol. 1). Black Rock, Co. Dublin.

-- Hoge, D.R. (1998). Patterns of Parish Leadership: Cost and Effectiveness. Sheed & Ward.

-- Hornsby-Smith (1999). The Changing Parish: a Study of Parishes, Priests and Parishioners after Vatican II. Routledge& Kegan Paul, London.

--Lundin, J. W. (1997). The Church for an Open Future: Biblical Roots and Parish Renewal.Fortress Press.

-- Mallison, J. (1981). Creative Ideas:For Small Groups in the Christian Community. S.U. Specialist Productions, London.

-- Murphy-O'Connor (Cardinal). Green Paper: Response and Analysis, May 2005. Archbishopric of Westminster. The term is believed to have been first used in a 1987 publication of the National Pastoral Life Centre entitled 'Alternative Staffing of Parishes'.

 

英国教区生活模式:提供系统和关键分析教区生活模式的使用,如何将这些可能会或可能不会持续促进牧区重建教区。
“当然这样的更新我们的教会将意味着更新我们的教区。
但这么多,续约 - 精神,礼仪,田园 - 
将来自社区的形成和我们见面
教区教区应该看到自己作为一个主要的焦点
续期。
(枢机主教墨菲 - 奥康纳,2005年)
英国已故教区一直在严重的危机:祭司的申请已经减少,教友已经减半,在一些地方,教堂已关闭和出售他们的土地,和其他与他们的邻居被迫合并。教会的许多评论家已经暗示,这种下降是不可逆的。奥康纳枢机主教的话建议不同的东西。他们认为,从根本上重建和重组英国教区振兴牧区和精神的生活,教会和自己的教区。
本文探讨了几种可能的未来车型英国教区寿命和评估他们每个人来衡量自己的健身带来这个教区重建。在评估这些模型,文章看起来实施这些模型英国教区生活在两个具体的例子。虽然开始,让我们简要地考虑介绍这些模型需要重建的情况下,它是什么,需要更新?
世纪教区是英国教会生活的焦点;教区充满教会和圣职的候选人,他们知道田园成功,精神活力和金融安全。教区通常伺候由apastor谁支持由资深神职人员和一名秘书和簿记。俗人有一个重要的,但谨慎和教区(喇叭 - 史密斯, 1999)的领导和组织的作用有限。过去30年来所目睹了深刻的崩溃,尤其是欧洲和英国的教区的命运。这种下降通常被分配到的的增长ofsecularization和越来越犹豫和怀疑教会和教区的能力来执行他们的精神和牧区的任务。
这场危机已经变得如此激烈,整个英国教区和堂区已被迫考虑激进的重组和重新组织了几百年的老传统。某些教区生活的模式已经提出由神学家和教民的方式续约这些教区的田园生活(更甜, 1993) 。这些模型通常具有以下特征。他们涉及的几个教区合并成一个较大的单教区,他们依赖远远超过后,协助和参与的俗人,他们寻求更广泛的信仰社区纳入到他们的结构。目前,这篇文章探讨5个这样的模型。首先是'集群'教区。
(1)教区的“集群”的模式迅速取代传统教区模型和确立了自己作为占主导地位的替代类型的教区。根据这个模型,有两个或两个以上的教区融合在一起,往往由一个单一的牧师,或田园团队。每个教区仍然保持其独特性和独立性,由教会和国家法律规定。每个教区保留权利部和自身人员的层次和结构有其自己的程序(虽然然而在实践中'集群'教区一般采用集中式的管理和事工) 。
据教区说明,集群教区可以保持联合牧民大会,这是个别教区成员出席。个别教区必须保持自己的财务组装,虽然各金融不同的教区理事会可能在任何时间来讨论的集体政策或建议召集在一起。集群教区的目的是为了促进社区集体活动。因此教区在集群中被描述为“轭” :他们是独立的实体,但加入了一个共同的目的和方向。该等教区模型是独特的优势,方便他们共享的“资源池” (财务,人事,公理等) 。
这些集体活动,都是为了生产集群计划“ ,据此,几个教区制定短期和中期的未来蓝图,这几个教区。如:在贝德福德郡希林教区,巴顿和谢福德走到了一起,聘请奠定部长协调社会服务,九个当地学校,教育顾问及董事外行培训。这是一个高层次的“群集”活动的一个实例,它认为其他教区,如果采用这种方案,那么当代财务,人员和众短缺的压力将大为改善。
英国教区可能学习美国集群教区已被证明是非常成功的例子。例如,在新千年中的'罗切斯特主教克拉克的计划田园规划教区(主教克拉克)已经成功地管理几个教区。 “集群”也看到了ASA焕发活力和精神教区的领导体制的重要途径。 “巴黎圣母院教区生命” (巴黎圣母院)的研究证实裁员员工的优势教区之内的结构。集群汇聚各类专业经验的积累,可以为更广泛的培训和专业知识,外行部长。例如,俗人可以培训部长周日圣餐服务减去在没有一个牧师。教区也可以聘请奠定员工 - 包括妇女 - 在教区部委工作作为农牧助手“ (霍格,1998) 。
(2)单教区的英国教区的传统和理想的形式。尽管危机影响英国教区和群集他们的教区教区不断增加的趋势,但仍存在单教区在英国创建。建立一个单一的教区越来越扩大天主教圣公会人口在一个特定的区域,以满足需要。近几十年来的巨大的人口结构的变化意味着有大量的人络绎不绝,以前人烟稀少的地区,反之亦然,大群体已经从人口稠密地区,离开他们人口稀少(哈灵顿,1997年) 。
面对这些群众运动教区经常转移和改变他们的边界,以适应他们的教民变动。有些单教区已被关闭,其他已被改组或发明,以应付人口,他们的毕业典礼。因此,有些单教区接管其他教区的地区现在已被关闭。越来越多的这个重叠发生了许多堂区是彼此相邻的。关闭的许多教区最初成立部长在人口稠密的城市不同民族(例如意大利或波兰移民社区) 。一个单一的教区的目的是加强信仰社区,提高财政建设项目和发展计划,并创建一个系统其教区牧灵。
(3)具有多个崇拜的单教区部网站是一种新型的模式,涉及两个或两个以上的独立成一个单一的教区教区完整的工会。保留和使用个人的设施 - 教会,土地,其他建筑物 - 每个教区的教民,但现在有一个巴黎单手一信组。新创建的教区被赋予了新的名字,需要一个新的牧师和田园管理和部委的领导。常见部级教育网站将被改造成一个从这些合并教区教堂,或出售给其他社区组织。
(4)单一教区在单教区多个宗教团体模型假定几个信仰社区 - 医院,学校,监狱等的责任和关怀。举例来说,如果一所学校,然后在附近的一个特定的教区的牧师或神父,学校被放置在该教区牧区领导小组。在这个模型中的教区假设直接田园责任为学校。这撞在了一起,不同信仰的社区,旨在振兴的教区的牧灵工作和精神的活力,并促进更好地协调不同信仰的社区内。教区的领导,是多文化的和可以借鉴的专业知识更多样化的面板,以监督其牧灵。
(5)类似的模式是,多个教区多个宗教团体。在这个模型中,几个独立的教区树立一个合作伙伴关系, ,提供田园帮助的各种宗教团体在其收集的教区。除了信仰团体,如医院和学校,这些计划给教牧关怀像身体残疾或智障的特殊信仰社区,移民,家庭暴力的受害者等。在这些情况下,联合教区合伙股份的信仰团体,它有助于财务成本。在这样的情况下,可根据的教区部可能在一个单一的教区或每几个教区是一个集体代表。例如,在卢顿,几个教区共同努力,为当地的巴基斯坦和印度移民社区提供援助。
除了这些新车型的教区生活,许多教区的领导和部委正在考虑替代车型。这篇文章简要分析这三种。联合方案运行几个教区之间的一个合作伙伴计划,而不是作为单独的程序已经做了传统的事工计划。这些方案也往往集中在一个单一的网站,以提高效率。此计划已在美国门罗县的天主教学校梦露乡村教区(梦露)与合作伙伴董事会试点 - 这种模式可能证明在英国成功引进。 (2)联合参谋部计划允许几个教区聘请一名员工整个这几个教区运行部部长计划。这是一个特别独辟蹊径,使用大量的俗人,谁正在成为参与教区生活。 (3 )独立的单的教区程序是教区事工的传统模式,一些单的教区仍然是足够富裕,完全自己的事工计划融资。然而,这些独立的程序的数量正在减少赞成上述的两种类型的程序之一。
一个教区的传统用人模式,这些不同的模型需要大量的重组。不到50年前,一个正常的教区工作人员由牧师,也许几个助理牧师以及教区秘书和一名教区会计师(霍格,1998年) 。这个教区结构几乎均匀地分布在整个大不列颠。然而现在教区开始表现出更大的多样性:他们的工作人员组成的终身执事,牧师牧师和外行的比例更高。这种多样性的工作人员允许个别教区根据该教区和教区模型选择采取的特殊需要,选择自己的员工。例如可以聘请若干教区的退休神父或妇女进行婚礼或洗礼仪式。
牧师管理员,收取作为管理员教区的主教,他们本质上更有效的替代传统类型教区簿记员,但现在昂贵。教区终身执事已受聘于早在1982年。在教区终身执事有几个功能,他们工作的洗礼,葬礼,唤醒等。执事扫描证人的婚姻,在群众的帮助,并介绍祈祷。执事有深远田园责任:他们积极参与慈善工作,并在司法系统的护理。祭司的数量下降意味着,越来越多的教区牧灵工作,并帮助疲惫的牧师转向终身执事。终身执事正越来越多地为部长。
按照佳能517.2委派田园管理员在教区进行牧灵工作,而实际上是祭司。田园管理员牧师做的工作,但他们所不允许的目的只为祝圣司铎主持圣礼。妇女的资格和外行人可以委任作为田园管理员。如果一个教区有田园管理员,那么除了圣礼部长被任命为执行圣礼,如圣体。慕道领导一个教区的所有成员提供宗教教育计划。他们促进学童圣礼,教育,指导家长和慕道吃了各种类型宗教教育:教育孩子等待确认。业务经理越来越有必要在现代教区组织的财政一堂,他们的计划,建设,员工成本,法律事务,账目等。
现在让我们看续期两个现代英国教区'集群'模型的有效性。墨菲·奥康纳,威斯敏斯特大主教,红衣主教'集群'类型教区认为,将是未来在他自己的威斯敏斯特教区的教区。红衣主教的期待已久的绿皮书“的响应与分析”,交付在威斯敏斯特大教堂的讲话,宣布威斯敏斯特教区的需要,激进的重组,以确保其重建。 ,要引述“泰晤士报”在一天的红衣主教的讲话: “虽然只是一个教区之间22在英格兰和威尔士,西敏寺的创业计划,这个国家的”母亲“教区,从根本上改变它的运作方式,以配合迅速下降的数字正在密切关注整个西方教会当局。
在天主教教会的一名高级人物,可以作出这样的言论被解释整个欧洲暗示的严重性,需要改革教区结构。主教告诉他的教民,许多教区将面临倒闭或合并,教区居民被告知,他们不能再期待一个永久的祭司在他们的教区,必须适应这个艰难的改变。主教还鼓励外行要远远更多地参与管理,教区的牧灵工作和祈祷。他提议举行群众往往比目前少,教区将被迫协调工作人员,各部委,祈祷,也许礼仪。
主教解释说,这些集群的措施是从根本上减少祭司和众数在近几年的响应。在1990年843priests工作在威斯敏斯特的教区;数量是623在2005年,据估计,到2015年下降到471 - 十年一季度下降50% 。威斯敏斯特实施检查这些令人担忧的数字集群模式。枢机主教墨菲认为,新措施将是成功的,说: “没有理由失去信心的收获谁愿意收他的庄稼”(墨菲 - 奥康纳,2005年)派遣劳动者在主知己。
枢机引述500,000罗马天主教徒加入西敏教区的记录数(780)的人申请进入教会通过其成人洗礼计划。因此,枢机主教声称重组结构的变化和人口的教会教区是一个必要的补偿。他的绿皮书说,会有一个'深刻'的形象和未来十五年的教会结构的变化。教区还需要采取新的思维定势“ ,利用外行领导的机会。从根本上说: “在威斯敏斯特教堂将需要远离的想法,一个教区的可行性取决于居民牧师” (墨菲 - 奥康纳,2005年) 。
整个教区英国分支红衣主教的消息:他说,现在每个教区必须认真思考他们是否将关闭,合并,由一个大教区同化或与其他教区的'聚集' 。红衣主教不听从这些变化的后果提出警告:“在某些方面,教会和教区在欧洲,特别是在英国现在是在这样的时刻。这是一个时间的死亡和不断上升。这是一个危机时刻。 “红衣主教定义“危机”为“时间的决定”和不可预测性,但在其中的机会是存在的。说起重建需要,他说:“我们不应该感到惊讶,在我们自己的国家” (墨菲 - 奥康纳,2005年)在这里我们面临的挑战和的紧张和恐惧。然后,它可以说是威斯敏斯特教区'集群'引进车型暂定看好。
在索尔福德建议教区的教区生活的新车型已经不太欢迎(哈灵顿,1997年) 。索尔福德教区覆盖全国的兰开夏郡和曼彻斯特,博尔顿,罗奇代尔,布莱克本,奥尔德姆,埋葬的城镇教区。主教教区主教特伦斯脑,最近试图采用集群模式,解决危机的数字祭司申请人砂众出席。祭司在索尔福德的数量预计在2018年到今天从216下降到113 。脑主教告诫他的教民,冗余建筑,就整体而言,被拆迁和“出售网站(哈灵顿,1997年) 。提出了15个教堂被关闭, 17自1960年代以来已经关闭。
据一位教友主教的建议读起来就像'业务计划的主席不得不安排一个公司的工厂“ (哈灵顿,1997年)的”瘦身“ 。愤怒继续当教区教堂被拆毁,而径自教区计划办公室建设曼彻斯特教区的成本100万。教区居民认为,现在需要的是不是一个转型的教区根据教区生活模式,但精神方面的教会振兴。 “只有爱与圣体圣事的教会产生圣洁和众多祭司的假期” (哈灵顿,1997年)援引一位热情的教友。这种集群模式下是明显的商业化的教会教民索尔福德深切关注的一个原因。他们争辩说,教区应停止建设计划,特别是对教区办公室,而是注重征兵来自巴西,菲律宾和东欧,他们的人数正在增加,新祭司。被称为关闭或合并的教区应该只有这样做,如果关闭或聚结以及其相应的教区。
在最后的分析中,它同意被大多数教会和教区领导人教区在牧区危机。一个严重的牧区和精神重建的教区生活是必需的,须由申请教区教区生活的新模式,有广泛的吸引力。 “集群”的模式,似乎无论是在英国和美国,是模式的选择。它被认为是精简教区成本,同时带来各种另有断开宗教团体一起提供的实际利益。此类机型的批评抱怨教区生活的商品化,要求返回唯一教区模型的工作这么好几个世纪的简单性和有效性。中间位置是建议“集群”模式应该是一个临时的模型,可以在未来取代传统的单教区模型,一旦,基督教已恢复其在英国的权威。
参考书目
图书/期刊
- 刀郎, J. P. (1989) 。转换教区部:角色变化的天主教神职人员, Laityand的女性。十字路口,纽约。
- 哈默斯利, J. (1998) 。教区培训部。布兰福德论坛:教区和人民。
- 哈灵顿, D. (1997) 。教区重建:反思的经验(第1卷) 。黑岩,都柏林有限公司。
- 霍格,D.R. ( 1998年) 。教区的领导模式:成本和效益。拉希德病房。
- 霍恩斯比 - 史密斯(1999年) 。教区的变化:梵二后的教区神父和教友的研究。劳特利奇& Kegan保罗,伦敦。
- 伦丁, J. W. (1997) 。一个开放的未来:教会圣经根和教区重建。丰泽新闻。
- Mallison , J. (1981) 。创意想法:在基督教社区为小团体。 S.U.专家制作,伦敦。
- 墨菲 - 奥康纳(红衣主教) 。绿皮书: 2005年5月,响应和分析。威斯敏斯特大主教。相信这个词是在1987年出版的题为“另类教区的工作人员员额”全国田园生活中心已先使用。